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''Juglans regia'', the Persian walnut, English walnut, Carpathian walnut, Madeira walnut, or especially in Great Britain, common walnut, is an
Old World The Old World consists of Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous , after in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of 's total su ...
walnut A walnut is the Nut (fruit), nut of any tree of the genus ''Juglans'' (family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, ''Juglans regia''. A walnut is the edible seed of a drupe, and thus not a true botanical nut. It is com ...
tree species native to the region stretching from the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rathe ...

Balkans
eastward to the
Himalayas The Himalayas, or Himalaya (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Ind ...

Himalayas
and southwest China. It is widely cultivated across Europe. It is the origin of cultivated varieties which produce the edible walnut, consumed around the world. China is the major commercial producer of walnuts.


Description

''Juglans regia'' is a large
deciduous In the fields of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists are agriculturists who grow flowers, fruits and nuts, ...
tree, attaining heights of 25–35 m (80 to 120 ft), and a trunk up to 2 m (6 ft) in diameter, commonly with a short trunk and broad crown, though taller and narrower in dense forest competition. It is a light-demanding species, requiring full sun to grow well. The bark is smooth, olive-brown when young and silvery-grey on older branches, and features scattered broad fissures with a rougher texture. Like all walnuts, the
pith shoot cut longitudinally to show the broad, solid pith (rough-textured, white) inside the wood (smooth, yellow-tinged). Scale in mm. shoot cut longitudinally to show the chambered pith found in this genus. Scale in mm. Image:Taxus wood.jpg, 250 ...
of the twigs contains air spaces; this chambered pith is brownish in color. The
leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together form the shoot system. Leaves are ...

leaves
are alternately arranged, 25–40 cm (10 to 16 in) long, odd-
pinnate Pinnation (also called pennation) is the arrangement of feather Feathers are epidermal growths that form a distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on dinosaurs, both avian (bird) and some non-avian (non-bird) and possibly other archosaur ...
with 5–9 leaflets, paired alternately with one terminal leaflet. The largest leaflets are the three at the apex, 10–18 cm (4 to 7 in) long and 6–8 cm (2 to 3 in) broad; the basal pair of leaflets are much smaller, 5–8 cm (2 to 3 in) long, with the margins of the leaflets entire. The male flowers are in drooping
catkin A catkin or ament is a slim, cylindrical flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biologica ...

catkin
s 5–10 cm (2 to 4 in) long, and the female flowers are terminal, in clusters of two to five, ripening in the autumn into a
fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the ...

fruit
with a green, semifleshy husk and a brown, corrugated
nut Nut often refers to: * Nut (fruit), a fruit composed of a hard shell and a seed * Nut (food), collective noun for dry and edible fruits or seeds * Nut (hardware), a fastener used with a bolt Nut or Nuts may also refer to: Places * Nomenclature of ...
. The whole fruit, including the husk, falls in autumn; the
seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was released to generally positi ...

seed
is large, with a relatively thin shell, and edible, with a rich flavour.


Etymology

The
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
name for the walnut was ''nux Gallica'', " nut"; the Gaulish region of Galatia in Anatolia lies in highlands at the western end of the tree's presumed natural distribution. For the etymology and meaning of the word in English and other Germanic languages, see "
walnut A walnut is the Nut (fruit), nut of any tree of the genus ''Juglans'' (family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, ''Juglans regia''. A walnut is the edible seed of a drupe, and thus not a true botanical nut. It is com ...

walnut
". "Walnut" does not distinguish the tree from other species of ''Juglans''. Other names include common walnut in
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...

Britain
; Persian walnut in South Africa and Australia; and English walnut in North America and Great Britain, New Zealand, and Australia, the latter name possibly because English sailors were prominent in ''Juglans regia'' nut distribution at one time. Alternatively, Walter Fox Allen stated in his 1912 treatise ''What You Need to Know About Planting, Cultivating and Harvesting this Most Delicious of Nuts'': "In America, it has commonly been known as English walnut to distinguish it from our native species." In the
Chinese language Chinese ( or also , especially for the written language) is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic lan ...
, the edible, cultivated walnut is called (''hú táo'' in Mandarin), which means literally "Hu peach", suggesting the ancient Chinese associated the introduction of the tree into East Asia with the Hu barbarians of the regions north and northwest of China. In Mexico, it is called ', suggesting the Mexicans associated the introduction of the tree into Mexico with Spaniards from Castile (as opposed to the black walnuts native to North America). The Old English term ''wealhhnutu'' is a late book-name (Old English Vocabularies, Wright & Wulker), so the remark that the Anglo-Saxons inherited the walnut tree from the Romans does not follow from this name. Old English: walhhnutu is wealh (foreign) + hnutu (nut). Etymologically it "meant the nut of the Roman lands (Gaul and Italy) as distinguished from the native
hazel The hazel (''Corylus'') is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxon ...

hazel
" according to the Oxford English Dictionary.


Distribution and habitat


Original habitat

One of the centers of origin and diversity of ''Juglans regia'' is Iran. However, as with other old and widespread cultivated plants, it is not easy to reconstruct the original distribution and determine the borders of the past natural ranges. There are many reports concerning the earliest fossil pollen and nuts of ''J. regia'', and the conclusions that various authors draw are somewhat contradictory. Taken together these finds suggest that ''J. regia'' possibly survived the last glaciations in several refugia, as the compilation of the data shows most likely southern Europe, the Near East, China, and the Himalaya. The largest forests are in
Kyrgyzstan russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto = " ...

Kyrgyzstan
, where trees occur in extensive forests at altitude, notably at Arslanbob in
Jalal-Abad Province Jalal-Abad Region, also known as Jalalabat ( ky, Жалалабат облусу), is a region (''oblast'') of Kyrgyzstan. Its capital is the city of the same name, Jalal-Abad. It is surrounded by (clockwise from the north) Talas Region, Chuy Re ...
.


Introduction around the world

In the fourth century BC,
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title ...

Alexander the Great
introduced this "Persian nut" (
Theophrastus Theophrastus (; grc-gre, Θεόφραστος ; c. 371c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos Eresos (; el, Ερεσός; grc, Ἔρεσος) and its twin beach village Skala Eresou are located in the southwest part of the Greek island of Le ...

Theophrastus
' καρυα ή Περσική) in Macedonian, Ancient Greek ancestral forms with lateral fruiting from Iran and Central Asia. They hybridized with terminal-bearing forms to give lateral-bearing trees with larger fruit. These lateral-bearers were spread in southern Europe and northern Africa by Romans. Recent prospections in walnut populations of the Mediterrean Basin allowed to select interesting trees of this type. In the Middle Ages, the lateral-bearing character was introduced again in southern Turkey by merchants travelling along the Silk Road. ''J. regia'' germplasm in China is thought to have been introduced from Central Asia about 2000 years ago, and in some areas has become naturalized. Cultivated ''J. regia'' was introduced into western and northern Europe very early, in
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...

Roman
times or earlier, and to the Americas in the 17th century, by English colonists. Important nut-growing regions include California in the United States; France,
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may ref ...

Serbia
, Greece,
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...

Bulgaria
,
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
and Hungary in Europe; China in Asia;
Baja California Baja CaliforniaSometimes informally referred to as ('North Lower California') to distinguish it from both the Baja California Peninsula The Baja California Peninsula ( en, Lower California Peninsula, es, Península de Baja California) is a ...
and
Coahuila Coahuila (), formally Coahuila de Zaragoza (), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila de Zaragoza ( es, Estado Libre y Soberano de Coahuila de Zaragoza), is one of the 32 Administrative divisions of Mexico, states of Mexico. Coahuil ...
in
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
; and
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern ...

Chile
in Latin America. Lately, cultivation has spread to other regions, such as New Zealand and the southeast of Australia. It is cultivated extensively from 30° to 50° of latitude in the Northern Hemisphere and from 30° to 40° in the Southern Hemisphere. Its high-quality fruits are eaten both fresh or pressed for their richly flavored oil; numerous
cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
s have been selected for larger nuts with thinner shells.


Life cycle

File:Juglans-regia-buds.jpg, Buds File:Juglans regia 04.JPG, Fertilized flowers File:Noix-noyer.jpg, Seedling File:Juglans regia young.jpg, Young tree File:Juglans-regia-total.JPG, Mature tree


Nutrition

English walnut kernels are 4% water, 65%
fat In nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided ...

fat
, 15%
protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No ...

protein
, and 14%
carbohydrate A carbohydrate () is a biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a ...
s (table). In a 100 gram reference amount providing 654
calorie The calorie is a unit of energy Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT, a fictional military organization in the science fiction television series ''Doctor Who'' * Unit of action, a di ...
s, the kernels supply several
dietary minerals In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemica ...
in rich content (20% or more of the
Daily Value The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) used in nutrition labeling on food and dietary supplement products in the U.S. and Canada is the daily intake level of a nutrient A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. The ...
, DV), including
manganese Manganese is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical e ...

manganese
(162% DV),
phosphorus Phosphorus is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical el ...

phosphorus
(49% DV),
magnesium Magnesium is a chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science ...

magnesium
(45% DV),
zinc Zinc is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical element ...

zinc
(33% DV), and
iron Iron () is a with Fe (from la, ) and 26. It is a that belongs to the and of the . It is, on , right in front of (32.1% and 30.1%, respectively), forming much of Earth's and . It is the fourth most common . In its metallic state, iron ...

iron
(22% DV) among others, the
B vitamins B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamin A vitamin is an organic molecule , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond ...
, B6 (42% DV),
thiamine Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin A vitamin is an organic molecule , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen ...

thiamine
(30% DV), and
folate Folate, also known as vitamin B9 and folacin, is one of the B vitamins. Manufactured folic acid, which is converted into folate by the body, is used as a dietary supplement and in food fortification as it is more stable during processing and ...
(25% DV), and
dietary fiber Dietary fiber (British spelling fibre) or roughage is the portion of plant-derived food that cannot be completely broken down by human digestive enzyme Digestive may refer to: Biology *Digestion Digestion is the breakdown of large insolub ...
(table). One study of various
cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
s of ''J. regia'' in
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
showed the
fatty acid In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during ...
composition included about 6%
palmitic acid Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations t ...

palmitic acid
, 3%
stearic acid Stearic acid ( , ) is a saturated fatty acid fatty acids have perfectly straight chain structure. Unsaturated ones are typically bent, unless they have a trans configuration. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved ...

stearic acid
, 30%
oleic acid Oleic acid is a fatty acid In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and t ...

oleic acid
, 50%
linoleic acid Linoleic acid is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules ...

linoleic acid
, and 9%
linolenic acid Linolenic acid is a type of fatty acid fatty acids have perfectly straight chain structure. Unsaturated ones are typically bent, unless they have a trans configuration. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Ch ...
.


Allergy

Walnuts and other tree nuts are food allergen sources having potential to cause life-threatening,
IgE IGE (Internet Gaming Entertainment) is a company which trades in virtual currency Virtual currency, or virtual money, is a type of unregulated, decentralized, digital currency Digital currency (digital money, electronic money or electronic ...

IgE
-mediated
allergic reaction Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, i ...
s in some individuals.


Culture

In
Skopelos Skopelos ( el, Σκόπελος, ) is a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. It ...

Skopelos
, a Greek island in the Aegean Sea, local legend suggests whoever plants a walnut tree will die as soon as the tree can "see" the sea. Most planting is done by field rats (subfamily
Murinae The Old World rats and mice, part of the subfamily In biological classification, a subfamily (Latin: ', plural ') is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank, next below family (biology), family but more inclusive than genus. Standard nomen ...
). In
Flanders Flanders (, ; Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * ...

Flanders
, a folk
saying A saying is any concisely written or spoken expression (linguistics), expression that is especially memorable because of its meaning or style. Sayings are categorized as follows: * Aphorism: a general, observational truth; "a pithy expression of w ...

saying
states: "By the time the tree is big, the planter surely will be dead." ('' nl, Boompje groot, plantertje dood''). These sayings refer to the relatively slow growth rate and late fruiting of the tree.
Benevento Benevento (, , ; la, Beneventum; Beneventano: ''Beneviénte'') is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , ...

Benevento
in southern Italy is the home of an ancient tradition of '' stregoneria''. The
witches of Benevento The history or legend of the witches of Benevento is folklore Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. These include oral tra ...
were reputed to come from all over Italy to gather for their
sabbats The Wheel of the Year is an annual cycle of seasonal festivals, observed by many Modern Paganism, modern Pagans, consisting of the year's chief solar events (solstices and equinoxes) and the midpoints between them. While names for each festival ...
under the sacred walnut tree of Benevento. In 1526, Judge Paolo Grillandi wrote of witches in Benevento who worship a goddess at the site of an old walnut tree. This legend inspired many cultural works, including the 1812 ballet '' Il Noce di Benevento'' (the walnut tree of Benevento) by
Salvatore Viganò Salvatore Viganò (March 25, 1769 – August 10, 1821), was an Italian choreographer Choreography is the art or practice of designing sequence In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed a ...
and Franz Xaver Süssmayr, a theme from which was adapted into a violin piece called ''Le Streghe'' by
Niccolò Paganini Niccolò (or Nicolò) Paganini (; 27 October 178227 May 1840) was an Italian violinist and composer. He was the most celebrated violin virtuoso A virtuoso (from Italian ''virtuoso'' or , "virtuous", Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas ...
. The Beneventan liqueur
StregaStrega, the Italian word for ''witch'', may refer to: *Strega, a group of pagan magic users who are part of the protectors of Venice in the Heirs of Alexandria series by Mercedes Lackey, Eric Flint, and Dave Freer *Stregheria, or the Strega traditio ...
depicts on its label the famous walnut tree with the witches dancing under it.


Cultivation

Walnut trees grow best in rich, deep soil with full sun and long summers, such as the California central valley. ''
Juglans hindsii ''Juglans hindsii'', commonly called the Northern California black walnut and Hinds's black walnut, is a species of walnut tree Walnut trees are any species of tree in the plant genus ''Juglans'', the type genus of the family (biology), family ...
'' and ''J. hindsii'' × ''J. regia'' are often used as grafting stock for ''J. regia''. Other plants often will not grow under walnut trees because the fallen leaves and husks contain
juglone Juglone, also called 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedione (IUPAC The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries. It i ...

juglone
, a chemical which acts as a natural herbicide. Horses that eat walnut leaves may develop
laminitis Laminitis is a disease that affects the feet of ungulates Ungulates (pronounced ) are members of a diverse clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', "branch"), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms ...
, a hoof ailment. Mature trees may reach in height and width, and live more than 200 years, developing massive trunks more than thick.


Cultivars

'' See list of most planted cultivars in article
walnut A walnut is the Nut (fruit), nut of any tree of the genus ''Juglans'' (family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, ''Juglans regia''. A walnut is the edible seed of a drupe, and thus not a true botanical nut. It is com ...

walnut
'' Walnut
cultivars A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
include:


Pests

''Juglans regia'' is infested by '' Rhagoletis juglandis'', commonly known as the walnut husk fly, which lays its eggs in the husks of walnut fruit. Particular cultivars of ''J. regia'' may be more infested than others because of varying walnut husk softness or thickness. 'Eureka', 'Klondike', 'Payne', 'Franquette' and 'Ehrhardt' cultivars are among the most susceptible to infestation.


Production

In 2019, world production of shelled walnuts was 4.5 million
tonne The tonne ( or ; symbol: t) is a metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilogram The kilogram (also kilogramme) is the base unit of mass Mass is the physical quantity, quantity of ''matter'' in a physical body. It is also a meas ...
s, led by China with 56% of the total harvested (table). Secondary producers were the United States and Iran.


Other uses

The
Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
Navajo The Navajo (; British English: Navaho; nv, Diné or ') are a Native American people Native Americans, also known as American Indians, First Americans, Indigenous Americans and #Terminology differences, other terms, are the Indigenous peop ...

Navajo
tribe has been documented using the hulls of the nut to create a brown dye.Elmore, Francis H., 1944, Ethnobotany of the Navajo, Santa Fe, NM. School of American Research, page 39


Wood

Walnut
heartwood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. ...

heartwood
is a heavy, hard, open-grained hardwood. Freshly cut live wood may be Dijon-mustard colour, darkening to brown over a few days. The dried lumber is a rich chocolate-brown to black, with cream to tan , and may feature unusual figures, such as "curly", "bee's wing", "bird's eye", and "rat tail", among others. It is prized by fine woodworkers for its durability, lustre and chatoyance, and is used for high-end
flooring Flooring is the general term for a permanent covering of a floor A floor is the bottom surface of a room or vehicle. Floors vary from simple dirt in a cave to many-layered surfaces made with modern technology. Floors may be stone, wood, bamb ...

flooring
,
guitars The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that typically has six string instrument, strings. It is held flat against the player's body and played by strumming or Plucked string instrument, plucking the strings with the dominant hand, while sim ...

guitars
,
furniture Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools, and sofas), eating (table (furniture), tables), and sleeping (e.g., beds). Furniture is also used to hold objects at a con ...

furniture
, veneers, and handles as well as gunstocks.


Gallery

File:Juglans_regia_-_Köhler–s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-081.jpg, Taxonomic keys File:Walnuss_Blüte.jpg, Male flower File:Juglans flower female 20050526 064.jpg, Female flower File:Juglans regia 2009 G2.jpg, Fruit File:Juglans regia Echte Walnußfrucht 3.JPG, Seed File:Bark of Juglans regia 01.jpg, Bark File:Juglans-regia.JPG, Foliage File:Walnussbaum-alt.jpg, Habit File:Juglans regia autumn 2009.jpg, Habit (autumn) File:Walnuts2.jpg, Walnuts


See also

*
Black walnut ''Juglans nigra'', the eastern American black walnut, is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is of ...

Black walnut
*


References


External links


''Juglans regia''
- information, genetic conservation units and related resources.
European Forest Genetic Resources Programme European Forest Genetic Resources Programme (EUFORGEN) is an international network that supports the conservation and sustainable use of forest genetic resourcesForest genetic resources or forest tree genetic resources are genetic material of fore ...

Flora of Pakistan: ''Juglans regia''
{{Authority control
regia The Regia ("Royal house") was a two-part structure in Ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the ear ...
Edible nuts and seeds Trees of Asia Trees of Europe Trees of the Indian subcontinent Trees of Western Asia Flora of Central Asia Flora of China Flora of England Flora of Kyrgyzstan Flora of India (region) Flora of Iran Flora of Xinjiang Flora of Ukraine Medicinal plants of Asia Medicinal plants of Europe Plant dyes Plants described in 1753
Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus Taxonomy (biology), Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus (1707−1778), an 18th-century Swedish taxonomist, botanist, and zoologist. Known as the "father of modern taxonomy" – from his inventing and developing binomial nomenclature; the taxonomy (biology) ...
Garden plants of Asia * originally native to . {{CatAutoTOC G Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares t ...
Garden plants of Europe Ornamental trees
Fruit trees Fruit trees are trees which bear fruit that is consumed or used by humans and some animals. All trees that are flowering plants produce fruit, which are the ripened ovary (plants), ovaries of flowers containing one or more seeds. In horticulture, h ...
Trees of Nepal