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The Justice and Construction Party (JCP) or Justice and Development Party ( ar, حزب العدالة والبناء, ') is a
political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific political ideology ...
in
Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībiyā), officially the State of Libya ( ar, دولة ليبيا, Dawlat Lībiyā), is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to Egypt–Libya border, th ...

Libya
associated with the
Muslim Brotherhood The Society of the Muslim Brothers ( ar, جماعة الإخوان المسلمين'' ''), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood ( '), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassa ...
. It was officially founded on 3 March 2012 in
Tripoli Tripoli (; ar, طرابلس, ; ber, ⵜⵔⵢⴱⵓⵍⵙ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals ...

Tripoli
. Emad al-Banani of Misrata is the head of the party, and Mohamed Gaair is its
spokesman A spokesperson, spokesman, or spokeswoman, is someone engaged or elected to speak on behalf of others. Duties and function In the present media-sensitive world, many organizations are increasingly likely to employ professionals who have receiv ...

spokesman
. While it finished second in the election of 2014, it is believed to have attracted enough independents to have become the majority, and infighting in the
National Forces Alliance The National Forces Alliance ( ar, تحالف القوى الوطنية, ') is a political alliance in Libya. The alliance was created in February 2012. It includes 58 political organisations, 236 NGOs, and more than 280 Independent (politician), ...
has allowed the Brotherhood's political arm to gradually consolidate control over Libya. The party backed the election of
Nouri Abusahmain Nouri Abusahmain ( ar, نوري أبو سهمين; born October 25, 1956) is a Libyan politician. He is a major figure on the Islamist side of the 2014 Libyan Conflict and founder of the LROR group which is considered "terrorist" by the internat ...

Nouri Abusahmain
, a
Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated in North Africa, specifically Morocco ) , ...

Berber
and moderate Islamist, over the secular candidates, who were defeated. This gave the Brotherhood a strong position so that once
Ali Zeidan Ali Zeidan (sometimes written as Zidan; ar, علي زيدان; born 15 December 1950) is a former Prime Minister of Libya A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product (mathematics), product of two smal ...
was ousted from politics over his mishandling of ''
Morning Glory Morning glory (also written as morning-glory) is the common name for over 1,000 species of flowering plants in the family Convolvulaceae, whose current taxonomy and systematics are in flux. Morning glory species belong to many genus, genera, ...
'' oil shipments, the Brotherhood had a speaker-president, Abusahmain, with so much authority that they could eventually appoint a moderate Islamist and pro-business politician,
Ahmed Maiteeq Ahmed Omar Maiteeg ( ar, أحمد عمر معيتيق) is a Libyan businessman and politician, originally from Misrata, who was elected Prime Minister of Libya in May 2014. His election as prime minister took place under disputed circumstances. T ...

Ahmed Maiteeq
, as prime minister. The Brotherhood is continuing to consolidate its power; by backing a
Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated in North Africa, specifically Morocco ) , ...

Berber
as president, the JCP has gained stronger support from Libya's ethnic minorities.


History

The
Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībiyā), officially the State of Libya ( ar, دولة ليبيا, Dawlat Lībiyā), is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to Egypt–Libya border, th ...

Libya
n branch of the
Muslim Brotherhood The Society of the Muslim Brothers ( ar, جماعة الإخوان المسلمين'' ''), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood ( '), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassa ...
was founded in 1949; however, it did not operate openly until after the
Libyan Civil War Libyans (ليبيون) and their population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībīyā), officially the State of Lib ...

Libyan Civil War
. A public conference was held for the first time in Libya on 17 November 2011 and attended by Libyan Muslim Brotherhood leader
Suleiman Abdelkader Suleiman ( or dictionary.reference.comsuleiman/ref>) is the main transliteration of the Arabic language, Arabic '' / ''. The name means "man of peace" and corresponds to the English name Solomon (name), Solomon. The word may also be transliterated ...
and Tunisian politician
Rashid Ghannouchi Rached Ghannouchi ( ar, راشد الغنوشي '; born 22 June 1941), also spelled Rachid al-Ghannouchi or Rached el-Ghannouchi, is a Tunisian politician and thinker, co-founder of the Ennahdha Party and serving as its "intellectual leader". He ...
. On 24 December 2011, the Libyan Muslim Brotherhood announced its intent to form a political party to contest the Public National Conference election scheduled for June 2012. The official founding of the party was declared on 3 March 2012 despite the lack of electoral laws governing the foundation of political parties to run in elections. It was launched in Tripoli at a convention attended by 1,400 representatives, many of whom were previously jailed or exiled, from 18 cities. Former political prisoner Mohamed Sowan of Misrata was chosen as the inaugural head of the party. Amongst the party's other original representatives were several more rebel leaders from the civil war and wealthy Libyan expatriates who returned after the war. According to Al Jazeera, the JCP was the country's most organised political force even at the time of its founding, similar to the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, which won a plurality in the 2011–12 Egyptian parliamentary elections after its own revolution, which ousted Hosni Mubarak from power. Justice and Construction competed in the 2012 Libyan General National Congress election, receiving 10% of the vote and winning 17 of the 80 party-list seats. It placed second behind the
National Forces Alliance The National Forces Alliance ( ar, تحالف القوى الوطنية, ') is a political alliance in Libya. The alliance was created in February 2012. It includes 58 political organisations, 236 NGOs, and more than 280 Independent (politician), ...
. Furthermore, 17 of the 120 independents in the congress who were associated with the party were elected. In 2014, the Justice and Construction Party announced that it was withdrawing from government in Libya after failing to secure enough votes to unseat Prime Minister
Ali Zeidan Ali Zeidan (sometimes written as Zidan; ar, علي زيدان; born 15 December 1950) is a former Prime Minister of Libya A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product (mathematics), product of two smal ...
. All five of the party’s ministers resigned as a result of the futile effort.


Ideology

The Muslim Brotherhood's spokesman Mohamed Gaair stated that the party would seek "to work on security and stability. We are still a new founded party, but we will work on the basis of Islamic principles and that doesn't mean the shallow meaning of religion most people think of like banning women from leaving home." This followed an announcement by the National Transitional Council's interim government, which promoted sharia law as the foundation for new Libyan legislation. The party has also called for a nationally united government to end sectarianism and further conflict through civil dialogue in post-revolutionary Libya.


Criticism

A 2014 article by ''Foreign Policy'' described the JCP as a "party bruised" and noted that the Muslim Brotherhood’s local Libyan party had not garnered high levels of public support. In November 2016, former prime minister Khalifa al-Ghawil stated in an interview that the JCP was ruining the country. He had made similar statements before, ultimately claiming that the Muslim Brotherhood had an "agenda that was against the interests of Libyans". In June 2017, the House of Representatives (Libya), Libyan House of Representatives (HoR) composed a list of terrorists inside Libya with links to Qatar, a widely purported State-sponsored terrorism, sponsor of terrorism. The list was signed by Talal Almaihub, chairman of the Defense and National Security Committee of the HoR. Multiple Muslim Brotherhood members were named in the list, including executive member Nizar Kiwan; major donor Abdulrazaq al-Aradi; and Ali Salabi, who was called "the man considered to the ideological brains of the Muslim Brotherhood" by the ''Libya Herald''. In response the JCP deemed the list defamation.


Protests

In July 2013, angry protesters stormed the party’s offices in Tripoli following the assassination of prominent Libyan political activist Abdelsalam al-Mismari, who was purportedly killed by the Brotherhood. Mismari was one of the original activists who helped drive a movement to overthrow Gaddafi and was highly critical of the Muslim Brotherhood’s affiliate party in Libya thereafter. ''Agence France-Presse'' interviewed one of the protesters, who proclaimed, "We want all political parties to be dissolved. ... They're the cause of all our problems. First we need a constitution, then laws regulating political life before parties can begin operating [again]."


References


External links


Official website
(Arabic) {{Libyan political parties, state=collapsed 2012 establishments in Libya Islamic democratic political parties Islamic political parties in Libya Muslim Brotherhood Political parties established in 2012 Political parties in Libya