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Kairos ( grc, καιρός) is an ancient
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
word meaning 'the right, critical, or opportune moment'. In
modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , 'discourse', from , 'through' ...
, ''kairos'' also means 'weather'. It is one of two words that the ancient Greeks had for '
time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. It is a component quantity of various me ...

time
'; the other being (). Whereas the latter refers to
chronological Chronology (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republi ...
or sequential time, ''kairos'' signifies a proper or opportune time for action. In this sense, while is quantitative, ''kairos'' has a qualitative, permanent nature. The plural, () means 'the times'. Kairos is a term, idea, and practice that has been applied in several fields including
classical rhetoric Rhetoric () is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition ...
,
modern rhetoric Modern rhetoric has gone through many changes since the age of ancient Rome and Greece to fit the societal demands of the time. Kenneth Burke, who is largely credited for defining the notion of modern rhetoric, described modern rhetoric as, "Roo ...
,
digital media Digital media means any communication media that operate with the use of any of various encoded machine-readable data Machine-readable data, or computer-readable data, is data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of informa ...
,
Christian theology #REDIRECT Christian theology #REDIRECT Christian theology Christian theology is the theology of Christianity, Christian belief and practice. * help them better understand Christian tenets * make comparative religion, comparisons between Christia ...
, and science.


Origins

In Onians's 1951 etymological studies of the word, he traces the primary root back to the
ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
association with both
archery Archery is the art, sport, practice, or skill of using a bow Bow often refers to: * Bow and arrow, a weapon * Bowing, bending the upper body as a social gesture * An ornamental knot made of ribbon Bow may also refer to: Boats * Bow (sh ...

archery
and
weaving Weaving is a method of textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheti ...

weaving
. In archery, ''kairos'' denotes the moment in which an arrow may be fired with sufficient force to penetrate a target. In weaving, ''kairos'' denotes the moment in which the shuttle could be passed through threads on the
loom A loom is a device used to weaving, weave cloth and tapestry. The basic purpose of any loom is to hold the Warp (weaving), warp threads under tension (mechanics), tension to facilitate the interweaving of the weft threads. The precise shape o ...

loom
. Similarly, in his ''Kaironomia'', E.C. White defines ''kairos'' as the "long, tunnel-like
aperture In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels. More specifically, the aperture and focal length of an optical system determine the cone angle of a bundle of ray (optics), rays that come to a focus (optics), focus ...

aperture
through which the archer's arrow has to pass," and as the moment "when the weaver must draw the yarn through a gap that momentarily opens in the warp of the cloth being woven." Both are examples of a decisive act predicated on precision. In the literature of the
classical periodClassical period may refer to: *Classical Greece, specifically of the 5th and 4th centuries BC *Classical antiquity, in the Greco-Roman world *Classical India, an historic period of India (c. 322 BC - c. 550 CE) *Classical period (music), in music ...
, writers and orators used ''kairos'' to specify moments when the opportune action was made, often through
metaphors A metaphor is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of pe ...
involving archery and one's ability to aim and fire at the exact right time on-target. For example, in '' The Suppliants'', a drama written by
Euripides Euripides (; grc, Εὐριπίδης ''Eurīpídēs'', ; ) was a tragedian Tragedy (from the grc-gre, τραγῳδία, ''tragōidia'', ''tragōidia'') is a form of drama based on human suffering and, mainly, the terrible or sorrowfu ...

Euripides
,
Adrastus In Greek mythology, Adrastus or Adrestus (Ancient Greek: Ἄδραστος or Ἄδρηστος), (perhaps meaning "the inescapable"), was a king of Argos, Peloponnese, Argos, and leader of the Seven against Thebes. He was the son of the Argive k ...
describes the ability to influence and change another person's mind by "aiming their bow beyond the kairos." Kairos in general was formulated as a tool to explain and understand the interposition of humans for their actions and the due consequences. ''Kairos'' is also an alternate spelling of the minor Greek deity
Caerus In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belie ...
, the god of luck and opportunity.


In classical rhetoric

In
rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the Trivium, three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the techniques writers or sp ...
, ''kairos'' is "a passing instant when an opening appears which must be driven through with force if success is to be achieved." Kairos, then, means that one must find the best situation, taking timing into consideration, to act. Kairos was central to the
Sophists A sophist ( el, σοφιστής, ''sophistes'') was a teacher in ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th ...
, who stressed the rhetor's ability to adapt to and take advantage of changing, contingent, circumstances. In ''Panathenaicus'',
Isocrates Isocrates (; grc, Ἰσοκράτης ; 436–338 BC) was an ancient Greek rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the Tri ...
writes that educated people are those "who manage well the circumstances which they encounter day by day, and who possess a judgment which is accurate in meeting occasions as they arise and rarely misses the expedient course of action." Kairos is also very important in
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...

Aristotle
's scheme of rhetoric. Kairos is, for Aristotle, the time and space context in which the
proof Proof may refer to: * Proof (truth), argument or sufficient evidence for the truth of a proposition * Alcohol proof, a measure of an alcoholic drink's strength Formal sciences * Formal proof, a construct in proof theory * Mathematical proof, a co ...
will be delivered. Kairos stands alongside other contextual elements of rhetoric: ''The Audience'', which is the psychological and emotional makeup of those who will receive the proof; and ''To Prepon'', which is the style with which the orator clothes the proof. In
Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era wa ...
, kairos was utilized by both of the two main schools of thought in the field of rhetoric, focusing specifically on how kairos applies to speeches. The competing schools were that of the
Sophists A sophist ( el, σοφιστής, ''sophistes'') was a teacher in ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th ...
, and that of their opposition, led by individuals such as Aristotle and
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought and the Platoni ...

Plato
. Sophism approached rhetoric as an art form. Members of the school would travel around Greece teaching citizens about the art of rhetoric and successful discourse. In his article "Toward a Sophistic Definition of Rhetoric",
John Poulakos John Poulakos (born 1948) has worked in the field of rhetoric as a professor and author, contributing to the study of classical rhetoric. Biography Poulakos received his MA from California State University, San Jose in 1972 with a thesis "Toward an ...
defines rhetoric from a Sophistic perspective as follows: "Rhetoric is the art which seeks to capture in opportune moments that which is appropriate and attempts to suggest that which is possible." Aristotle and Plato, on the other hand, viewed Sophistic rhetoric as a tool used to manipulate others, and criticized those who taught it. Kairos fits into the Sophistic scheme of rhetoric in conjunction with the ideas of prepon and dynaton. These two terms combined with kairos are their keys to successful rhetoric. As stated by Poulakos, Prepon deals with the notion that "what is said must conform to both audience and occasion." Dynaton has to do with the idea of the possible, or what the speaker is attempting to convince the audience of. Kairos in the Sophistic context is based on the thought that speech must happen at a certain time in order for it to be most effective. If rhetoric is to be meaningful and successful, it must be presented at the right moment, or else it will not have the same impact on the members of the audience. Aristotle and his followers also discuss the importance of kairos in their teachings. In his ''Rhetoric'', one of the ways that Aristotle uses the idea of kairos is in reference to the specificity of each rhetorical situation. Aristotle believed that each rhetorical situation was different, and therefore different rhetorical devices needed to be applied at that point in time. One of the most well known parts of Aristotle's ''Rhetoric'' is when he discusses the roles of pathos, ethos, and logos. Aristotle ties kairos to these concepts, claiming that there are times in each rhetorical situation when one needs to be utilized over the others. Kairos has classically been defined as a concept that focused on "the uniquely timely, the spontaneous, the radically particular." Ancient Pythagoreans thought Kairos to be one of the most fundamental laws of the universe. Kairos was said to piece together the dualistic ways of the entire universe.
Empedocles Empedocles (; grc-gre, Ἐμπεδοκλῆς Empedocles (; grc-gre, wikt:Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Ἐμπεδοκλῆς; , 444–443 BC) was a Ancient Greece, Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a native citizen of Akragas, a Greek city ...

Empedocles
was the philosopher who connected kairos to the principle of opposites and harmony. It then became the principle of conflict and resolution and was thus inserted as a concept for rhetoric.


Modern rhetorical definition

Aaron Hess (2011) submits a definition of ''kairos'' for the present day that bridges the two classical applications: Hess addresses Poulakos' view that, "In short, ''kairos'' dictates that what is said, must be said at the right time." He also suggests that in addition to timeliness, ''kairos'' considers appropriateness. According to Hess, ''kairos'' can either be understood as, "the decorum or propriety of any given moment and speech act, implying a reliance on the given or known", or as "the opportune, spontaneous, or timely." Although these two ideas of ''kairos'' might seem conflicting, Hess says that they offer a more extensive understanding of the term. Furthermore, they encourage creativity, which is necessary to adapt to unforeseen obstacles and opinions that can alter the opportune or appropriate moment, i.e. ''kairos''. Being able to recognize the propriety of a situation while having the ability to adapt one's rhetoric allows taking advantage of ''kairos'' to be successful. Hess's updated definition of ''kairos'' concludes that along with taking advantage of the timeliness and appropriateness of a situation, the term also implies being knowledgeable of and involved in the environment where the situation is taking place in order to benefit fully from seizing the opportune moment. Hess' conflicting perspective on ''kairos'' is exemplified by the disagreement between
Lloyd Bitzer Lloyd Bitzer (born 1931, Wapakoneta, Ohio, died October 13, 2016, Verona, Wisconsin) was an American rhetorician Rhetoric () is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are th ...
(1968) and
Richard Vatz Richard Eugene Vatz (born December 21, 1946) is an American academic, lecturer and writer who is a professor of Rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see ...

Richard Vatz
(1983) about the ''. Bitzer argues that 'rhetorical situations' exist independent of human perspective; a situation invites discourse. He discusses the feeling of a missed opportunity (''kairos'') to speak and the tendency to create a later speech in response to that unseized moment. However, Vatz counters Bitzer's view by claiming that a situation is made rhetorical by the perception of its interpreter and the way which they choose to respond to it, whether with discourse or not. It is the rhetor's responsibility to give an event meaning through linguistic depiction. Both Bitzer's and Vatz' perspectives add depth to Hess' ideas that ''kairos'' is concerned with both timeliness and appropriateness. On one hand, Bitzer's argument supports Hess' claim that ''kairos'' is spontaneous, and one must be able to recognize the situation as opportune in order to take advantage of it. On the other hand, Vatz' idea that the rhetor is responsible reinforces Hess' suggestion of the need to be knowledgeable and involved in the surrounding environment in order to fully profit from the situation. According to Bitzer, ''kairos'' is composed of exigence, audience, and constraints. Exigence is the inherent pressure to do something about a situation immediately, with the action required depending on the situation. The audience are the listeners who the rhetor is attempting to persuade. Constraints are the external factors that challenges the rhetors ability to influence, such as the audience's personal beliefs and motivations. Additionally, factors such as cultural background, previous social experiences, and current mood, can influence the capacity to see and understand the correct and opportune moment of action. Thus, the difficulty of using ''kairos'' in a modern rhetorical setting is understanding and working within its constraints, while also carefully considering unexpected situations and encounters that arise, in order to present one's rhetorical argument as naturally as possible. Definitions of ''kairos'' using modern English are inherently vague: There is no one word in today's English language that succinctly encompasses the meaning of ''kairos'' (similar to ''
ethos Ethos ( or ) is a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

ethos
'', ''
logos ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος, lógos; from , , ) is a term in Western philosophy Western philosophy refers to the philosophy, philosophical thought and work of the W ...

logos
'', and ''
pathos Pathos (, ; plural: ''pathea'' or ''pathê''; , for "suffering Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual. Suffering is th ...

pathos
''). Michael Harker (2007) says, "Like the 'points' on the rhetorical triangle, the meaning of ''kairos'' is not definitive but rather a starting point for grasping the whole of an argument." The inclusion of ''kairos'' in modern composition has not been implicitly made, but there are undertones. Various components of ''kairos'' are included in modern composition and have made profound effects on modern composition theory. The purpose of ''kairos'' in modern rhetoric is mostly focused on the placement of logos, pathos, and ethos. It is used as a "starting point" in modern rhetoric. Kelly Pender (2003) states the inclusion of ''kairos'' within discourse "would try to shift the focus of personal writing from the writer's experiences and emotions to a broader perspective that explicitly concentrates on the rhetorical situation ...." ''Kairos'' is an expressive inclusion within the overall subject of discourse, and one that has an effect on the entire rhetoric. Christian Lundberg and William Keith (2008) describe ''kairos'' in their rhetoric guide as the concept that "there is an exact right time to deliver a message if the audience is to be persuaded." Concepts such as relevance, recent events, and who the audience is plays a role in determining the right moment to speak. Which has to do with the implications of the original definition for ''kairos''. This implication is if "the target was moving and the soldier only had a narrow gap, the timing of the shot was crucial."


In Christian theology

In the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
, ''kairos'' means "the appointed time in the purpose of God," the time when God acts (e.g. : the ''kairos'' is fulfilled and the
kingdom of God The concept of the kingship of God appears in all Abrahamic religions, where in some cases the terms Kingdom of God and Kingdom of Heaven are also used. The notion of God's kingship goes back to the Hebrew Bible, which refers to "his kingdom" but ...
is at hand). ''Kairos'' (used 86 times in the New Testament) refers to an opportune time, a "moment" or a "season" such as "", whereas ''
chronos Chronos (; grc-gre, Χρόνος, (Modern Greek: ); Meaning - "time"), also spelled Khronos or Chronus, is the personification Personification occurs when a thing or abstraction is represented as a person, in literature or art, as an anthr ...

chronos
'' (used 54 times) refers to a specific amount of time, such as a day or an hour (e.g. and ). Jesus makes a distinction in between "His" time and " His brothers'" time:
paradox A paradox is a logically self-contradictory statement or a statement that runs contrary to one's expectation. It is a statement that, despite apparently valid reasoning from true premises, leads to a seemingly self-contradictory or a logically u ...

paradox
ically, it is "always" ( gr, πάντοτε) his brothers' time. In the context, they can go to
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
any time they wish. In the
Eastern Orthodox The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also cal ...
and
Eastern Catholic The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, Eastern Rite Catholicism, or simply the Eastern Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian Eastern Christianity comprises Chris ...
churches, before the
Divine Liturgy Divine Liturgy ( grc-gre, Θεία Λειτουργία, Theia Leitourgia) or Holy Liturgy is the Eucharist The Eucharist (; grc-gre, εὐχαριστία, eucharistía, thanksgiving) also known as Holy Communion and the Lord's Supper, am ...
begins, the
Deacon A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christianity, Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. Major Christian churches, such as the C ...

Deacon
exclaims to the
Priest A priest is a religious leader Clergy are formal leaders within established religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social w ...

Priest
, (), i.e. 'It is time 'kairos''for the Lord to act', indicating that the time of the Liturgy is an intersection with Eternity. In ''The Interpretation of History'',
neo-orthodox Neo-orthodoxy or Neoorthodoxy, in Christianity, also known as theology of crisis and dialectical theology, was a theological movement developed in the aftermath of the First World War. The movement was largely a reaction against doctrines of 19th ...
Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teachings of Jesus Christ and was founded by Martin Luther, a 16th-century German monk and Protestant Reformers, reformer whose efforts to reform the theology ...
theologian
Paul Tillich Paul Johannes Tillich (August 20, 1886 – October 22, 1965) was a German-American Christian existentialist philosopher and Lutheran Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a ...
made prominent use of the term. For him, the ''kairoi'' are those crises in history (see
Christian existentialism Christian existentialism is a theo-philosophical movement which takes an existentialism, existentialist approach to Christian theology. The school of thought is often traced back to the work of the Denmark, Danish philosopher and theologian Søren ...
) which create an opportunity for, and indeed demand, an existential decision by the human subject—the coming of Christ being the prime example (compare
Karl Barth Karl Barth (; ; – ) was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy unde ...
's use of ''Geschichte'' as opposed to ''Historie''). In the
Kairos Document The Kairos Document (KD) is a theology, theological statement issued in 1985 by a group of mainly black South African theologians based predominantly in the townships of Soweto, South Africa. The document challenged the churches' response to what t ...
, an example of
liberation theology Liberation theology is a Christian theological Christian theology is the theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the Divinity, divine and, more broadly, of religious belief. It is taught as an Discipline (academia), aca ...
in
South Africa under apartheid Apartheid (South African English South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English language dialects native to South Africans. History British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * B ...
, the term ''kairos'' is used to denote "the appointed time," "the crucial time" into which the document or text is spoken.


In science

In
Hippocrates Hippocrates of Kos (; grc-gre, Ἱπποκράτης ὁ Κῷος, Hippokrátēs ho Kôios; ), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ε ...

Hippocrates
' (460–357 BCE) major theoretical treatises on the nature of medical science and methodology, the term ''kairos'' is used within the first line. Hippocrates is generally accepted as the father of medicine, but his contribution to the discourse of science is less discussed. While "kairos" most often refers to "the right time," Hippocrates also used the term when referencing experimentation. Using this term allowed him to "express the variable components of medical practice more accurately." Here the word refers more to proportion, the mean, and the implicit sense of right measure. Hippocrates most famous quote about kairos is "every kairos is a chronos, but not every chronos is a kairos." In ''A Rhetoric of Doing: Essays on Written Discourse in Honor of James L. Kinneavy'' by Stephen Paul Witte, Neil Nakadate, and Roger Dennis Cherry (1992) also discusses the art of kairos in the field of science. Citing John Swales, the essay notes that the introduction sections of scientific research articles are nothing more than the construction of openings. This idea derives from the spatial aspect of kairos, or the creation of "an opening," which can be created by writers and discovered by readers. This opening is the opportune time, or kairos. Swales created what he called the "create a research space" model, wherein kairos, or an opening, was constructed. It consisted of four rhetorical moves: Step (3) is where a gap in previous research is indicated, thus creating the need for more information. The writer constructs a need, and an opening. Because kairos emphasizes change, it is an important aspect of science. Not all scientific research can be presented at the same time or in the same way, but creating an opening makes it possible to construct the right time. This can easily be related back to Hippocrates' statement that not every opening is an opportunity. Yet, in science, the message can be adapted in such a way that chronos becomes kairos. The idea can also be expressed as Carolyn Glasshoff (2011) wrote, that specifically in the field of scientific writing,


In digital media

The historical context of the definition of kairos may make the concept appear outdated. However, the relevancy of kairos is at its peak as the world has rapidly transformed into a society dependent on digital technology. In order to recognize how kairos can be applied to online media and the challenges that occur as a result, a broad definition of the term is required. One definition makes the application of kairos to digital media easy to recognize, as it states kairos can be referred to as particular moment in which success is achieved when an opening is pursued with force. This definition prompts a main issue within the application of kairos to online content: if timing is crucial to the message of communication that is being received, how can we communicate effectively online, where anything can be published at any time? The difficulty with modern rhetoric in the digital space is that the audience is less easily influenced by the rhetor. As such, it is difficult for rhetors to utilize kairos to the best of their abilities. Due to the nature of which modern audiences in the electronic age consume media, it is highly possible that they are multi-tasking, with their attention divided among multiple sources. This difficulty is compounded with the fact that this audience can consume discourse at different times, in different places, and through varying mediums. As a result, the audience is able to assign encountered discourse at various levels of personal priority. With this, they are able to discern which discourse they think is vital or interesting, and discard those they deem trivial or unworthy of their attention. There are also multiple external factors that lead to the difficulty in using kairos in a modern setting. Since computer hardware, software, and even the underlying operating system all differ between people, it is difficult for the orator to take account for every permutation possible. Couple this with the lack of a true shared community online, since such virtual "cloakroom communities" are only temporary, and the difficulties in using kairos in the digital age becomes painfully clear. Some scholars studying kairos in the modern digital sphere argue that the aspects of body/identity, distribution/circulation, access/accessibility, interaction, and economics are handled differently in an online setting and therefore messages that are sent digitally need to be altered to fit the new circumstances. In order to reach online audiences effectively, scholars suggest that context of the information's use, which includes considerations of legal, health-related, disciplinary, and political factors paired with smart rhetorical thinking can solve the issue of miscommunicated messages distributed on online forums.


See also

*
Modes of persuasion The modes of persuasion, modes of appeal or rhetorical appeals (Greek: ''pisteis'') are strategies of rhetoric Rhetoric () is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the m ...
* *
Kāla (time) Kāla ( sa, काल, translit. , ) is a word used in Sanskrit to mean "time". It is also the name of a deity, in which sense it is not always distinguishable from '. Purusha#Adi, Adi Kala or Adikala, is the omniscient formless yet with att ...
* * Rhetorical velocity *
Ṛtú Ritu (' "period") in Vedic Sanskrit refers to a fixed or appointed time, especially the proper time for sacrifice (yajna) or ritual in Historical Vedic religion, Vedic Religion, The word is so used in the Rigveda, the Yajurveda and the Atharvaveda ...
*
Ichi-go ichi-e is a Japanese language, Japanese four-character idiom (''yojijukugo'') that describes a cultural concept of treasuring the unrepeatable nature of a moment. The term has been translated as "for this time only", and "once in a lifetime". The term re ...


Notes


Further reading

*Mick Doherty,
Kairos: Layers of Meaning
(Dept of English, Texas Tech University) *
Jack London John Griffith London (born John Griffith Chaney; January 12, 1876 – November 22, 1916) was an American novelist, journalist and social activist. A pioneer of commercial fiction and American magazines, he was one of the first American authors ...
. "
To Build a Fire "To Build a Fire" is a short story by American author Jack London. There are two versions of this story. The first one was published in 1902, and the other was published in 1908. The story written in 1908 has become an often anthologized classic, ...
." Lost Face. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1910. *Paolo Moreno, ''L'attimo fuggente'' in Archeo magazine (XXII, 10, 260), October 2006, pp. 114–117. *R. B. Onians, ''The Origins of European Thought'' (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951), pp. 343–49 *Leonard Sweet, ''Missed Moments'' (Rev. Magazine Jan/Feb 2005), pp. 36 *E. C. White, ''Kaironomia: on the will to invent'' (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1987) *Mark R Freier
"Kairos: In the Midst of Ordinary Time, Kairos Happen!"
*Frank Kermode, "Fictions," in ''The Sense of an Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction'' (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967), pp. 46–52. *Barbara Baert, ''Kairos or Occasion as Paradigm in the Visual Medium. Nachleben, Iconography, Hermeneutics'' (Leuven: Peeters, 2016) {{DEFAULTSORT:Kairos Time in Greece Time and fate gods Rhetoric New Testament theology New Testament Greek words and phrases