HOME

TheInfoList




Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...
general and statesman. A member of the
First Triumvirate The First Triumvirate (60–53 BC) was an informal alliance among three prominent politicians in the late Roman Republic: Julius Caesar, Gaius Julius Caesar, Pompey, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Marcus Licinius Crassus. The constitution of ...
, Caesar led the Roman armies in the
Gallic Wars The Gallic Wars were waged between 58 BC and 50 BC by the Roman general against the peoples of (present-day , , along with parts of ). , , and tribes fought to defend their homelands against an aggressive Roman . The Wars culmi ...
before defeating his political rival
Pompey Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (; 29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a leading Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization f ...
in a civil war, and subsequently became dictator of Rome from 49 BC until his assassination in 44 BC. He played a critical role in
the events that led to the demise of ''The'' () is a grammatical Article (grammar), article in English language, English, denoting persons or things already mentioned, under discussion, implied or otherwise presumed familiar to listeners, readers or speakers. It is the definite art ...
the
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the , run through of the . Beginning with the of the (traditionally dated to 509 BC) and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the , Rome's control rapidly expanded durin ...
and the rise of the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
. In 60 BC, Caesar,
Crassus Marcus Licinius Crassus (; 115 – 53 BC) was a ancient Rome, Roman general and statesman who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. He is often called "the richest man in Rome."Wallechinsky, David & ...

Crassus
and
Pompey Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (; 29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a leading Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization f ...
formed the
First Triumvirate The First Triumvirate (60–53 BC) was an informal alliance among three prominent politicians in the late Roman Republic: Julius Caesar, Gaius Julius Caesar, Pompey, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Marcus Licinius Crassus. The constitution of ...
, a political alliance that dominated
Roman politics Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in ...
for several years. Their attempts to amass power as were opposed by the within the Roman Senate, among them
Cato the Younger Marcus Porcius Cato "Uticensis" ("of Utica, Tunisia, Utica"; ; 95 BC – April 46 BC), also known as Cato the Younger ( la, Cato Minor), was a conservative Roman Roman Senate, senator in the period of the late republic. A noted orator and a fol ...
with the frequent support of
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people ...

Cicero
. Caesar rose to become one of the most powerful politicians in the Roman Republic through a string of military victories in the
Gallic Wars The Gallic Wars were waged between 58 BC and 50 BC by the Roman general against the peoples of (present-day , , along with parts of ). , , and tribes fought to defend their homelands against an aggressive Roman . The Wars culmi ...
, completed by 51 BC, which greatly extended Roman territory. During this time he both invaded Britain and built a bridge across the Rhine river. These achievements and the support of his veteran army threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. In 49 BC, Caesar openly defied the Senate's authority by
crossing the Rubicon Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, ...

crossing the Rubicon
and marching towards Rome at the head of an army. This began
Caesar's civil war Caesar's Civil War (49–45 BC) was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire. It began as a series of political and military confrontations, between Julius Caesar (100–44 B ...
, which he won, leaving him in a position of near unchallenged power and influence in 45 BC. After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the
Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century B ...
. He gave citizenship to many residents of far regions of the Roman Republic. He initiated land reform and support for veterans. He centralized the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator for life" (). His populist and authoritarian reforms angered the elites, who began to conspire against him. On the
Ides of March The Ides of March (; la, Idus Martiae, Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas serior) is the scholarly name for the written Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European ...
(15 March), 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of rebellious senators led by
Brutus Marcus Junius Brutus (; 85 BC – 23 October 42 BC), often referred to simply as Brutus, was a Roman senator and the most famous of assassination of Julius Caesar, the assassins of Julius Caesar. After being adopted by Quintus Servilius Caepio (u ...
and
Cassius
Cassius
, who stabbed him to death. A new series of civil wars broke out and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesar's great-nephew and adopted heir Octavian, later known as
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
, rose to sole power after defeating his opponents in the last civil war of the Roman Republic. Octavian set about solidifying his power, and the era of the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...
began. Caesar was an accomplished author and historian as well as a statesman; much of his life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns. Other contemporary sources include the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of
Sallust Gaius Sallustius Crispus, usually anglicised Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounc ...

Sallust
. Later biographies of Caesar by
Suetonius Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus (), commonly known as Suetonius ( ; c. AD 69 – after AD 122), was a Roman historianRoman historiography stretches back to at least the 3rd century BC and was indebted to earlier Greek historiography. The Romans ...

Suetonius
and
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46 – after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonist Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC&nbs ...

Plutarch
are also important sources. Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. His
cognomen A ''cognomen'' (; plural ''cognomina''; from ''con-'' "together with" and ''(g)nomen'' "name") was the third name of a citizen of , under . Initially, it was a , but lost that purpose when it became hereditary. Hereditary ''cognomina'' were used t ...
was subsequently adopted as a
synonym A synonym is a word, morpheme A morpheme is the smallest meaningful lexical item in a language. A morpheme is not a word. The difference between a morpheme and a word is that a morpheme bound and free morphemes, sometimes does not stand alone, ...
for "
Emperor An emperor (from la, imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as a title roughly equivalent to ''commander'' under the Roma ...

Emperor
"; the title "
Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of anc ...
" was used throughout the Roman Empire, giving rise to modern
cognate In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...
s such as
Kaiser ''Kaiser'' is the German word for "emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, m ...

Kaiser
and
Tsar , by Ivan Makarov Tsar ( or ), also spelled ''czar'', ''tzar'', or ''csar'', is a Royal and noble ranks, title used to designate East and South Slavic monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mi ...

Tsar
. He has frequently appeared in literary and artistic works, and his political philosophy, known as Caesarism, inspired politicians into the modern era.


Early life and career

Gaius Julius Caesar was born into a
patrician Patrician may refer to: * Patrician (ancient Rome), the original aristocratic families of ancient Rome, and a synonym for "aristocratic" in modern English usage * Patrician (post-Roman Europe), the governing elites of cities in parts of medieval a ...
family, the , which claimed descent from
Julus Ascanius (; Ancient Greek: Ἀσκάνιος) (said to have reigned 1176-1138 BC) was a legendary king of Alba Longa and is the son of the Troy, Trojan hero Aeneas and Creusa of Troy, Creusa, daughter of Priam. He is a character in Roman mytholog ...

Julus
, son of the legendary
Trojan Trojan or Trojans may refer to: * Of or from the ancient city of Troy * Trojan language, the language of the historical Trojans Arts and entertainment Music * ''Les Troyens'' ('The Trojans'), an opera by Berlioz, premiered part 1863, part 1890 ...

Trojan
prince
Aeneas In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas (, ; from Greek language, Greek: Αἰνείας, ''Aineíās'') was a Trojan hero, the son of the Trojan prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite (equivalent to the Roman Venus (mythology), Venus). His father ...
, supposedly the son of the goddess
Venus Venus is the second planet from the Sun. It is named after the Venus (mythology), Roman goddess of love and beauty. As List of brightest natural objects in the sky, the brightest natural object in Earth's night sky after the Moon, Venus can ...
. The Julii were of Alban origin, mentioned as one of the leading Alban houses, which settled in Rome around the mid-7th century BC, following the destruction of
Alba Longa Alba Longa (occasionally written Albalonga in Italian sources) was an ancient Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication ...
. They were granted patrician status, along with other noble Alban families. The Julii also existed at an early period at
Bovillae 200px, Apotheosis of Homer by Archelaus of Priene. Originally on the Via Appia in Bovillae, now in the British Museum. Bovillae was an ancient Latins (Italic tribe) , Latin town in Lazio, central Italy, currently part of Frattocchie ''frazione'' ...
, evidenced by a very ancient inscription on an altar in the theatre of that town, which speaks of their offering sacrifices according to the , or Alban rites. The ''
cognomen A ''cognomen'' (; plural ''cognomina''; from ''con-'' "together with" and ''(g)nomen'' "name") was the third name of a citizen of , under . Initially, it was a , but lost that purpose when it became hereditary. Hereditary ''cognomina'' were used t ...
'' "Caesar" originated, according to
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
, with an ancestor who was born by
Caesarean section Caesarean section, also known as C-section, or caesarean delivery, is the surgical procedure Surgery ''cheirourgikē'' (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via la, chirurgiae, meaning "hand work". is a medical or dental s ...
(from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
verb "to cut", , ). The suggests three alternative explanations: that the first Caesar had a thick head of hair (); that he had bright grey eyes (); or that he killed an elephant during the
Punic Wars The Punic Wars were a series of wars (taking place between 264 and 146BC) that were fought between the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the ancient Rome, classical Roman civilization, run thr ...
( in
Moorish '' of Alfonso X, c. 1285 The term Moor is an Endonym and exonym, exonym first used by Christian Europeans to designate the Muslims, Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors in ...
) in battle. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored the latter interpretation of his name. Despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesar's father, also called
Gaius Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in Crisis of the Roman Republic, the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Rom ...
, governed the province of
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the cont ...
, and his sister
Julia Julia is usually a feminine given name. It is a Latinate feminine form of the name Julio (given name), Julio and Julius. (For further details on etymology, see wikt:Iulius#Latin, Wiktionary entry “Julius”.) The given name ''Julia'' had been ...
, Caesar's aunt, married
Gaius Marius Gaius Marius (; – 13 January 86 BC) was a Roman general and statesman. Victor of the Cimbric and Jugurthine wars, he held the office of consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging t ...
, one of the most prominent figures in the Republic. His mother, Aurelia, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesar's childhood.Plutarch, ''Caesar'
1
Suetonius, ''Julius'

In 85 BC, Caesar's father died suddenly, making Caesar the head of the family at the age of 16. His coming of age coincided with the civil wars of his uncle
Gaius Marius Gaius Marius (; – 13 January 86 BC) was a Roman general and statesman. Victor of the Cimbric and Jugurthine wars, he held the office of consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging t ...
and his rival
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (; 138–78 BC), commonly known as Sulla, was a Ancient Romans, Roman List of Roman generals, general and Politician, statesman. He won the first large-scale civil war in Roman history, and became the first man of Rom ...
. Both sides carried out bloody purges of their political opponents whenever they were in the ascendancy. Marius and his ally
Lucius Cornelius Cinna Lucius Cornelius Cinna (died 84 BC) was a four-time consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the a ...
were in control of the city when Caesar was nominated as the new (high priest of Jupiter), and he was married to Cinna's daughter
Cornelia Cornelia may refer to: People *Cornelia (name), a feminine given name *Cornelia (gens), a Roman family Places *425 Cornelia, the asteroid ''Cornelia'', a main-belt asteroid ;Italy *Cornelia (Rome Metro), an underground station on Rome Metro *Via ...
. Following Sulla's final victory, however, Caesar's connections to the old regime made him a target for the new one. He was stripped of his inheritance, his wife's dowry, and his priesthood, but he refused to divorce Cornelia and was instead forced to go into hiding. The threat against him was lifted by the intervention of his mother's family, which included supporters of Sulla, and the Vestal Virgins. Sulla gave in reluctantly and is said to have declared that he saw many a Marius in Caesar. The loss of his priesthood had allowed him to pursue a military career, as the high priest of Jupiter was not permitted to touch a horse, sleep three nights outside his own bed or one night outside Rome, or look upon an army. Caesar felt that it would be much safer far away from Sulla should the dictator change his mind, so he left Rome and joined the army, serving under Marcus Minucius Thermus in Asia and Servilius Isauricus in
Cilicia Cilicia (); el, Κιλικία, ''Kilikía''; Middle Persian Middle Persian or Pahlavi, also known by its endonym Pārsīk or Pārsīg (𐭯𐭠𐭫𐭮𐭩𐭪) in its later form, is a Western Middle Iranian language which became the litera ...

Cilicia
. He served with distinction, winning the
Civic Crown The Civic Crown ( la, corona civica) was a military decoration Military awards and decorations are distinctions given as a mark of honor for military heroism, meritorious or outstanding service or achievement.United States Department of Defen ...
for his part in the Siege of Mytilene. He went on a mission to
Bithynia Bithynia (; Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek language, ...
to secure the assistance of 's fleet, but he spent so long at Nicomedes' court that rumours arose of an affair with the king, which Caesar vehemently denied for the rest of his life. Hearing of Sulla's death in 78 BC, Caesar felt safe enough to return to Rome. He lacked means since his inheritance was confiscated, but he acquired a modest house in
Subura The Suburra, or ''Subura'' (unknown etymology, not from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
, a lower-class neighbourhood of Rome.Suetonius, ''Julius'
46
He turned to legal advocacy and became known for his exceptional oratory accompanied by impassioned gestures and a high-pitched voice, and ruthless prosecution of former governors notorious for extortion and corruption. On the way across the
Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated Bay, embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between Europe's Geography of Europe, Balkan peninsula and Asia's Anatolia peninsula. The sea has an area of some 215,000 square kilometres. In ...

Aegean Sea
, Caesar was kidnapped by
pirates Piracy is an act of robbery Robbery is the crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted ...
and held prisoner. He maintained an attitude of superiority throughout his captivity. The pirates demanded a ransom of 20 talents of silver, but he insisted that they ask for 50. Caesar was relaxed and familiar with his captors, and (seemingly) joked that after his release he would raise a fleet, pursue and capture the pirates, and
crucify Crucifixion is a method of capital punishment Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is the State (polity), state-sanctioned killing of a person as punishment for a crime. The sentence (law), sentence ordering that someone ...
them while alive. After his ransom was paid he fulfilled this promise in full, apart from one detail -- as a sign of leniency, he first had their throats cut. He was soon called back into military action in Asia, raising a band of
auxiliaries Auxiliaries are personnel that assist the military or police but are organised differently from such forces. Auxiliary may be volunteers undertaking support functions or performing certain duties such as garrison troops, usually on a part-time bas ...
to repel an incursion from the east. On his return to Rome, he was elected military
tribune Tribune () was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the ...

tribune
, a first step in a political career. He was elected in 69 BC, and during that year he delivered the funeral oration for his aunt Julia, including images of her husband Marius, unseen since the days of Sulla, in the funeral procession. His wife Cornelia also died that year. Caesar went to serve his quaestorship in
Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testame ...

Hispania
after his wife's funeral, in the spring or early summer of 69 BC. While there, he is said to have encountered a statue of
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title ...

Alexander the Great
, and realised with dissatisfaction that he was now at an age when Alexander had the world at his feet, while he had achieved comparatively little. On his return in 67 BC, he married Pompeia, a granddaughter of Sulla, whom he later divorced in 61 BC after her embroilment in the Bona Dea scandal. In 65 BC, he was elected , and staged lavish
games with separate sliding drawer, from 1390 to 1353 BC, made of glazed faience, dimensions: 5.5 × 7.7 × 21 cm, in the Brooklyn Museum The Brooklyn Museum is an art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of a ...

games
that won him further attention and popular support. In 63 BC, he ran for election to the post of , chief priest of the Roman state religion. He ran against two powerful senators. Accusations of bribery were made by all sides. Caesar won comfortably, despite his opponents' greater experience and standing.
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people ...

Cicero
was consul that year, and he exposed
Catiline Lucius Sergius Catilina (108–62 BC), known in English as Catiline (), was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *' ...
's conspiracy to seize control of the republic; several senators accused Caesar of involvement in the plot. After serving as in 62 BC, Caesar was appointed to govern
Hispania Ulterior Hispania Ulterior (English: "Further Hispania", or occasionally "Thither Hispania") was a region of Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th cent ...
(the western part of the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former kingdom in Spain * the Aragonese people, those originating from or living in the historical region ...

Iberian Peninsula
) as , though some sources suggest that he held proconsular powers. He was still in considerable debt and needed to satisfy his creditors before he could leave. He turned to
Marcus Licinius Crassus Marcus Licinius Crassus (; 115 – 53 BC) was a general and statesman who played a key role in the transformation of the into the . He is often called "the richest man in Rome." & .. Trivia-Library. '. 1975–1981. Web. 23 December 2009."Ofte ...

Marcus Licinius Crassus
, the richest man in Rome. Crassus paid some of Caesar's debts and acted as guarantor for others, in return for political support in his opposition to the interests of
Pompey Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (; 29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a leading Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization f ...
. Even so, to avoid becoming a private citizen and thus open to prosecution for his debts, Caesar left for his province before his praetorship had ended. In Hispania, he conquered two local tribes and was hailed as by his troops; he reformed the law regarding debts, and completed his governorship in high esteem. Caesar was acclaimed in 60 BC (and again later in 45 BC). In the Roman Republic, this was an honorary title assumed by certain military commanders. After an especially great victory, army troops in the field would proclaim their commander , an acclamation necessary for a general to apply to the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...

Senate
for a triumph. However, Caesar also wished to stand for consul, the most senior magistracy in the republic. If he were to celebrate a triumph, he would have to remain a soldier and stay outside the city until the ceremony, but to stand for election he would need to lay down his command and enter Rome as a private citizen. He could not do both in the time available. He asked the Senate for permission to stand ''in absentia'', but Cato blocked the proposal. Faced with the choice between a triumph and the consulship, Caesar chose the consulship.


Consulship and military campaigns

In 60 BC, Caesar sought election as consul for 59 BC, along with two other candidates. The election was sordid—even
Cato Cato typically refers to either Cato the Elder or Cato the Younger, both of the Porcii Catones family of Rome. It may also refer to any of the following: People Romans, in the family Porcii Catones * Cato the Elder (Cato Maior) or "the Censor" ...
, with his reputation for incorruptibility, is said to have resorted to bribery in favour of one of Caesar's opponents. Caesar won, along with conservative
Marcus Bibulus Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus (c. 102 – 48 BC) was a politician of the Roman Republic. He was a plodding conservative and upholder of the established social order who served in several magisterial positions alongside Julius Caesar Gaius Julius ...
. Caesar was already in
Marcus Licinius Crassus Marcus Licinius Crassus (; 115 – 53 BC) was a general and statesman who played a key role in the transformation of the into the . He is often called "the richest man in Rome." & .. Trivia-Library. '. 1975–1981. Web. 23 December 2009."Ofte ...

Marcus Licinius Crassus
' political debt, but he also made overtures to
Pompey Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (; 29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a leading Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization f ...
. Pompey and Crassus had been at odds for a decade, so Caesar tried to reconcile them. The three of them had enough money and political influence to control public business. This informal alliance, known as the
First Triumvirate The First Triumvirate (60–53 BC) was an informal alliance among three prominent politicians in the late Roman Republic: Julius Caesar, Gaius Julius Caesar, Pompey, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Marcus Licinius Crassus. The constitution of ...
("rule of three men"), was cemented by the marriage of Pompey to Caesar's daughter
Julia Julia is usually a feminine given name. It is a Latinate feminine form of the name Julio (given name), Julio and Julius. (For further details on etymology, see wikt:Iulius#Latin, Wiktionary entry “Julius”.) The given name ''Julia'' had been ...
. Caesar also married again, this time Calpurnia, who was the daughter of another powerful senator. Caesar proposed a law for redistributing public lands to the poor—by force of arms, if need be—a proposal supported by Pompey and by Crassus, making the triumvirate public. Pompey filled the city with soldiers, a move which intimidated the triumvirate's opponents. Bibulus attempted to declare the omens unfavourable and thus void the new law, but he was driven from the forum by Caesar's armed supporters. His
lictor A lictor (possibly from la, ligare, "to bind") was a Ancient Rome, Roman civil servant who was an attendant and bodyguard to a Roman magistrate, magistrate who held ''imperium''. Lictors are documented since the Roman Kingdom, and may have origi ...

lictor
s had their
fasces Fasces ( ; ; a ''plurale tantum A ''plurale tantum'' (Latin for "plural only"; ) is a noun that appears only in the plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a ...

fasces
broken, two high magistrates accompanying him were wounded, and he had a bucket of excrement thrown over him. In fear of his life, he retired to his house for the rest of the year, issuing occasional proclamations of bad omens. These attempts proved ineffective in obstructing Caesar's legislation.
Roman satirists Satire is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usage, it normally describes a Category of being, ...
ever after referred to the year as "the consulship of Julius and Caesar". When Caesar was first elected, the aristocracy tried to limit his future power by allotting the woods and pastures of Italy, rather than the of a province, as his military command duty after his year in office was over. With the help of political allies, Caesar secured passage of the '' lex Vatinia'', granting him governorship over
Cisalpine Gaul Cisalpine Gaul ( la, Gallia Cisalpina, also called ''Gallia Citerior'' or ''Gallia Togata'') was the part of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Ital ...
(northern Italy) and
Illyricum Illyricum may refer to: * Illyria In classical antiquity, Illyria ( grc, Ἰλλυρία, ''Illyría'' or , ''Illyrís''; la, Illyria, ''Illyricum'') was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by numerous tribes of peopl ...
(southeastern Europe). At the instigation of Pompey and his father-in-law Piso,
Transalpine Gaul Gallia Narbonensis can be seen in the south of modern-day France as a Roman province. Gallia Narbonensis (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin w ...
(southern France) was added later after the untimely death of its governor, giving him command of four legions. The term of his governorship, and thus his immunity from prosecution, was set at five years, rather than the usual one. When his consulship ended, Caesar narrowly avoided prosecution for the irregularities of his year in office, and quickly left for his province.


Conquest of Gaul

Caesar was still deeply in debt, but there was money to be made as a governor, whether by extortion or by military adventurism. Caesar had four legions under his command, two of his provinces bordered on unconquered territory, and parts of
Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rat ...

Gaul
were known to be unstable. Some of Rome's Gallic allies had been defeated by their rivals at the
Battle of Magetobriga The Battle of Magetobriga ( Amagetobria, Magetobria, Mageto'Bria, Admageto'Bria) was fought in 63 BC between rival tribes in Gaul. The Aedui tribe was defeated and massacred by the combined forces of their hereditary rivals, the Sequani and ...
, with the help of a contingent of
Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic languages :* Proto-Germanic language, a reconstructed proto-language of ...

Germanic
tribes. The Romans feared these tribes were preparing to migrate south, closer to Italy, and that they had warlike intent. Caesar raised two new legions and defeated these tribes. In response to Caesar's earlier activities, the tribes in the north-east began to arm themselves. Caesar treated this as an aggressive move and, after an inconclusive engagement against the united tribes, he conquered the tribes piecemeal. Meanwhile, one of his legions began the conquest of the tribes in the far north, directly opposite
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...

Britain
. During the spring of 56 BC, the Triumvirs held a conference, as Rome was in turmoil and Caesar's political alliance was coming undone. The
Lucca Conference The Lucca Conference, sometimes misspelled Luca Conference, was a meeting of the three Roman generals of the First Triumvirate The First Triumvirate (60–53 BC) was an informal alliance among three prominent politicians in the late ...
renewed the
First Triumvirate The First Triumvirate (60–53 BC) was an informal alliance among three prominent politicians in the late Roman Republic: Julius Caesar, Gaius Julius Caesar, Pompey, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Marcus Licinius Crassus. The constitution of ...
and extended Caesar's governorship for another five years. The conquest of the north was soon completed, while a few pockets of resistance remained. Caesar now had a secure base from which to launch an invasion of Britain. In 55 BC, Caesar repelled an incursion into Gaul by two Germanic tribes, and followed it up by building a bridge across the Rhine and making a show of force in Germanic territory, before returning and dismantling the bridge. Late that summer, having subdued two other tribes, he crossed into
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...

Britain
, claiming that the Britons had aided one of his enemies the previous year, possibly the Veneti of
Brittany Brittany (; french: link=no, Bretagne ; br, Breizh, or ; Gallo: ''Bertaèyn'' ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to ...
. His knowledge of Britain was poor, and although he gained a beachhead on the coast, he could not advance further. He raided out from his beachhead and destroyed some villages, then returned to Gaul for the winter. He returned the following year, better prepared and with a larger force, and achieved more. He advanced inland, and established a few alliances, but poor harvests led to widespread revolt in Gaul, forcing Caesar to leave Britain for the last time. Though the Gallic tribes were just as strong as the Romans militarily, the internal division among the Gauls guaranteed an easy victory for Caesar.
Vercingetorix Vercingetorix (; – 46 BC) was a king and chieftain of the Arverni The Arverni (: ''Aruerni'') were a people dwelling in the modern region during the and the . They were one of the most powerful tribes of ancient , contesting primacy ove ...

Vercingetorix
's attempt in 52 BC to unite them against Roman invasion came too late. He proved an astute commander, defeating Caesar at the
Battle of Gergovia The Battle of Gergovia took place in 52 BC in Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally ide ...
, but Caesar's elaborate siege-works at the
Battle of Alesia The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia was a military engagement in the Gallic Wars The Gallic Wars were waged between 58 BC and 50 BC by the Roman general Julius Caesar against the peoples of Gaul (present-day France, Belgiu ...
finally forced his surrender. Despite scattered outbreaks of
warfare War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...
the following year, Gaul was effectively conquered.
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46 – after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonist Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC&nbs ...

Plutarch
claimed that during the
Gallic Wars The Gallic Wars were waged between 58 BC and 50 BC by the Roman general against the peoples of (present-day , , along with parts of ). , , and tribes fought to defend their homelands against an aggressive Roman . The Wars culmi ...
the army had fought against three million men (of whom one million died, and another million were enslaved), subjugated 300 tribes, and destroyed 800 cities. The casualty figures are disputed by modern historians.


Civil war

While Caesar was in Britain his daughter Julia, Pompey's wife, had died in childbirth. Caesar tried to re-secure Pompey's support by offering him his great-niece in marriage, but Pompey declined. In 53 BC Crassus was killed leading a failed
invasion An invasion is a military offensive An offensive is a military operation A military operation is the coordinated military action War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or par ...
of the east. Rome was on the brink of civil war. Pompey was appointed sole consul as an emergency measure, and married the daughter of a political opponent of Caesar. The Triumvirate was dead. In 51 BC, the consul Marcellus ensured that Caesar's command would not be extended, but tribunes vetoed his proposal that it be ended at once.Suetonius, ''Julius'
28
As 50 BC progressed, fears of civil war grew. In the autumn, Cicero and others sought disarmament by both Caesar and Pompey, and on 1 December 50 BC this was formally proposed in the senate by Caesar's supporter
Curio Curio may refer to: Objects *Bric-à-brac, lesser objets d'art for display *Cabinet of curiosities, a room-sized collection or exhibit of curios or curiosities *Collectables *Curio cabinet, a cabinet constructed for the display of curios People * ...
. It received overwhelming support but was itself vetoed. At the start of 49 BC, Caesar's renewed offer that he and Pompey disarm was read to the senate, which refused to vote on it. His supportive tribunes were driven out of Rome, the Senate declared Caesar an enemy and it issued its
senatus consultum ultimum ''Senatus consultum ultimum'' ("final decree of the Senate" or Final Act, often abbreviated SCU), is the modern term given to a decree of the Roman Senate during the late Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was ...
. There is scholarly disagreement as to the specific reasons why Caesar marched on Rome; the possibility of prosecution for actions in his consulship of 59 BC was unlikely. His objectives prior to the civil war were to secure himself an immediate second consulship and a triumph, having given up his triumph in 60 BC to stand for his first consulship. Caesar feared that his opponents – then holding both consulships for 50 BC – would reject his candidacy, refuse to ratify an election result in which he was a victor, or deny him a triumph for Gaul. On about 10 January 49 BC, Caesar crossed the
Rubicon The Rubicon ( la, Rubico; it, Rubicone ; rgn, Rubicôn ) is a shallow river in northeastern Italy, just north of Rimini. It was known as Fiumicino until 1933, when it was identified with the ancient river Rubicon, Crossing the Rubicon, famou ...

Rubicon
river (the frontier boundary of Italy) with only a single legion, the
Legio XIII Gemina minted in 248 by Philip the Arab Philip the Arab ( la, Marcus Julius Philippus 'Arabs'; 204 – September 249) was Roman emperor from 244 to 249. He was born in Aurantis, Arabia Petraea, Arabia, in a city situated in modern-day Syria. He wen ...
, and ignited
civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...

civil war
. Upon
crossing the Rubicon Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, ...

crossing the Rubicon
, Caesar, according to Plutarch and Suetonius, is supposed to have quoted the Athenian playwright
Menander Menander (; grc-gre, Μένανδρος ''Menandros''; c. 342/41 – c. 290 BC) was a Greek dramatist A playwright or dramatist is a person who writes play (theatre), plays. Etymology The word "play" is from Middle English pleye, from Old ...

Menander
, in Greek, "
the die is cast ("The dice, die has been cast") is a variation of a Latin phrase ( ) attributed by Suetonius to Julius Caesar on January 10, 49 BC, as he led his army across the Rubicon river in Northern Italy. With this step, he entered Italy at the head of hi ...
".Plutarch, ''Caesar'
32.8
/ref>
Erasmus Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (; English: Erasmus of Rotterdam;''Erasmus'' was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae. ''Desiderius'' was a self-adopted additional name, which he used from 1496. The ''Roterodamus'' was a schol ...

Erasmus
, however, notes that the more accurate Latin translation of the Greek
imperative mood The imperative mood is a grammatical mood In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed lang ...
would be "''alea iacta esto''", ''let'' the die be cast. Pompey and many of the Senate fled to the south, having little confidence in Pompey's newly raised troops. Pompey, despite greatly outnumbering Caesar, who had only his Thirteenth Legion with him, did not intend to fight. Caesar pursued Pompey, hoping to capture Pompey before his legions could escape.Plutarch, ''Caesar'
35.2
/ref> Pompey managed to escape before Caesar could capture him. Heading for
Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testame ...

Hispania
, Caesar left Italy under the control of
Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony, was a Ancient Rome, Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the Crisis of the Roman Republic, transformation of the Roman Republic f ...
. After an astonishing 27-day route-march, Caesar defeated Pompey's lieutenants, then returned east, to challenge Pompey in Illyria, where, on 10 July 48 BC in the battle of Dyrrhachium, Caesar barely avoided a catastrophic defeat. In an exceedingly short engagement later that year, he decisively defeated Pompey , in Greece on 9 August 48 BC. In Rome, Caesar was appointed
dictator A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power. A dictatorship A dictatorship is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the ...
,Plutarch, ''Caesar'
37.2
/ref> with Antony as his
Master of the Horse The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, still is) a position of varying importance in several European nations. Magister Equitum (Ancient Rome) The original Master of the Horse (Latin ''Magister Equitum'') in the Roman Republic The ...
(second in command); Caesar presided over his own election to a second consulship and then, after 11 days, resigned this dictatorship.Martin Jehne, ''Der Staat des Dicators Caesar'', Köln/Wien 1987, p. 15–38. Caesar then pursued Pompey to Egypt, arriving soon after the murder of the general. There, Caesar was presented with Pompey's severed head and seal-ring, receiving these with tears. He then had Pompey's assassins put to death.Plutarch, ''Pompey'
77–79
/ref> Caesar then became involved with an Egyptian civil war between the child pharaoh and his sister, wife, and co-regent queen,
Cleopatra Cleopatra VII Philopator ( grc-gre, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ}; 69 BC10 August 30 BC) was queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, Egypt from 51 to 30 BC, and its last active ruler.She was also a diplomat, Ancient ...

Cleopatra
. Perhaps as a result of the pharaoh's role in Pompey's murder, Caesar sided with Cleopatra. He withstood the
Siege of Alexandria The Siege of Alexandria was fought between 17 August and 2 September 1801, during the French Revolutionary Wars, between French and British forces and was the last action of the Egyptian Campaign. The French had occupied Alexandria ) , name ...
and later he defeated the pharaoh's forces at the
Battle of the Nile The Battle of the Nile (also known as the Battle of Aboukir Bay; french: Bataille d'Aboukir) was a major naval battle fought between the British Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's Navy, naval warfare force. Although war ...
in 47 BC and installed Cleopatra as ruler. Caesar and Cleopatra celebrated their victory with a triumphal procession on the
Nile The Nile, , Bohairic , lg, Kiira , Nobiin Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian languages, Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilo-Saharan language family. "Nobiin" is the genitive case, genitive form of ''Nòòbíí'' ("Nub ...

Nile
in the spring of 47 BC. The royal barge was accompanied by 400 additional ships, and Caesar was introduced to the luxurious lifestyle of the Egyptian pharaohs. Caesar and Cleopatra were not married. Caesar continued his relationship with Cleopatra throughout his last marriage—in Roman eyes, this did not constitute adultery—and probably fathered a son called
Caesarion Ptolemy XV Caesar). (; grc-koi, Πτολεμαῖος, ; 23 June 47 BC – August 30 BC), nicknamed Caesarion (), was the last pharaoh Pharaoh ( , ; cop, , Pǝrro) is the vernacular, common title now used for the monarchs of ancient Eg ...

Caesarion
. Cleopatra visited Rome on more than one occasion, residing in Caesar's villa just outside Rome across the
Tiber The Tiber (; la, Tiberis; it, Tevere ) is the third-longest and the longest in Central Italy, rising in the in and flowing through , , and , where it is joined by the River , to the , between and . It estimated at . The river has achi ...

Tiber
. Late in 48 BC, Caesar was again appointed dictator, with a term of one year. After spending the first months of 47 BC in Egypt, Caesar went to the Middle East, where he annihilated the king of Pontus; his victory was so swift and complete that he mocked Pompey's previous victories over such poor enemies. On his way to Pontus, Caesar visited Tarsus from 27 to 29 May 47 BC (25–27 May greg.), where he met enthusiastic support, but where, according to Cicero, was planning to kill him at this point. Thence, he proceeded to Africa to deal with the remnants of Pompey's senatorial supporters. He was defeated by
Titus Labienus Titus Labienus (c. 10017 March 45 BC) was a professional Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ...
at Ruspina on 4 January 46 BC but recovered to gain a significant victory at
Thapsus Thapsus, also known as Tampsus and as Thapsus Minor to distinguish it from Thapsos, Thapsus in Sicily, was a Carthaginian Empire, Carthaginian and Roman Empire, Roman port near present-day Bekalta, Tunisia. Geography Thapsus was established on Ras ...

Thapsus
on 6 April 46 BC over Cato, who then committed suicide. After this victory, he was appointed dictator for 10 years. Pompey's sons escaped to Hispania; Caesar gave chase and defeated the last remnants of opposition in the
Battle of Munda The Battle of Munda (17 March 45 B.C.), in southern Hispania Ulterior, was the final battle of Caesar's civil war against the leaders of the Optimates. With the military victory at Munda, and the deaths of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus Pompeius (so ...
in March 45 BC. During this time, Caesar was elected to his third and fourth terms as consul in 46 BC and 45 BC (this last time without a colleague).


Dictatorship and assassination

While he was still campaigning in Hispania, the Senate began bestowing honours on Caesar. Caesar had not proscribed his enemies, instead pardoning almost all, and there was no serious public opposition to him. Great games and celebrations were held in April to honour Caesar's victory at Munda. Plutarch writes that many Romans found the triumph held following Caesar's victory to be in poor taste, as those defeated in the civil war had not been foreigners, but instead fellow Romans. On Caesar's return to Italy in September 45 BC, he filed his will, naming his grandnephew (Octavian, later known as Augustus Caesar) as his principal heir, leaving his vast estate and property including his name. Caesar also wrote that if Octavian died before Caesar did,
Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus (27 April 81 BC – September 43 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', sh ...
would be the next heir in succession. In his will, he also left a substantial gift to the citizens of Rome. Between his crossing of the Rubicon in 49 BC, and his
assassination Assassination is the act of murder, deliberately killing a prominent or important person, such as heads of state, head of government, heads of government, politicians, Monarchy, royalty, celebrity, celebrities, journalists, or CEOs. An assassin ...
in 44 BC, Caesar established a new constitution, which was intended to accomplish three separate goals.Abbott, 133 First, he wanted to suppress all armed resistance out in the provinces, and thus bring order back to the Republic. Second, he wanted to create a strong central government in Rome. Finally, he wanted to knit together all of the provinces into a single cohesive unit. The first goal was accomplished when Caesar defeated Pompey and his supporters. To accomplish the other two goals, he needed to ensure that his control over the government was undisputed,Abbott, 134 so he assumed these powers by increasing his own authority, and by decreasing the authority of Rome's other political institutions. Finally, he enacted a series of reforms that were meant to address several long-neglected issues, the most important of which was his reform of the calendar.


Dictatorship

When Caesar returned to Rome, the Senate granted him
triumphs ''Triumphs'' (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, r ...
for his victories, ostensibly those over Gaul, Egypt, Pharnaces, and
Juba Juba (Arabic: جوبا) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of South Sudan. The city is situated on the White Nile and also serves as the capital of the Central Equatoria, Central Equatoria State. It is the world's newest capital ...
, rather than over his Roman opponents. When
Arsinoe IV Arsinoë IV ( grc-gre, Ἀρσινόη; between 68 and 63 BC – 41 BC) was the fourth of six children and the youngest daughter of Ptolemy XII Auletes Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Philopator Philadelphos ( grc-koi, Πτολεμαῖος Νέος ...
, Egypt's former queen, was paraded in chains, the spectators admired her dignified bearing and were moved to pity. were held, with beast-hunts involving 400 lions, and . A
naval battle Naval warfare is human combat in and on the sea, the ocean, or any other battlespace involving a major body of water such as a large lake or wide river. History Mankind has fought battles on the sea for more than 3,000 years. Even in the interi ...
was held on a flooded basin at the .J.F.C. Fuller, ''Julius Caesar, Man, Soldier, Tyrant'', Chapter 13 At the
Circus Maximus The Circus Maximus (Latin for "largest circus"; Italian language, Italian: ''Circo Massimo'') is an ancient Rome, ancient Roman chariot racing, chariot-racing stadium and mass entertainment venue in Rome, Italy. In the valley between the Aventin ...

Circus Maximus
, two armies of war captives, — each of 2,000 people, 200 horses, and 20 elephants — fought to the death. Again, some bystanders complained, this time at Caesar's wasteful extravagance. A riot broke out, and stopped only when Caesar had two rioters sacrificed by the priests on the Field of Mars. After the triumph, Caesar set out to pass an ambitious legislative agenda. He ordered a census be taken, which forced a reduction in the grain dole, and decreed that jurors could come only from the Senate or the equestrian ranks. He passed a
sumptuary law Sumptuary laws (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republ ...
that restricted the purchase of certain luxuries. After this, he passed a law that rewarded families for having many children, to speed up the repopulation of Italy. Then, he outlawed professional guilds, except those of ancient foundation, since many of these were subversive political clubs. He then passed a term-limit law applicable to governors. He passed a debt-restructuring law, which ultimately eliminated about a fourth of all debts owed. The
Forum of Caesar The Forum of Caesar, also known by the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to ...
, with its
Temple of Venus GenetrixThe Temple of Venus Genetrix (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power o ...

Temple of Venus Genetrix
, was then built, among many other public works. Caesar also tightly regulated the purchase of state-subsidised grain and reduced the number of recipients to a fixed number, all of whom were entered into a special register. From 47 to 44 BC, he made plans for the distribution of land to about 15,000 of his veterans. The most important change, however, was his reform of the calendar. The Roman calendar at the time was regulated by the movement of the moon. By replacing it with the Egyptian calendar, based on the sun, Roman farmers were able to use it as the basis of consistent seasonal planting from year to year. He set the length of the year to 365.25 days by adding an intercalary/leap day at the end of February every fourth year.Suetonius, ''Julius'
40
To bring the calendar into alignment with the seasons, he decreed that three extra months be inserted into 46 BC (the ordinary intercalary month at the end of February, and two extra months after November). Thus, the
Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century B ...
opened on 1 January 45 BC. This calendar is almost identical to the current Western calendar. Shortly before his assassination, he passed a few more reforms. He appointed officials to carry out his land reforms and ordered the rebuilding of
Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading hub of the Ancient Mediterranean and one of the most affluent cities of the . The city developed from a n colony ...

Carthage
and
Corinth Corinth ( ; el, Κόρινθος, Kórinthos, ) is the successor to an ancient city, and is a former municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). ...
. He also extended Latin rights throughout the Roman world, and then abolished the tax system and reverted to the earlier version that allowed cities to collect tribute however they wanted, rather than needing Roman intermediaries. His assassination prevented further and larger schemes, which included the construction of an unprecedented temple to Mars, a huge theatre, and a library on the scale of the
Library of Alexandria The Great Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world. The Library was part of a larger research institution called the Musaeum, Mouseion, which was dedicated to the ...

Library of Alexandria
. He also wanted to convert to a major port, and cut a canal through the
Isthmus of Corinth The Isthmus of Corinth (Greek language, Greek: Ισθμός της Κορίνθου) is the narrow land bridge which connects the Peloponnese peninsula with the rest of the mainland of Greece, near the city of Corinth. The word "isthmus" comes ...

Isthmus of Corinth
. Militarily, he wanted to conquer the
Dacia Dacia (, ; ) was the land inhabited by the Dacians The Dacians (; la, Daci ; grc-gre, Δάκοι, Δάοι, Δάκαι) were a Thracians, Thracian people who were the ancient inhabitants of the cultural region of Dacia, located in the ar ...

Dacia
ns and
Parthia Parthia ( peo, 𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 ''Parθava''; xpr, 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 ''Parθaw''; pal, 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 ''Pahlaw'') is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and offici ...

Parthia
ns, and avenge the loss at Carrhae. Thus, he instituted a massive mobilisation. Shortly before his assassination, the Senate named him censor for life and Father of the Fatherland, and the month of
Quintilis In the ancient Roman calendar, Quintilis or Quinctilis was the month following Junius (June) and preceding Sextilis (August). ''Quintilis'' is Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of t ...
was renamed July in his honour. He was granted further honours, which were later used to justify his assassination as a would-be divine monarch: coins were issued bearing his image and his statue was placed next to those of the kings. He was granted a golden chair in the Senate, was allowed to wear triumphal dress whenever he chose, and was offered a form of semi-official or popular
cult In modern English, a cult is a social group In the social sciences, a social group can be defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity. Regardless, soc ...
, with Antony as his
high priest The term “high priest” usually refers either to an individual who holds the office of ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry and technical drawing, as well as the engineering and construction ...
.


Political reforms

The history of Caesar's political appointments is complex and uncertain. Caesar held both the
dictatorship A dictatorship is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...
and the , but alternated between the
consulship A consul held the highest elected political office The incumbent is the current holder of an office An office is a space where an Organization, organization's employees perform Business administration, administrative Work (human acti ...
and the
proconsul A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose wo ...

proconsul
ship. His powers within the state seem to have rested upon these magistracies. He was first appointed dictator in 49 BC, possibly to preside over elections, but resigned his dictatorship within 11 days. In 48 BC, he was reappointed dictator, only this time for an indefinite period, and in 46 BC, he was appointed dictator for 10 years.Abbott, 136 In 48 BC, Caesar was given permanent tribunician powers,Abbott, 135 which made his person sacrosanct and allowed him to veto the Senate, although on at least one occasion, tribunes did attempt to obstruct him. The offending tribunes in this case were brought before the Senate and divested of their office. This was not the first time Caesar had violated a tribune's sacrosanctity. After he had first marched on Rome in 49 BC, he forcibly opened the treasury, although a tribune had the seal placed on it. After the impeachment of the two obstructive tribunes, Caesar, perhaps unsurprisingly, faced no further opposition from other members of the Tribunician College. When Caesar returned to Rome in 47 BC, the ranks of the Senate had been severely depleted, so he used his censorial powers to appoint many new senators, which eventually raised the Senate's membership to 900. All the appointments were of his own partisans, which robbed the senatorial aristocracy of its prestige, and made the Senate increasingly subservient to him.Abbott, 138 To minimise the risk that another general might attempt to challenge him, Caesar passed a law that subjected governors to term limits. In 46 BC, Caesar gave himself the title of "Prefect of the Morals", which was an office that was new only in name, as its powers were identical to those of the ''
censors Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information. This may be done on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient". Censorship can be conducted by governments, ...
''. Thus, he could hold censorial powers, while technically not subjecting himself to the same checks to which the ordinary censors were subject, and he used these powers to fill the Senate with his own partisans. He also set the precedent, which his imperial successors followed, of requiring the Senate to bestow various titles and honours upon him. He was, for example, given the title of "Father of the Fatherland" and "''
imperator The Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with" ...

imperator
''". Coins bore his likeness, and he was given the right to speak first during Senate meetings. Caesar then increased the number of magistrates who were elected each year, which created a large pool of experienced magistrates, and allowed Caesar to reward his supporters. Caesar even took steps to transform Italy into a province, and to link more tightly the other provinces of the empire into a single cohesive unit. This process, of fusing the entire Roman Empire into a single unit, rather than maintaining it as a network of unequal principalities, would ultimately be completed by Caesar's successor, the Emperor Augustus. In October 45 BC, Caesar resigned his position as sole consul, and facilitated the election of two successors for the remainder of the year, which theoretically restored the ordinary consulship, since the constitution did not recognize a single consul without a colleague.Abbott, 137 In February 44 BC, one month before his assassination, he was appointed dictator in perpetuity. Under Caesar, a significant amount of authority was vested in his lieutenants, mostly because Caesar was frequently out of Italy. Near the end of his life, Caesar began to prepare for a war against the Parthian Empire. Since his absence from Rome might limit his ability to install his own consuls, he passed a law which allowed him to appoint all magistrates, and all consuls and tribunes. This, in effect, transformed the magistrates from being representatives of the people to being representatives of the dictator.


Assassination

On the
Ides of March The Ides of March (; la, Idus Martiae, Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas serior) is the scholarly name for the written Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European ...
(15 March; see
Roman calendar The Roman calendar was the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, specific ...
) of 44 BC, Caesar was due to appear at a session of the Senate. Several Senators had conspired to assassinate Caesar. Antony, having vaguely learned of the plot the night before from a terrified ''liberator'' named
Servilius Casca Publius Servilius Casca Longus (84 BC – c. 42 BC) was one of the assassin Assassination is the act of murder, deliberately killing a prominent or important person, such as heads of state, head of government, heads of government, politicians, ...
, and fearing the worst, went to head Caesar off. The plotters, however, had anticipated this and, fearing that Antony would come to Caesar's aid, had arranged for Trebonius to intercept him just as he approached the portico of the
Theatre of Pompey The Theatre of Pompey ( la, Theatrum Pompeii, it, Teatro di Pompeo) was a structure in Ancient Rome built during the latter part of the Roman Republican era by Pompey the Great (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus). Completed in 55BC, it was the first perman ...
, where the session was to be held, and detain him outside (Plutarch, however, assigns this action of delaying Antony to Brutus Albinus). When he heard the commotion from the Senate chamber, Antony fled. According to Plutarch, as Caesar arrived at the Senate,
Tillius Cimber Lucius Tillius Cimber (died 42 BC) was a Roman senator. He was one of the Assassination of Julius Caesar, assassins of Julius Caesar, creating the diversion that enabled the conspirators to attack. Assassin Cimber was initially one of Caesar's str ...
presented him with a petition to recall his exiled brother. The other conspirators crowded round to offer support. Both Plutarch and Suetonius say that Caesar waved him away, but Cimber grabbed his shoulders and pulled down Caesar's
tunic A tunic is a garment File:KangaSiyu1.jpg, A kanga (African garment), kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the body. Typically, clothing is made of fabr ...
. Caesar then cried to Cimber, "Why, this is violence!" ("''Ista quidem vis est!''"). Casca simultaneously produced his dagger and made a glancing thrust at the dictator's neck. Caesar turned around quickly and caught Casca by the arm. According to Plutarch, he said in Latin, "Casca, you villain, what are you doing?" Casca, frightened, shouted, "Help, brother!" in
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
("", "''adelphe, boethei''"). Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus, was striking out at the dictator. Caesar attempted to get away, but, blinded by blood, he tripped and fell; the men continued stabbing him as he lay defenceless on the lower steps of the portico. According to Eutropius, around 60 men participated in the assassination. He was stabbed 23 times. According to Suetonius, a physician later established that only one wound, the second one to his chest, had been lethal. The dictator's
last words Last words are the final utterances of a person before death. The meaning is sometimes expanded to include non-ultimate utterances in the final days or hours before death. Last words of famous or infamous people are sometimes recorded (although no ...
are not known with certainty, and are a contested subject among scholars and historians alike. Suetonius reports that others have said Caesar's last words were the Greek phrase "" (transliterated as "''Kai sy, teknon?''": "You too, child?" in English). However, Suetonius' own opinion was that Caesar said nothing. Plutarch also reports that Caesar said nothing, pulling his toga over his head when he saw Brutus among the conspirators. The version best known in the English-speaking world is the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...
phrase "''
Et tu, Brute? File:Caesar-Northern-Star-1937.jpg, upright=2.0, 369px, Photograph of the Mercury Theatre production of Caesar, the scene in which Julius Caesar (Joseph Holland (actor), Joseph Holland, center) addresses the conspirators including Brutus (Orson ...
''" ("And you, Brutus?", commonly rendered as "You too, Brutus?"); best known from Shakespeare's ''
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened ...
'', where it actually forms the first half of a
macaronic Macaronic language uses a mixture of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system ...
line: "''Et tu, Brute?'' Then fall, Caesar." This version was already popular when the play was written, as it appears in
Richard Edes Richard Edes (or Eedes) (1555–1604) was an English churchman. He became Dean of Worcester, and was nominated one of the translators for the Authorised King James Version The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJ ...
's Latin play ''Caesar Interfectus'' of 1582 and ''The True Tragedie of Richarde Duke of Yorke & etc.'' of 1595, Shakespeare's source work for other plays. According to Plutarch, after the assassination, Brutus stepped forward as if to say something to his fellow senators; they, however, fled the building. Brutus and his companions then marched to the Capitol while crying out to their beloved city: "People of Rome, we are once again free!" They were met with silence, as the citizens of Rome had locked themselves inside their houses as soon as the rumour of what had taken place had begun to spread. Caesar's dead body lay where it fell on the Senate floor for nearly three hours before other officials arrived to remove it. Caesar's body was cremated. A crowd which had gathered at the cremation started a fire, which badly damaged the forum and neighbouring buildings. On the site of his cremation, the
Temple of Caesar The Temple of Caesar or Temple of Divus Iulius ( la, Aedes Divi Iuli; it, Tempio del Divo Giulio), also known as Temple of the Deified Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans mo ...

Temple of Caesar
was erected a few years later (at the east side of the main square of the
Roman Forum The Roman Forum, also known by its Latin name Forum Romanum ( it, Foro Romano), is a rectangular Forum (Roman), forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome. Citize ...

Roman Forum
). Only its altar now remains. A life-size wax statue of Caesar was later erected in the forum displaying the 23 stab wounds. In the chaos following the death of Caesar, Antony, Octavian (later Augustus Caesar), and others fought a series of five civil wars, which would culminate in the formation of the Roman Empire.


Aftermath of the assassination

The result, unforeseen by the assassins, was that Caesar's death precipitated the end of the Roman Republic. The Roman middle and lower classes, with whom Caesar was immensely popular and had been since before Gaul, became enraged that a small group of aristocrats had killed their champion. Antony, who had been drifting apart from Caesar, capitalised on the grief of the Roman mob and threatened to unleash them on the ''
Optimates The Optimates (; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Ro ...
'', perhaps with the intent of taking control of Rome himself. To his surprise and chagrin, Caesar had named his grandnephew his sole heir (hence the name Octavian), bequeathing him the immensely potent Caesar name and making him one of the wealthiest citizens in the Republic. The crowd at the funeral boiled over, throwing dry branches, furniture, and even clothing on to Caesar's funeral pyre, causing the flames to spin out of control, seriously damaging the Forum. The mob then attacked the houses of Brutus and Cassius, where they were repelled only with considerable difficulty, ultimately providing the spark for the
civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
, fulfilling at least in part Antony's threat against the aristocrats. Antony did not foresee the ultimate outcome of the next series of civil wars, particularly with regard to Caesar's adopted heir. Octavian, aged only 18 when Caesar died, proved to have considerable political skills, and while Antony dealt with Decimus Brutus in the first round of the new civil wars, Octavian consolidated his tenuous position. To combat Brutus and Cassius, who were massing an enormous army in Greece, Antony needed soldiers, the cash from Caesar's war chests, and the legitimacy that Caesar's name would provide for any action he took against them. With the passage of the ''lex Titia'' on 27 November 43 BC, the
Second Triumvirate The Second Triumvirate (43–32 BC) was a political alliance formed after the Roman dictator Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city o ...
was officially formed, composed of Antony, Octavian, and Caesar's loyal cavalry commander Lepidus. It formally
deified Apotheosis (, from gr, ἀποθεόω/ἀποθεῶ, label=none, link=no, lit='to deify', transliteration=apotheoo/apotheo; also called divinization and deification from ) is the glorification of a subject to divine level and most commonly, t ...

deified
Caesar as Divus Iulius in 42 BC, and Caesar Octavian henceforth became ''Divi filius'' ("Son of the divine"). Because Caesar's clemency had resulted in his murder, the Second Triumvirate reinstated the practice of
proscription '' The Proscribed Royalist, 1651'', painted by John Everett Millais c. 1853, in which a Puritan woman hides a fleeing Royalist proscript in the hollow of a tree Proscription ( la, proscriptio) is, in current usage, a 'decree of condemnation to ...
, abandoned since Sulla. It engaged in the legally sanctioned killing of a large number of its opponents to secure funding for its 45 legions in the second civil war against Brutus and Cassius. Antony and Octavian defeated them at
Philippi Philippi (; grc-gre, Φίλιπποι, ''Philippoi'') was a major Greek city northwest of the nearby island, Thasos Thasos or Thassos ( el, Θάσος, ''Thásos'') is a Greek island, geographically part of the North Aegean Sea, but administ ...
. Afterward, Antony formed an alliance with Caesar's lover, Cleopatra, intending to use the fabulously wealthy Egypt as a base to dominate Rome. A third civil war broke out between Octavian on one hand and Antony and Cleopatra on the other. This final civil war, culminating in the latter's defeat at
Actium Actium or Aktion ( grc, Ἄκτιον) was a town on a promontory in ancient Acarnania at the entrance of the Ambraciot Gulf off which Octavian Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor, reigning from ...
in 31 BC and in 30 BC, resulted in the permanent ascendancy of Octavian, who became the first Roman emperor, under the name Caesar Augustus, a name conveying religious, rather than political, authority. Julius Caesar had been preparing to invade
Parthia Parthia ( peo, 𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 ''Parθava''; xpr, 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 ''Parθaw''; pal, 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 ''Pahlaw'') is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and offici ...

Parthia
, the
Caucasus The Caucasus (), or Caucasia (), is a region spanning Europe and Asia. It is situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia (country), Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia. It is home to ...
, and
Scythia Scythia (, ; from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
, and then march back to
Germania Germania ( , ), also called Magna Germania (English: ''Great Germania''), Germania Libera (English: ''Free Germania'') or Germanic Barbaricum Barbaricum (from the gr, Βαρβαρικόν, "foreign", "barbarian") is a geographical name used by ...

Germania
through Eastern Europe. These plans were thwarted by his assassination. His successors did attempt the conquests of Parthia and Germania, but without lasting results.


Deification

Julius Caesar was the first historical Roman to be officially deified. He was posthumously granted the title ''Divus Iulius'' (the divine/deified Julius) by decree of the Roman Senate on 1 January 42 BC. The appearance of a comet during was taken as confirmation of his divinity. Though his temple was not dedicated until after his death, he may have received divine honours during his lifetime: and shortly before his assassination, Antony had been appointed as his ''
flamen A (plural ''flamens'' or ''flamines'') was a priest A priest is a religious leader Clergy are formal leaders within established religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacti ...
'' (priest). Both Octavian and Antony promoted the cult of'' Divus Iulius''. After the death of Caesar, Octavian, as the adoptive son of Caesar, assumed the title of ''Divi Filius'' (Son of the Divine).


Personal life


Health and physical appearance

Based on remarks by Plutarch, Caesar is sometimes thought to have suffered from
epilepsy Epilepsy is a group of non-communicable neurological disorder A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system In Biology, biology, the nervous system is a Complex system, highly complex part of an animal that coordinates i ...

epilepsy
. Modern scholarship is sharply divided on the subject, and some scholars believe that he was plagued by malaria, particularly during the Sullan proscriptions of the 80s BC. Other scholars contend his epileptic seizures were due to a by a tapeworm. Caesar had four documented episodes of what may have been complex partial seizures. He may additionally have had
absence seizure Absence seizures are one of several kinds of generalized seizures. These seizures are sometimes referred to as petit mal seizures (from the French for "little illness", a term dating from the late 18th century). Absence seizures are characterize ...
s in his youth. The earliest accounts of these seizures were made by the biographer Suetonius, who was born after Caesar died. The claim of epilepsy is countered among some medical historians by a claim of
hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is a fall in blood sugar The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the concentration of glucose Glucose is a simple with the . Glucose is the most abundant , a ...

hypoglycemia
, which can cause epileptoid seizures. In 2003, psychiatrist Harbour F. Hodder published what he termed as the "Caesar Complex" theory, arguing that Caesar was a sufferer of
temporal lobe epilepsy Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic disorder of the nervous system In Biology, biology, the nervous system is a Complex system, highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its Behavior, actions and Sense, sensory information by ...
and the debilitating symptoms of the condition were a factor in Caesar's conscious decision to forgo personal safety in the days leading up to his assassination. A line from Shakespeare has sometimes been taken to mean that he was deaf in one ear: "Come on my right hand, for this ear is deaf". No classical source mentions hearing impairment in connection with Caesar. The playwright may have been making metaphorical use of a passage in Plutarch that does not refer to deafness at all, but rather to a gesture Alexander of Macedon customarily made. By covering his ear, Alexander indicated that he had turned his attention from an accusation in order to hear the defence. Francesco M. Galassi and Hutan Ashrafian suggest that Caesar's behavioral manifestations—headaches, vertigo, falls (possibly caused by muscle weakness due to nerve damage), sensory deficit, giddiness and insensibility—and syncopal episodes were the results of cerebrovascular episodes, not epilepsy. Pliny the Elder reports in his ''
Natural History Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecul ...
'' that Caesar's father and forefather died without apparent cause while putting on their shoes. These events can be more readily associated with cardiovascular complications from a stroke episode or lethal heart attack. Caesar possibly had a genetic predisposition for cardiovascular disease.
Suetonius Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus (), commonly known as Suetonius ( ; c. AD 69 – after AD 122), was a Roman historianRoman historiography stretches back to at least the 3rd century BC and was indebted to earlier Greek historiography. The Romans ...

Suetonius
, writing more than a century after Caesar's death, describes Caesar as "tall of stature with a fair complexion, shapely limbs, a somewhat full face, and keen black eyes".


Name and family


The name Gaius Julius Caesar

Using the
Latin alphabet The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originally used by the ancient Romans In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived ...

Latin alphabet
of the period, which lacked the letters ''J'' and ''U'', Caesar's name would be rendered ''GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR''; the form ''CAIVS'' is also attested, using the older Roman representation of ''G'' by ''C''. The standard abbreviation was ''C. IVLIVS CÆSAR'', reflecting the older spelling. (The letterform ''Æ'' is a ligature (typography), ligature of the letters ''A'' and ''E'', and is often used in Latin inscriptions to save space.) In Classical Latin, it was Latin spelling and pronunciation, pronounced [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuːl.i.ʊs ˈkae̯sar]. In the days of the late Roman Republic, many historical writings were done in Greek, a language most educated Romans studied. Young wealthy Roman boys were often taught by Greek slaves and sometimes sent to Athens for advanced training, as was Caesar's principal assassin,
Brutus Marcus Junius Brutus (; 85 BC – 23 October 42 BC), often referred to simply as Brutus, was a Roman senator and the most famous of assassination of Julius Caesar, the assassins of Julius Caesar. After being adopted by Quintus Servilius Caepio (u ...
. In Ancient Greek, Greek, during Caesar's time, his family name was written Καίσαρ (''Kaísar''), reflecting its contemporary pronunciation. Thus, his name is pronounced in a similar way to the pronunciation of the German ''
Kaiser ''Kaiser'' is the German word for "emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, m ...

Kaiser
'' () or Dutch ''Emperor, keizer'' (). In Vulgar Latin, the original diphthong first began to be pronounced as a simple long vowel . Then, the Stop consonant, plosive before front vowels began, due to Palatalization (sound change), palatalization, to be pronounced as an affricate, hence renderings like in Italian language, Italian and in German language, German Latin regional pronunciation, regional pronunciations of Latin, as well as the title of
Tsar , by Ivan Makarov Tsar ( or ), also spelled ''czar'', ''tzar'', or ''csar'', is a Royal and noble ranks, title used to designate East and South Slavic monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mi ...

Tsar
. With the evolution of the Romance languages, the affricate became a Fricative consonant, fricative (thus, ) in many regional pronunciations, including the French one, from which the modern English pronunciation is derived. Caesar's
cognomen A ''cognomen'' (; plural ''cognomina''; from ''con-'' "together with" and ''(g)nomen'' "name") was the third name of a citizen of , under . Initially, it was a , but lost that purpose when it became hereditary. Hereditary ''cognomina'' were used t ...
itself became a title; it was promulgated by the Bible, which contains the famous verse "Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's, and unto God the things that are God's". The title became, from the late first millennium, ''
Kaiser ''Kaiser'' is the German word for "emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, m ...

Kaiser
'' in German language, German and (through Old Church Slavic ''cěsarĭ'')
Tsar , by Ivan Makarov Tsar ( or ), also spelled ''czar'', ''tzar'', or ''csar'', is a Royal and noble ranks, title used to designate East and South Slavic monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mi ...

Tsar
or Czar in the Slavic languages. The last Tsar in nominal power was Simeon II of Bulgaria, whose reign ended in 1946. This means that for approximately two thousand years, there was at least one head of state bearing his name. As a term for the highest ruler, the word Caesar constitutes one of the earliest, best attested and most widespreak Latin loanwords in the Germanic languages, being found in the Text corpus, text corpora of Old High German (''keisar''), Old Saxon (''kēsur''), Old English (''cāsere''), Old Norse (''keisari''), Old Dutch (''keisere'') and (through Koine Greek, Greek) Gothic language, Gothic (''kaisar'').


Posterity

;Wives * First marriage to Cornelia (wife of Caesar), Cornelia (Cinnilla), from 84 BC until her death in 69 or 68 BC * Second marriage to Pompeia, from 67 BC until he divorced her around 61 BC over the Publius Clodius Pulcher#Bona Dea scandal, Bona Dea scandal * Third marriage to Calpurnia, from 59 BC until Caesar's death ;Children *
Julia Julia is usually a feminine given name. It is a Latinate feminine form of the name Julio (given name), Julio and Julius. (For further details on etymology, see wikt:Iulius#Latin, Wiktionary entry “Julius”.) The given name ''Julia'' had been ...
, by Cornelia, born in 83 or 82 BC *
Caesarion Ptolemy XV Caesar). (; grc-koi, Πτολεμαῖος, ; 23 June 47 BC – August 30 BC), nicknamed Caesarion (), was the last pharaoh Pharaoh ( , ; cop, , Pǝrro) is the vernacular, common title now used for the monarchs of ancient Eg ...

Caesarion
, by Cleopatra VII, born 47 BC, and killed at age 17 by Caesar's adopted son Octavianus. * ''Posthumously adopted'': Augustus, Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, his great-nephew by blood (grandson of Julia Minor (sister of Caesar), Julia, his sister), who later became Emperor Augustus. Suspected Children * Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger, Marcus Junius Brutus (born 85 BC): The historian Plutarch notes that Caesar believed Brutus to have been his illegitimate son, as his mother Servilia (mother of Marcus Junius Brutus), Servilia had been Caesar's lover during their youth. Caesar would have been 15 years old when Brutus was born. * Junia Tertia (born ''ca.'' 60s BC), the daughter of Caesar's lover Servilia (mother of Marcus Junius Brutus), Servilia was believed by Cicero among other contemporaries, to be Caesar's natural daughter. *
Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus (27 April 81 BC – September 43 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', sh ...
(born ''ca.'' 85–81 BC): On several occasions Caesar expressed how he loved Decimus Brutus like a son. This Brutus was also named an heir of Caesar in case Octavius had died before the latter. Ronald Syme argued that if a Brutus was the natural son of Caesar, Decimus was more likely than Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger, Marcus. ;Grandchildren Grandchild from
Julia Julia is usually a feminine given name. It is a Latinate feminine form of the name Julio (given name), Julio and Julius. (For further details on etymology, see wikt:Iulius#Latin, Wiktionary entry “Julius”.) The given name ''Julia'' had been ...
and
Pompey Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (; 29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a leading Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization f ...
, dead at several days, unnamed. ;Lovers *
Cleopatra Cleopatra VII Philopator ( grc-gre, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ}; 69 BC10 August 30 BC) was queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, Egypt from 51 to 30 BC, and its last active ruler.She was also a diplomat, Ancient ...

Cleopatra
, mother of
Caesarion Ptolemy XV Caesar). (; grc-koi, Πτολεμαῖος, ; 23 June 47 BC – August 30 BC), nicknamed Caesarion (), was the last pharaoh Pharaoh ( , ; cop, , Pǝrro) is the vernacular, common title now used for the monarchs of ancient Eg ...

Caesarion
* Servilia (mother of Brutus), Servilia, mother of Brutus * Eunoë (wife of Bogudes), Eunoë, queen of Mauretania and wife of Bogudes


Rumors of passive homosexuality

Roman society viewed the passive role during Sexuality in ancient Rome, sexual activity, regardless of gender, to be a sign of submission or inferiority. Indeed, Suetonius says that in Caesar's Gallic triumph, his soldiers sang that, "Caesar may have conquered the Gauls, but Nicomedes conquered Caesar."Suetonius, ''Julius'
49
According to Cicero, Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, Bibulus, Gaius Memmius (poet), Gaius Memmius, and others (mainly Caesar's enemies), he had an affair with Nicomedes IV of Bithynia early in his career. The stories were repeated, referring to Caesar as the Queen of Bithynia, by some Roman politicians as a way to humiliate him. Caesar himself denied the accusations repeatedly throughout his lifetime, and according to Cassius Dio, even under oath on one occasion.Suetonius, ''Julius'
49
; Cassius Dio, ''Roman History'

/ref> This form of slander was popular during this time in the Roman Republic to demean and discredit political opponents. Catullus wrote two poems suggesting that Caesar and his engineer Mamurra were lovers, but later apologised.
Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony, was a Ancient Rome, Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the Crisis of the Roman Republic, transformation of the Roman Republic f ...
charged that Octavian had earned his adoption by Caesar through sexual favors. Suetonius described Antony's accusation of an affair with Octavian as political slander. Octavian eventually became the first Roman Emperor as Augustus.Suetonius, ''Augustus'
68
/ref>


Literary works

During his lifetime, Caesar was regarded as one of the best orators and prose authors in Latin —even Cicero spoke highly of Caesar's rhetoric and style. Only Caesar's war commentaries have survived. A few sentences from other works are quoted by other authors. Among his lost works are Laudatio Iuliae amitae, his funeral oration for his paternal aunt Julia (aunt of Caesar and wife of Marius), Julia and his ''Anticato'', a document written to defame
Cato Cato typically refers to either Cato the Elder or Cato the Younger, both of the Porcii Catones family of Rome. It may also refer to any of the following: People Romans, in the family Porcii Catones * Cato the Elder (Cato Maior) or "the Censor" ...
in response to Cicero's published praise. Poems by Julius Caesar are also mentioned in ancient sources.


Memoirs

* The ''Commentarii de Bello Gallico'', usually known in English as ''The Gallic Wars,'' seven books each covering one year of his campaigns in Gaul and southern Britain in the 50s BC, with the eighth book written by Aulus Hirtius on the last two years. * The ''Commentarii de Bello Civili'' (''The Civil War''), events of the Civil War from Caesar's perspective, until immediately after Pompey's death in Egypt. Other works historically have been attributed to Caesar, but their authorship is in doubt: * ''De Bello Alexandrino'' (''On the Alexandrine War''), campaign in Alexandria; * ''De Bello Africo'' (''On the African War''), campaigns in North Africa; and * ''De Bello Hispaniensi'' (''On the Hispanic War''), campaigns in the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former kingdom in Spain * the Aragonese people, those originating from or living in the historical region ...

Iberian Peninsula
. These narratives were written and published annually during or just after the actual campaigns, as a sort of "dispatches from the front". They were important in shaping Caesar's public image and enhancing his reputation when he was away from Rome for long periods. They may have been presented as public readings. As a model of clear and direct Latin style, ''The Gallic Wars'' traditionally has been studied by first- or second-year Latin students.


Legacy


Historiography

The texts written by Caesar, an autobiography of the most important events of his public life, are the most complete primary source for the reconstruction of his biography. However, Caesar wrote those texts with his political career in mind, so historians must filter the exaggerations and bias contained in it. Julius Caesar is also considered one of the first historical figures to fold his message scrolls into a concertina form, which made them easier to read. The Roman emperor
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
began a cult of personality of Caesar, which described Augustus as Caesar's political heir. The modern historiography is influenced by the Octavian traditions, such as when Caesar's epoch is considered a turning point in the history of the Roman Empire. Still, historians try to filter the Octavian bias. Many rulers in history became interested in the Roman historiography, historiography of Caesar. Napoleon III wrote the scholarly work ''Histoire de Jules César'', which was not finished. The second volume listed previous rulers interested in the topic. Charles VIII of France, Charles VIII ordered a monk to prepare a translation of the ''Gallic Wars'' in 1480. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V ordered a topographic study in France, to place The Gallic Wars in context; which created forty high-quality maps of the conflict. The contemporary Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent catalogued the surviving editions of the ''Commentaries'', and translated them to Turkish language. Henry IV of France, Henry IV and Louis XIII of France, Louis XIII of France translated the first two commentaries and the last two respectively; Louis XIV of France, Louis XIV retranslated the first one afterwards.


Politics

Julius Caesar is seen as the main example of '' Caesarism'', a form of political rule led by a charismatic Strongman (politics), strongman whose rule is based upon a cult of personality, whose rationale is the need to rule by force, establishing a violent social order, and being a regime involving prominence of the military in the government. Other people in history, such as the French Napoleon Bonaparte and the Italian Benito Mussolini, have defined themselves as Caesarists. Bonaparte did not focus only on Caesar's military career but also on his relation with the masses, a predecessor to populism.Canfora, pp. 12–13 The word is also used in a pejorative manner by critics of this type of political rule.


Depictions

File:Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 BC).JPG, Bust in Naples National Archaeological Museum, photograph published in 1902 Giulio-cesare-enhanced 1-800x1450.jpg, Bust in the National Archaeological Museum of Naples File:C. Julius-Caesar (British Museum).gif, Bust of Julius Caesar from the British Museum File:Rimini083.jpg, Modern bronze statue of Julius Caesar, Rimini, Italy


Battle record


Chronology


See also

* ''
Et tu, Brute? File:Caesar-Northern-Star-1937.jpg, upright=2.0, 369px, Photograph of the Mercury Theatre production of Caesar, the scene in which Julius Caesar (Joseph Holland (actor), Joseph Holland, center) addresses the conspirators including Brutus (Orson ...
'' * Gaius Julius Caesar (name) * ''
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened ...
'', a play by William Shakespeare ( 1599) * ''Giulio Cesare'', an opera by Handel, 1724 * ''Veni, vidi, vici'' * Caesareum of Alexandria * Caesar cipher


References


Sources


Primary sources


Own writings


Dickinson College Commentaries: Selections from the ''Gallic War''


in Latin and translation * * * *


Ancient historians' writings



(English translation)

(English translation)

(English translation, Dryden edition)

(English translation)

(English translation)

(Latin and English, cross-linked: the English translation by J. C. Rolfe)

(J. C. Rolfe English translation, modified)


Secondary sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links

* * * *
Guide to online resources



Julius Caesar
a
BBC History
* Grey, D
The Assassination of Caesar
Clio History Journal, 2009.
Caesar: Courage and Charisma
* {{DEFAULTSORT:Julius Caesar, Gaius Julius Caesar, 100 BC births 44 BC deaths 1st-century BC historians 1st-century BC Roman augurs 1st-century BC Roman consuls 1st-century BC rulers 1st-century BC writers Ancient Roman dictators Ancient Roman generals Ancient Roman writers Assassinated heads of state Assassinated military personnel Assassinated Roman politicians Characters in Book VI of the Aeneid Characters in works by Geoffrey of Monmouth Cleopatra Correspondents of Cicero Curule aediles Deaths by stabbing in Rome Deified Roman people First Triumvirate Flamines Dialis Golden Age Latin writers Julii Caesares, Gaius Latin-language writers Male murder victims Memoirists People captured by pirates Pontifices maximi of the Roman Republic Populares Roman governors of Hispania Roman military writers Roman Republican praetors Roman triumphators