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The Jammu Division () is a revenue and administrative division within
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
, a union territory of
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
. It consists of the
districts A district is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic ...
of
Jammu Jammu is the winter capital Some countries have multiple capitals. In some cases, one city is the capital for some purposes, and one or more others are capital for other purposes, without any being considered an official capital in preferen ...
,
Doda
Doda
,
Kathua Kathua (kəˈθʊə) is a city located in the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir, near its border with Pakistan,Punjab, India, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. The town is headquarters of Kathua district, the district and is divided into 27 Munici ...
, Ramban,
Reasi Reasi is a town and a notified area committee and tehsil in the Indian States and union territories of India, union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. Situated at the bank of River Chenab, it is the headquarter ...
,
Kishtwar Kishtwar is a municipality in the Kishtwar District #REDIRECT Kishtwar district Kishtwar District is a District (India), district of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir of India. As of 20 ...
, Poonch,
Rajouri Rajouri or Rajauri (, sa, राजपुरी, ) is a town in Rajouri district Rajouri (or Rajauri) is a district of Jammu region in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia ...

Rajouri
,
Udhampur Udhampur (ˌʊd̪ʱəmpur) is a city and a municipal committee in Udhampur district in the Indian States and territories of India, union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters of Udhampur di ...

Udhampur
and
Samba Samba (), also known as samba urbano carioca (''urban Carioca samba'') or simply samba carioca (''Carioca samba'') is a Brazilian music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the ...
. Most of the land is hilly or mountainous, including the
Pir Panjal Range The Pir Panjal Range (Kashmiri: ) is a group of mountains in the Lesser Himalayan region, running from east-southeast (ESE) to west-northwest (WNW) across the Indian territories of Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the ...

Pir Panjal Range
which separates it from the Kashmir Valley and part of the Great Himalayas in the eastern districts of Doda and Kishtwar. Its principal river is the
Chenab The Chenab River ( pa, چَنّھاں, translit=cannhāṉ; ur, , translit=canāb; ) is a major river that flows in India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), ...

Chenab
.
Jammu Jammu is the winter capital Some countries have multiple capitals. In some cases, one city is the capital for some purposes, and one or more others are capital for other purposes, without any being considered an official capital in preferen ...

Jammu
city is the largest city in Jammu and the winter capital of Jammu and Kashmir. It is also known as "City of Temples" as it has many temples and
shrines A shrine ( la, scrinium "case or chest for books or papers"; Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as ...
, with glittering '' shikhars'' soaring into the sky, which dot the city's skyline, creating the ambiance of a holy and peaceful city. Home to some of the most revered Hindu shrines, such as
Vaishno Devi Vaishno Devi (also known as Mata Rani, Trikuta, Ambe and Vaishnavi) is a manifestation of the Hindu Mother Goddess, Devi Devī (Sanskrit: देवी) is the Sanskrit word for 'goddess'; the masculine form is Deva (Hinduism), ''deva'' ...
, Jammu is a major
pilgrimage A pilgrimage is a journey, often into an unknown or foreign place, where a person goes in search of new or expanded meaning about their self, others, nature, or a higher good, through the experience. It can lead to a personal transformation, aft ...
centre for Hindus. A majority of Jammu's population practices
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
, while
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
and
Sikhism Sikhism () or Sikhi ( pa, ਸਿੱਖੀ ', , from pa, ਸਿੱਖ, lit=disciple', 'seeker', or 'learner, translit=Sikh, label=none)''Sikhism'' (indigenously known as ''Sikhī'') originated from the word ''Sikh'', which comes from the Sanskr ...
enjoy a strong cultural heritage in the region.


History

The hilly regions to the south and southwest of the
Kashmir Valley #REDIRECT Kashmir Valley The Kashmir Valley, also known as the ''Vale of Kashmir'', is an intermontane valley in Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until t ...

Kashmir Valley
formed the Jammu Province of the
princely state of Jammu and Kashmir A prince is a male ruler (ranked below a king of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg">Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a ...
. During the declining years of the
Mughal Empire The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, ge ...
, the region comprised 22 hill states that emerged from the Mughal suzerainty. Hutchison and Vogel, who first studied these states, called them the ''Dugar group'' of states. (''Dugar'' is a medieval term with ancient form ''Durgara'' and modern form
Dogra The Dogras or Dogra people, are an Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *Aryan invasion theor ...

Dogra
.) The state of Jammu is believed to have been the most prominent among the Dugar group, which they identified with the kingdom of ''Durgara''. The term ''Durgara'' is witnessed in a copper plate inscription from Chamba in the 11th century. The inscription refers to an attack on Chamba by the "Lord of Durgara" allied with ''Saumatikas'' and the ''Kiras'' of Chamba. However, no kingdom by that name is mentioned in the
Rajatarangini ''Rajatarangini'' (, "The River of Kings") is a metrical legendary and historical chronicle of the north-western Indian subcontinent, particularly the kings of Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr () is the northernmost geogra ...

Rajatarangini
. ''Durgara'' could have been a reference to ''Vallapura'' (modern
Billawar Billawar is a town and a notified area committee in Kathua district of the Indian States and territories of India, Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. Billawar is also a tehsil. It is also called Balaur by ...
) or ''Babbapura'' (modern Babor). Some scholars believe it to have been a regional or ethnic name current in the region. Jammu is mentioned by name in the chronicles of
Timur Timur ; chg, ''Aqsaq Temür'', 'Timur the Lame') or as ''Sahib-i-Qiran'' ( 'Lord of the Auspicious Conjunction'), his epithet. ( chg, ''Temür'', 'Iron'; 9 April 133617–19 February 1405), later Timūr Gurkānī ( chg, ''Temür Kür ...

Timur
, who invaded Delhi in 1398 and returned to Samarkand via Jammu. In the Mughal chronicles of
Babur Babur ( fa, , lit= tiger, translit= Bābur; 14 February 148326 December 1530), born Zahīr ud-Dīn Muhammad, was the founder of the Mughal Empire and first Mughal emperors, Emperor of the Mughal dynasty () in the Indian subcontinent. He ...

Babur
in the early 16th century, Jammu is mentioned as a powerful state in the Punjab hills. It is said to have been ruled by Manhas Rajputs. Emperor
Akbar Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated ...

Akbar
brought the hill kingdoms of the region under Mughal suzerainty, but the kings enjoyed considerable political autonomy. In addition to Jammu, other kingdoms of the region such as
Kishtwar Kishtwar is a municipality in the Kishtwar District #REDIRECT Kishtwar district Kishtwar District is a District (India), district of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir of India. As of 20 ...
and
Rajauri Rajouri or Rajauri (, sa, राजपुरी, ) is a town in Rajouri district Rajouri (or Rajauri) is a district of Jammu region in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia ...
were also prominently mentioned. It is evident that the Mughal empire treated these hill chiefs as allies and partners in the empire.* After the decline of the Mughal power in the 18th century, the Jammu state under Raja Dhruv Dev, of the ''Jamuwal'' (''
Jamwal Jamwal is a clan that has Rajput Rajput (from ''raja-putra'', "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the ...
'') family, asserted its supremacy among the Dugar states. Its ascent reached its peak under his successor Raja Ranjit Dev (r. 1728–1780), who was widely respected among the hill states. Towards the end of Ranjit Dev's rule, the Sikh clans of Punjab (''
misls The misls were the twelve sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, in ...
'') gained ascendancy, and Jammu began to be contested by the
Bhangi Chuhra, also known as Bhanghi and Balmiki, is a Dalit Dalit (from sa, दलित, dalita meaning "broken/scattered", hi, दलित, dalit, same meaning) is a name for people belonging to the lowest stratum castes in India, previously ...
,
Kanhaiya Krishna (, ; sa, कृष्ण, ) is a major deity in Hinduism. He is worshipped as the eighth avatar of Vishnu and also as the Svayam Bhagavan, supreme God in his own right. He is the god of protection, compassion, tenderness, and love ...
and
Sukerchakia The Sukerchakia Misl The misls were the twelve sovereign states of the Sikh Confederacy, which rose during the 18th century in the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent and is cited as one of the causes of the weakening ...
''misls''. Around 1770, the Bhangi ''misl'' attacked Jammu and forced Ranjit Dev to become a tributary. Brij Lal Dev, his successor, was defeated by the Sukerchakia chief Mahan Singh, who sacked Jammu and plundered it. Thus Jammu lost its supremacy over the surrounding country. In 1808, Jammu itself was annexed to the
Sikh Empire The Sikh Empire ( fa, , Sarkār-ē-Khālsā, lit=Government of the Khalsa; pa, , ਸਿੱਖ ਖ਼ਾਲਸਾ ਰਾਜ , Sikkh Khālsā Rāj, lit=Sikh Khalsa rule), also known as the Punjab Empire, was a state originating in the Indian ...

Sikh Empire
by
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Maharaja Ranjit Singh (2 November 1780 – 27 June 1839), popularly known as Sher-e-Punjab or "Lion of Punjab", was the first Maharaja Mahārāja (; also spelled Maharajah, Maharaj) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "gre ...

Maharaja Ranjit Singh
, the son of Mahan Singh.


Gulab Singh and the Dogra dynasty

After the Sikh conquest of Jammu,
Gulab Singh Maharaja Gulab Singh (1792–1857) was the founder of Dogra dynasty The Dogra dynasty Dogra Rajput The term Dogra Rajput refers to a number of Dogri speaking Rajput clans found in the Jammu region and parts of Himachal Pradesh. Dogra dynas ...

Gulab Singh
, a descendant of Dhruv Dev via his third son, went on to enrol in the Sikh troops. He soon distinguished himself in battles and was awarded a ''jagir'' near Jammu with an allowance to keep an independent force. After the conquest of
Kishtwar Kishtwar is a municipality in the Kishtwar District #REDIRECT Kishtwar district Kishtwar District is a District (India), district of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir of India. As of 20 ...
(1821) and the subjugation of
Rajouri Rajouri or Rajauri (, sa, राजपुरी, ) is a town in Rajouri district Rajouri (or Rajauri) is a district of Jammu region in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia ...

Rajouri
, he was made a hereditary Raja of Jammu in 1822, personally anointed by Ranjit Singh. His brother Dhyan Singh received Poonch and
Chibhal Chibhal was a princely state founded by a cadet branch of the Katoch Rajputs of Kangra-Lambagraon, Kangra in 1400. History Chibhal's first ruler was Raja Partab chand Katoch, who was the youngest son of Raja Megh chand Katoch of Kangra-Lambagrao ...
, and Suchet Singh Ramnagar. By 1827, Gulab Singh brought under his control all the principalities lying between Kashmir and Jammu. Thus the entire Jammu province came under the control of the three Jamwal brothers under the umbrella of the Sikh Empire. After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1839, the Sikh court fell into anarchy and palace intrigues took over. Gulab Singh's brothers Dhyan Singh and Suchet Singh, as well as his nephew Hira Singh, were murdered in the struggles. The relations between the Sikh court and Gulab Singh deteriorated. During the
First Anglo-Sikh War The First Anglo-Sikh War was fought between the Sikh Empire The Sikh Empire ( fa, , Sarkār-ē-Khālsā, lit=Government of the Khalsa; pa, , ਸਿੱਖ ਖ਼ਾਲਸਾ ਰਾਜ , Sikkh Khālsā Rāj, lit=Sikh Khalsa rule), al ...
(1845–1846), Gulab Singh kept aloof. He was nevertheless invited to Lahore and installed as the Prime Minister of the Sikh Empire. His actions as the Prime Minister were duplicitous and contributed to a Sikh defeat. The British decided to weaken the power of the Sikhs and set up Gulab Singh as a counterweight. Accordingly, they demanded a war indemnity from the Sikhs which included all the hilly territory between the
Ravi
Ravi
and
Indus#REDIRECT Indus River
{{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalisation {{R unprintworthy ...

Indus
rivers, and then transferred it to Gulab Singh, recognising him as an independent Maharaja. Gulab Singh paid 7.5 million Nanakshahee Rupees to the British for the transaction. Thus the princely state of
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
came into being, ruled by Gulab Singh and his descendants, known as the
Dogra dynasty The Dogra dynasty Dogra Rajput The term Dogra Rajput refers to a number of Dogri speaking Rajput clans found in the Jammu region and parts of Himachal Pradesh. Dogra dynasty, Dogra Rajput dynasty ruled Kashmir and Jammu (princely state), Jammu ...
. During the Dogra rule, Jammu in the Jammu province and Srinagar in the Kashmir province were both used as capitals, six months to a year each. Poonch and Chibhal were granted as ''jagirs'' to Dhyan Singh's surviving sons, Jawahir Singh and Moti Singh. However, Jawahir Singh got involved in conspiracies and was exiled to Punjab. Chibhal (
Bhimber Bhimber ( ur, ) is the capital of Bhimber District The Bhimber District (Urdu:ضلع بھمبر) is the southernmost district of the 10 districts of Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Is ...

Bhimber
) thus reverted to Gulab Singh, while Poonch remained under the control of Moti Singh and his descendants under the suzerainty of Jammu and Kashmir.


Partition and accession

During the partition of India, the ruler was
Maharaja Hari Singh Maharaja Mahārāja (; also spelled Maharajah, Maharaj) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great Monarch, king" or "high king". A few ruled mighty states informally called empires, including ruler raja Sri Gupta, founder of th ...
. He, along with all the other princes, was given the choice of acceding to either India or
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
, taking into consideration the geographical contiguity and the wishes of the population. The Maharaja chose not to accede to either dominion before the appointed date, citing the mixed religious composition of his state. This technical independence was short-lived as the Maharaja faced a rebellion in the western districts and a Pakistan-inspired Pashtun tribal invasion. Unable to withstand the assaults, the Maharaja acceded to India on 26–27 October 1947. India airlifted troops to Kashmir to repel the raiders. However, major portions of the western districts of Muzaffarabad, Poonch, and Mirpur
remained under the control of Pakistan
remained under the control of Pakistan
. The remainder of the state was incorporated into India via the
Constitution of India The Constitution of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the sci ...

Constitution of India
, which also provided autonomy to the state under
Article 370 Article 370 of the Indian constitution gave special status to Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest ci ...
.


Geography and climate

Jammu borders
Kashmir Valley #REDIRECT Kashmir Valley The Kashmir Valley, also known as the ''Vale of Kashmir'', is an intermontane valley in Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until t ...

Kashmir Valley
to the north,
Ladakh Ladakh () is a region administered by India as a union territory, and constitutes a part of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since 1947. (subscription required) Quote: "Jammu ...

Ladakh
to the east, and
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...

Punjab
and
Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the Snow-laden Mountains") is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper ...

Himachal Pradesh
to the south. In the west, the
Line of Control The Line of Control (LoC) is a military control line between the Indian and Pakistani controlled parts of the former Jammu and Kashmir (princely state), princely state of Jammu and Kashmir—a line which does not constitute a legally recogni ...
separates Jammu from
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
i-administered
Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr () is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley The Kashmir Valley, also known as the ''Vale ...

Kashmir
(known as
Azad Kashmir Azad Jammu and Kashmir ( ur, , translit=āzād jammū̃ o kaśmīr, translit-std=IAST, ), abbreviated as AJK and colloquially referred to as simply Azad Kashmir, is a region administered by Pakistan as a nominally self-governing entitySee: ...

Azad Kashmir
in Pakistan). In between Kashmir Valley to the north and the Daman Koh Plains to the south, the
Shivalik Range
Shivalik Range
comprises most of the region of Jammu. The
Pir Panjal Range The Pir Panjal Range (Kashmiri: ) is a group of mountains in the Lesser Himalayan region, running from east-southeast (ESE) to west-northwest (WNW) across the Indian territories of Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the ...

Pir Panjal Range
, the Trikuta Hills and the low-lying
Tawi River Tawi is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching ...
basin add diversity to the terrain of Jammu. The Pir Panjal range separates Jammu from the Kashmir Valley. Jammu region has geographically 8 sub regions Ravi-Tawi Kandi plains, Shiwaliks, Pir Panjal belt, Chenab Valley, Bhaderwah Valley, Gandoh Valley, Paddar Valley and Warwan-Marwah Valley. The climate of the region varies with altitude. In and around Jammu city, the climate is similar to the nearby Punjab region with hot summers, rainy monsoon, and mildly cold and foggy winters. While Jammu city itself does not experience any snowfall, the higher hills and mountains are snow-capped during the winter. People from all over India come to the
Patnitop Patnitop or Patni Top is a hilltop tourist location situated in the Ramban district of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is in located on the Jammu–Srinagar National Highway, Jammu-Srinagar National Highway (whic ...

Patnitop
mountain resort to enjoy the winter snows. The shrine of
Vaishno Devi Vaishno Devi (also known as Mata Rani, Trikuta, Ambe and Vaishnavi) is a manifestation of the Hindu Mother Goddess, Devi Devī (Sanskrit: देवी) is the Sanskrit word for 'goddess'; the masculine form is Deva (Hinduism), ''deva'' ...
is covered with snow in the winter. The
Banihal Pass Banihal Pass (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, North India. Hindi has been desc ...

Banihal Pass
, which links the Jammu region to the Kashmir region, often experiences closure in the winter months due to extremely heavy snowfall.


Demographics

According to the 2011 census, the total population of Jammu Division is 5,350,811.Census of India: Provisional Population Totals Paper 1 of 2011: Jammu & Kashmir
/ref>
Scheduled castes The Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) are officially designated groups of people and among the most disadvantaged socio-economic groups in India. The terms are recognized in the Constitution of India and the groups are designa ...
(
Dalit Dalit (from sa, दलित, dalita meaning "broken/scattered", hi, दलित, dalit, same meaning) is a name for people belonging to the lowest stratum castes in India, previously characterised as "untouchable". Dalits were excluded fr ...
s) constitute 19.44% of the population and
Scheduled tribes The Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) are officially designated groups of people and among the most disadvantaged socio-economic groups in India. The terms are recognized in the Constitution of India The Constitution of ...
comprise 15-20% of the population in Jammu Division. Out of 10 districts, six of them, mainly in the
Chenab Valley The Chenab Valley, also known as the Chenab Region, is the river valley of the Chenab River flowing through the Kishtwar Kishtwar is a municipality in the Kishtwar District of the Jammu region in the India India (Hindi: ), offic ...
and the
Pir Panjal The Pir Panjal Range (Kashmiri: ) is a group of mountains in the Lesser Himalayan region, running from east-southeast (ESE) to west-northwest (WNW) across the Indian territories of Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the ...

Pir Panjal
region have Muslim majority while Hindus are predominantly based in the Jammu region.
Gurjar Gurjar or Gujjar (also transliterated as ''Gujar, Gurjara and Gujjer'' ) is an ethnic agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Fami ...
- Bakarwal and Hindu Gaddi-Sippi communities are also found here. The largest ethnic group in the Jammu Division are the
Dogras The Dogras or Dogra people, are an Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *Aryan invasion theor ...
, who comprise approximately 47% of the population. Jammu's people are closely related to
Punjabis The Punjabis (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as ...
. The Jammu Division overall has a Hindu majority population – 62.55% practice Hinduism, 33.45% practice Islam and most of the remainder are Sikhs. The Hindus form a majority in the Jammu, Kathua, Samba and Udhampur districts, and roughly half the population in the
Reasi district Reasi district is a district of the India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an In ...
. Most of Jammu's Hindus are native Dogras,
Kashmiri Pandit The Kashmiri Pandits (also known as Kashmiri Brahmins) are a group of Kashmiri Hindus and a part of the larger Saraswat Brahmin community of India. They belong to the Pancha-Gauda, Pancha Gauda Brahmin group from the Kashmir Valley, a mountai ...
s,
Punjabi Hindus Punjabi Hindus are an Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *Aryan invasion theory (disambigu ...
migrants and refugees from the
Kotli Kotli ( ur, ) is a city in Kotli District The Kotli District ( ur, ) is one of the 10 districts A district is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administra ...

Kotli
and Mirpur areas which are currently administered by Pakistan. Many Sikhs are migrants from Pakistan-administered Kashmir, mainly from
Muzaffarabad Muzaffarabad (; ur, ) is the capital and largest city of Azad Kashmir Azad Jammu and Kashmir ( ur, , translit=āzād jammū̃ o kaśmīr, translit-std=IAST, ), abbreviated as AJK and colloquially referred to as simply Azad Kashmir, is ...

Muzaffarabad
and Poonch sector areas annexed by Pakistan in 1947. In Jammu Division, "
Dogri Dogri (Dogra The Dogras or Dogra people, are an Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *A ...
is spoken by a majority in the five districts of Jammu, Udhampur, Kathua, Samba and Reasi". Other common languages include
Gojri Gurjari, also known as Gujri (गुर्जरी, ) is a variety of Indo-Aryan spoken by the Gurjars and other tribes of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of ...
,
PahariPahari or Pahadi may refer to: * Pahari language, the name of several languages of South Asia * Pahari people (Nepal), an ethnic group of Nepal * Pahari people, a cover term for many Northern Indo-Aryan languages, Northern Indo-Aryan speaking groups ...

Pahari
, ,
Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, North India. Hindi has been described as a Standard la ...

Hindi
,
Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a ge ...

Punjabi
and
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonpr ...

Urdu
. Shujaat Bukhari
Nearly 35% People Speak Kashmiri In Erstwhile J&K: Study
Rising Kashmir, 29 June 2014.
Hindus of Jammu region are subdivided into various caste groups, and of them
Brahmin Brahmin (; sa, ब्राह्मण, brāhmaṇa) are a varna Varna may refer to: Places Europe * Varna, Bulgaria, a large city in Bulgaria. ** Varna Province **Varna Municipality **Gulf of Varna **Lake Varna *Vahrn, or Varna, a muni ...

Brahmin
s and
Rajput Rajput (from Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia ...

Rajput
s are the predominant ones. According to the 1941 census, 30% of them were Brahmin, 27% Rajput, 15% Thakkar, 4%
Jat The Jat people () are a traditionally agriculture based community largely in rural parts of Northern India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of ...
, 8%
Khatri Khatri is a caste system in India, caste, originally found in South Asia. Apart from India, they are also found in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Afghans, Afghan Hindus and Sikhs are predominantly of Khatri and Arora origin. From the medieval ...
and 8% Megh and
Chamar Chamar is a dalit community classified as a Scheduled Caste under modern India's Reservation in India, system of affirmative action. Historically subject to untouchability, they were traditionally outside the Hindu ritual ranking system of cas ...
are the most common.
Other Backward Class Other Backward Class (OBC) is a collective term used by the Government of India The Government of India (ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical ...
es comprises 32% of population in Jammu. The districts of
Rajouri Rajouri or Rajauri (, sa, राजपुरी, ) is a town in Rajouri district Rajouri (or Rajauri) is a district of Jammu region in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia ...

Rajouri
, Poonch, ,
Kishtwar Kishtwar is a municipality in the Kishtwar District #REDIRECT Kishtwar district Kishtwar District is a District (India), district of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir of India. As of 20 ...
and Ramban have a Muslim-majority population. The
Reasi district Reasi district is a district of the India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an In ...
has an almost equal number of Muslims (49.7%) and Hindus (48.9%). The Muslim ethnic groups are
Gujjar Gurjar or Gujjar (also transliterated as ''Gujar, Gurjara and Gujjer'' ) is an ethnic agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Fami ...
and Bakerwal in Poonch and Rajouri districts who are ethno-linguistically different from the Kashmiri Muslims. There is a substantial presence of Kashmiri Muslims in
Kishtwar Kishtwar is a municipality in the Kishtwar District #REDIRECT Kishtwar district Kishtwar District is a District (India), district of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir of India. As of 20 ...
, Ramban and districts.
Reasi district Reasi district is a district of the India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an In ...
also has a significant population of Kashmiri Muslims.C-16 Population By Mother Tongue: Jammu and Kashmir
General & Census Commissioner, India, retrieved 14 July 2018.
The
Jammu district Jammu district is the most populous of the districts of Jammu and Kashmir The Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir consists of two divisions: Jammu Division and Kashmir Division, and is further d ...
also has a significant population of
Kashmiri Hindus Kashmiri Hindus are ethnic Kashmiris who practice Hinduism and are native to the Kashmir Valley of India. With respect to their contributions to Indian philosophy, Kashmiri Hindus developed the tradition of Kashmiri Shaivism. Most of Hindus are ...
.


Districts

As of April 2021, the Jammu Division consists of ten districts: During the Maharaja's reign before the Independence and Partition of India (and of Jammu and Kashmir), the following districts were also part of Jammu region: Bhimber, Kotli, Mirpur, Poonch (Western parts), Haveli, Bagh and Sudhnati. Today these districts are part of .


Politics

The major political parties in the region are the
Congress Congresses are formal meetings of the representatives of different countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity ...
, the
BJP The Bharatiya Janata Party (; ; BJP) is one of two major political parties in India India has a multi-party system with recognition accorded to national, state and district level parties. The status is reviewed periodically by the Elect ...
, the National Conference, the
Jammu and Kashmir People's Democratic Party The Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) is a state political party in Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir, India. The PDP was headed and founded by Mufti Mohammed Sayeed. His daughter, Mehbooba Mufti, succeeded ...
and the
Jammu and Kashmir National Panthers Party The Jammu & Kashmir National Panthers Party is a state political party in the state of Jammu and Kashmir (state), Jammu and Kashmir, India. The party was founded on 23 March 1982 by Prof. Bhim Singh (politician), Bhim Singh and a few prominent y ...
. Various sections of the society in the region including the
BJP The Bharatiya Janata Party (; ; BJP) is one of two major political parties in India India has a multi-party system with recognition accorded to national, state and district level parties. The status is reviewed periodically by the Elect ...
have been advocating the separation of Jammu region from Kashmir and its inclusion as a distinct entity into the Indian Union, citing largely Kashmir-centric policies in the existing state and neglect of the Jammu region by successive Kashmir dominated administrations. In November 2020, the organisation
IkkJutt Jammu The Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly has been dissolved since November 2018. , no new election has been scheduled. The next elections would be the first since 2014 and the first since the territory's Revocation of the special status o ...
was launched as a party and demanded Jammu division be separated and given statehood. The then social organisation IkkJutt Jammu campaigned against the Roshni Act, which was declared unconstitutional by the
Jammu and Kashmir High Court Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
in 2020. The present arrangement of legislative assembly seats (46 in Kashmir and 37 in Jammu) deprives Jammu region an equal say in decision making process. This has been the main point of contention behind the strong regional divide. There have been repeated demands for the constitution of a Delimitation Commission to address issues related to electoral arrangements. After changing the status of the state to Union territory, the Government announced setting up of Delimitation Commission with retired Supreme Court judge Ranjana Prakash Desai as its Chairman.


Economy

Jammu Chamber of Commerce & Industry is an apex body of traders, industrialists and those associated with commercial activities in the Jammu division.


Places of interest

Jammu is known for its landscape, ancient temples,
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...

Hindu
shrines,
Mubarak Mandi Palace Mubarak Mandi is a palace in Jammu, India. The palace was the royal residence of the maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir from the Dogra dynasty. It was their main seat till 1925 when maharaja Hari Singh moved to the Hari Niwas Palace in the north ...
, Amar Mahal Palace (a castle type) now a Museum, gardens and forts. Hindu holy shrine Vaishno Devi attracts tens of thousands of Hindu devotees every year. Jammu's natural landscape has made it one of the most favoured destinations for adventure tourismBhaderwah: Welcome to the Heaven of Earth!!!
/ref> in South Asia. Jammu's historic monuments feature a unique blend of Islamic and Hindu architecture styles.


Purmandal

Purmandal, also known as ''Chhota Kashi'', is located 35 km from Jammu city. An ancient holy place, it has several temples of Shiva and other deities. On Shivratri, the town wears a festive look and for three days as people celebrate the marriage of Lord Shiva to Goddess Parvati.


Vaishno Devi shrine

The town of Katra, Jammu and Kashmir, Katra, which is from Jammu, contains the Vaishno Devi shrine. Nestling on top of the Trikuta Hills at a height of is the sacred cave shrine of Vaishno Devi, the mother goddess. The cave is long and just high. At the end of the cave are shrines dedicated to the three forms of the mother goddess — Mahakali, Mahalakshmi and Sarasvati, Mahasarasvati. Pilgrims start trekking to the cave temple, which is from Katra, enter in small groups through a narrow opening and walk through ice-cold waters to reach the shrines. According to legend, the mother goddess hid in the cave while escaping a demon whom she ultimately killed.


Nandini Wildlife Sanctuary

Nandini Wildlife Sanctuary is in an area of thick forests teeming with wildlife. It is a renowned natural habitat for a significant population of pheasants. Among the other avifauna are Indian mynah, blue rock dove, rock pigeon, Indian peafowl, red junglefowl, cheer pheasant and chakor. Spread over an area of , the sanctuary is rich in fauna and provides refuge to a wide variety of mammals, chiefly leopard, wild boar, rhesus monkey, bharal and grey langur.


Mansar Lake

Situated 62 km from Jammu, Mansar Lake is a lake fringed by forest-covered hills, over a mile long by half a mile wide. Besides being an excursion destination in Jammu, it is also a holy site, sharing the legend and sanctity of Lake Manasarovar. On the eastern bank of Mansar Lake is a shrine dedicated to Shesha, Sheshnag, a mythological snake with six heads. The shrine comprises a big boulder on which are placed a number of iron chains perhaps representing the small serpents waiting on the tutelary deity of the Sheshnag. Newlyweds consider it auspicious to perform three circumambulations (''Parikarma'') around the lake to seek the blessings of Sheshnag. Two ancient temples of Umapati Mahadev and Narasimha and a temple of Durga are situated in the vicinity of the Mansar Lake and which are visited by devotees in large numbers. People take a holy dip in the water of the lake on festive occasions. Certain communities of Hindus perform the Mundan ceremony (first haircut) of their male children here. Mansar Lake also has boating facilities provided by the Tourism Department. With all the religious belief and heritage behind the Mansar Lake, it is also famous among tourists with all its flora and fauna. The lake is circled by an illuminated, with viewing decks to observe seasonal birds, tortoise, and fishes of different species. A wildlife sanctuary houses jungle life, including spotted deer, neelgai, and water birds such as cranes and ducks. One can also witness the traditional and typical distinct lifestyle of Gujjar and Backarwals wearing ethnic costumes, living in open Kullhas in the hills around Mansar Lake. The Mansar Lake road joins to another important road that directly links Pathankot to Udhampur. Udhampur is a town of strategic importance, on National Highway No. 1A. The shortcut road from Mansar or Samba to Udhampur by-pass the Jammu town. Surinsar Lake, a smaller lake that is linked to Mansar, is from Jammu via the by-pass road.


Bahu Fort

Bahu Fort, which also serves as a religious temple, is situated about 5 km from Jammu city on a rock face on the left bank of the river Tawi. This is perhaps the oldest fort and edifice in Jammu city. Constructed originally by Raja Bahulochan over 300 years ago, the fort was improved and rebuilt by Dogra rulers. Inside the fort is a temple dedicated to the Goddess Kali, popularly known as ''Bave Wali Mata'', the presiding deity of Jammu. Every Tuesday and Sunday pilgrims throng this temple and partake in "Tawi flowing worship". Today the fort is surrounded by a terraced garden which is a favourite picnic spot of the city folk. ''Bagh-e-Bahu'', located on the banks of Tawi river, is a Mughal-age garden. It gives a nice view of the old city and Tawi river. There is a small canteen on one side of the garden. On the by-pass road behind Bahu Fort, the city forest surrounds the ancient Mahamaya Temple overlooking the river Tawi. A small garden surrounded by acres of woods provides a commanding view of the city. Opposite the Bahu Fort, overlooking the Tawi River, River Tawi is a temple dedicated to Mahamaya of Dogra descent, who lost her life fourteen centuries ago fighting foreign invaders. The present temple of Bawey Wali Mata was built shortly after the coronation of Maharaja Gulab Singh, in 1822. It is also known as the temple of Mahakali and the goddess is considered second only to Mata Vaishno Devi in terms of mystical power.


Raghunath Temple

Amongst the temples in Jammu, the Raghunath Temple takes pride of place being situated right in the heart of the city. This temple is situated at the city center and was built in 1857. Work on the temple was started by Maharaja
Gulab Singh Maharaja Gulab Singh (1792–1857) was the founder of Dogra dynasty The Dogra dynasty Dogra Rajput The term Dogra Rajput refers to a number of Dogri speaking Rajput clans found in the Jammu region and parts of Himachal Pradesh. Dogra dynas ...

Gulab Singh
, founder of the Jammu and Kashmir (princely state), State of Jammu and Kashmir, in 1835 CE and was completed by his son Maharaja Ranbir Singh (Maharaja), Ranbir Singh in 1860 CE. The inner walls of the main temple are covered with gold sheet on three sides. There are many galleries with hundreds of thousands of shaligrams. The surrounding Temples are dedicated to various Gods and Goddesses connected with the epic Ramayana. This temple consists of seven shrines, each with a tower of its own. It is the largest temple complex in northern India. Though 130 years old, the complex is remarkable for sacred scriptures, one of the richest collections of ancient texts and manuscripts in its library. Its arches, surface, and niches are undoubtedly influenced by Mughal architecture while the interiors of the temple are plated with gold. The main sanctuary is dedicated to Lord Vishnu's eighth incarnation and Dogras' patron deity, Rama. It also houses a Sanskrit Library containing rare Sanskrit manuscripts.


Peer Kho Cave

Alongside the same Tawi river are the Peer Kho Cave temple, the Panchbakhtar temple and the Ranbireshwar temple dedicated to Lord Shiva with their own legends and specific days of worship. Peer Kho cave is located on the bank of river Tawi and it is widely believed that Ramayan character Jambavantha, Jamvant (the bear god) meditated in this cave. The Ranbireshwar Temple has twelve Shiva lingams of crystal measuring to and galleries with thousands of ''shaligrams'' fixed on stone slabs. Located on the Shalimar Road near the New Secretariat, and built by Maharaja Ranbir Singh (Maharaja), Ranbir Singh in 1883 CE. It has one central lingam measuring in height and twelve Shiva lingams of crystal measuring from and galleries with thousands of Shiva lingams fixed on stone slabs.


Shivkhori

The cave shrine of Shivkhori, situated in Reasi District of Jammu and Kashmir, depicts the natural formation of shivlingum. It is one of the most venerated cave shrines of Lord Shiva in the region. The holy cave is approximately long, and contains " high Svayambhu Lingum, which constantly baths in a milky lime fluid dripping from the ceiling." The first entrance of the cave is so wide that 300 devotees can be accommodated at a time. Its cavern is spacious enough to accommodate a large number of people. The inner chamber of the cave is smaller. The cave has many natural impressions and images of various Hindu deities and full of divine feelings. That is why Shivkhori is known as "the Home of Gods". A 3-day Shiv Khori mela takes places annually on Maha Shivratri and thousands of pilgrims from different parts of the state and elsewhere visit this cave shrine to seek the blessings of Lord Shiva. The Maha Shivratri festival is usually held in February or during the first week of March every year. Keeping in view the increasing rush of pilgrims to the holy cave shrine, the Shiv Khori Shrine Board has taken up a number of steps to develop this spot in a bid to provide more and more facilities to the devotees, like the construction of a Shrine Guest House at a cost of Rs. 19 lakh at village Ransoo, the base camp of yatra, a reception centre and pony shed at an estimated cost of , tile work of entire a track is nearing completion, plantation of ornamental and medicinal plants on track and development of parks etc. Other arrangements like electrification of the cave with modern techniques, provision of oxygen and electric generators, exhaust fans, construction of shelter sheds for travellers with toilet facilities near the cave site, 15 shelter sheds en route Ransoo to cave shrine, railing from the base camp to cave, additional facility of 15,000/EfnrKing water reservoir, proper sanitation, provision of 25 kV capacity electric transformer, clock room, starting of permanent bus services from Katra, Udhampur, and Jammu, police post and dispensary and an STD PCO are under active consideration of the Shiv Khori Shrine Development Board. Recently, the management and development of the Shiv Khori have been taken over by Sri Mata Vaishno Devi Shrine Board who is looking after Vaishno Devi pilgrimage.


Machail Mata

Machail Mata The Chandi Maa temple is located in the village Machel, District Kishtwar, Jammu Region. The place is about from Jammu. During 'Chhadi Yatra', thousands of people visit the shrine. The pilgrimage happens in the month of August only every year. The shrine was visited in 1981 by Thakur Kulveer Singh of Bhaderwah, Jammu region. From 1987 onwards, Thakur Kulveer Singh started 'Chhadi Yatra'that happens every year and thousands of people visit the shrine every year during 'Chhadi Yatra'. To reach the shrine, a lot of travel agents arrange buses from Jammu, Udhampur, Ramnagar, Bhaderwah. One can also hire a cab as well. It takes approximately 10 hours by road from Jammu to Gulabgarh. The Gulabgarh is the base camp. From Gulabgarh, the foot journey starts, that is 32 km. Usually, people take 2 days to reach the shrine by foot. On the way, there are many villages, where one can stay the night but the chaddi takes three days to reach Machel. Many people organise roadside 'langers' (free food points) on the way to the Gulabgarh. The government of Jammu and Kashmir also arranges basic amenities for the pilgrims. Another measn of reaching the shrine is by helicopter from Jammu and Gulabgarh. The helipad is only from the shrine.


City centres and attractions

One of the major attractions of Jammu is a revolving restaurant named Falak, located on the top of the hotel KC Residency. Ragunath Bazar is the main tourist and shopping districts of the city. The locality of Gandhi Nagar hosts the market areas of Gole Market, on Apsara Road. On any pleasant evening, one can take a stroll in Green Belt Park alongside the magnificent bungalows that adorn Green Belt Road. Rajinder Park on Canal Road is a new development. This park is situated between two canals and features a large fountain which is lit up at night. A children's area is located next to the park. The city has "Big Bazaar" at Jewel Chowk as one of the shopping centres. A shopping mall named as 'Wave - The Wave Mall' is popular. There is one more shopping mall named as Palm Island near Canal Road. Also, a complex and a new age commercial hub by the name of Bahu-Plaza in Trikuta Nagar area is a common hangout spot for youngsters and young professionals. Most of the corporate sector and most of the mobile phone companies like Bharti Airtel, Airtel, BSNL, Vodafone, Aircel and Tata Indicom are based in the Bahu Plaza complex. There are many cinema halls, the best out of those are KC Cineplex, Wave Cinema, Palm Cinema, etc. A PVR is also there near KC Cineplex.


Cuisine

Jammu is known for its chocolate barfi, sund panjeeri, patisa and its exotic local food. Rajma with rice is one of the specialty dishes of Jammu. Another is , which is a processed cheese.


Kalari

Kalari cheese is specialty made in the Ramnagar region of Jammu is famous all over the state. Dogri food specialties include ambal, khatta meat, kulthein di dal, dal patt, maa da madra, rajma, and . Pickles typical of Jammu are made of kasrod, , mango with saunf, zimikand, , , and potatoes. Auriya is a dish made with potatoes. During weddings it is typical to make kayoor and sund.


Festivals of Jammu


Lohri

This festival heralds the culmination of cold weather and is celebrated a day before Makar Sankranti. In rural areas, it is customary for young boys to go around asking for gifts from newlyweds and parents of newborns. Lohri in Dogras, Dogra households of Jammu division, Jammu is special because of various additional traditions associated with it like ''Chajja'' making, ''Hiran Dance, Dandaraas'' and preparing Lohri garlands. Young children prepare a replica of peacock which is known as ''Chajja'.'' They carry this ''Chajja'' and then go from one house to other house celebrating Lohri. A special dance is performed using this ''Chajja'' on the occasion of Lohri. It makes a striking picture to see boys along with their ''Chajjas'' elaborately decorated with coloured paper and flowers dance on the street in a procession. The whole atmosphere of Jammu comes alive with pulsating drumbeats. Besides, dancing boys strike sticks on rhythm of a drum as in ''Raslila''. This is known as ''Dandaraas''. In and around Jammu, special ''Hiran Dance'' is performed. Dancers disguise themselves as deer and dance on tune of ''Hirana'' songs. They visit selected houses which have auspicious ceremonies & have prepared eatables. Children wear special garlands made of groundnuts, dry fruits and candies on Lohri day. Special eatable is prepared using sesame, rice and groundnuts which is known as ''Tilcholi''. Pageant of Sassui Punnhun, Sassi-Punnu, two lovers of Sindhis, Sindhi folk tradition are also taken out on camels during the festival. The next day, the whole region wears a festive look on Makar Sankranti. Thousands take a dip in the holy river ''Havan Yajnas'' are performed in nearly every house and temple in Jammu.


Uttarain or Maghi Sangrand (Makar Sankranti)

In Jammu, ''Makar Sankranti'' is celebrated as ''Uttarain'' (derived from Sanskrit: Uttarayana). Alternatively, terms ''Attrain'' or ''Attrani'' have also been used to describe this festival. A day before Lohri is celebrated by
Dogras The Dogras or Dogra people, are an Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *Aryan invasion theor ...
to commemorate end of ''Poh'' (Pausha) month. It is also beginning the Magha (month), Magha month as per Hindu Solar Calendar, hence also known as ''Maghi Sangrand'' (Sankranti of ''Magh'' month). Among
Dogras The Dogras or Dogra people, are an Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *Aryan invasion theor ...
, there is a tradition of ''Mansana'' (charity) of Khichdi of Urad dal, Maah Dal. ''Khichdi'' of ''Maah di Dal'' is also prepared on this day and that is why this day is also referred to as Khichdi wala Parva'''. There is also a tradition of sending ''Khichdi'' & other food items to house of married daughters. Fairs are organised on holy places and pligrimages on this day. Dhagwal in Hiranagar (Vidhan Sabha constituency), Hiranagar tehsil is known for Fair on ''Makar Sankranti'' and Krishna Janmashtami, Janamashtami. People of Jammu also take holy bath in Devika river and pilgrimages like ''Uttar Behni'' and Purmandal on this occasion. This day is also celebrated as birth anniversary of Baba Ambo ji, a local deity of Jammu region. At Vasuki temple of Bhaderwah of Jammu, the idols of Vasuki Nag are covered on ''Makar Sankranti, Magh Sankranti'' and they are uncovered only after three months on Vaisakhi, ''Vaisakha Sankranti''.


Bhugga (Sankashti Chaturthi)

This festival is celebrated on fourth day of Krishna Paksha of Magha (month), Magha month of Hindu calendar, Hindu Calendar. It is celebrated in reverence to Hindu God Ganesha and is also known as Sankashti Chaturthi. Dogras, Dogra women perform ''Arghya'' to Chandrama at night. ''Bhugga'' (Til Jaggery mixture) and Radish are donated and eaten to complete the fast.


Basant Panchami

Vasant Panchami, Basant Panchami festival is dedicated for worship of Saraswati, Goddess Saraswati, the goddess of learning, arts and music and for welcoming Spring (season), Spring Season. People wear yellow or saffron or orange colored clothes on this day. Saffron colored food items are prepared and offered as Naivedhya to Goddess Saraswati. People sing folk songs like Aayi Basant, Paala Udant'''. This day is also special for
Dogras The Dogras or Dogra people, are an Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *Aryan invasion theor ...
because on Basant Panchami of year 1944, Dogri Sanstha came into existence.


Kan Chauth (Gauri Chaturthi)

It is observed on fourth day of Shukla Paksha of Magha (month), Magha month of Hindu calendar, Hindu Calendar in the hill districts & tehsils of Jammu Division especially Bhaderwah, ,
Kishtwar Kishtwar is a municipality in the Kishtwar District #REDIRECT Kishtwar district Kishtwar District is a District (India), district of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir of India. As of 20 ...
and Ramban. A day before Parvati, Gauri Tritiya is also observed by some communities. This festival is observed by married woman similar to Karva Chauth, Karwa Chauth, only difference being fast is completed here after Parvati, Gauri Puja (Hinduism), Puja in the day. Goddess Gauri is worshipped for long life and health of husbands by women. The festivity remains for three days. During these three days, ladies go in the neighborhood to offer ‘''Thel''’ (respect) to other women and get in return their blessing ‘''Suhagan Bho''’ (Live long your husband).


Holi

Holi is celebrated in traditional way in Jammu. On the eve of Holi, Holika Dahan is performed. The next day people enjoy by playing with colors. Earlier people used to decorate themselves using special headgears which were prepared using colored papers and silver ribbons. These were known as ''Patangi''. A Dogras, Dogra sweet dish ''Khaste'' (similar to Gujia, Gujjiya) is prepared on this day. A three-day fair is organised at Narsingh Dev temple in
Kathua Kathua (kəˈθʊə) is a city located in the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir, near its border with Pakistan,Punjab, India, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. The town is headquarters of Kathua district, the district and is divided into 27 Munici ...
.


Ram Naumi (Rama Navami)

Rama Navami, the birth of Rama, Shri Rama is celebrated with religious fervour & gaiety all across Jammu. The day also coincides with culmination of nine-day long Navaratri, Navaratra festival. Special function on Rama Navami is held in the historical Raghunath Temple in Jammu city where large number of devotees pay their obeisance to Rama, Lord Rama. Even during Dogra rule, the rulers would personally visit Raghunath Mandir and offer worship to Shri Rama, their patron deity. Besides, worship and offerings to the deity inside the temple, there are a number of discourses on Rama, Bhagwan Ram's life and Ramayana. On this auspicious occasion, Shobha Yatra is taken out. Images of Rama, Shri Rama, Sita, Mata Sita & Lakshmana, Lakshman and number of tableaux depicting scenes from Ramayana are taken out in a grogeous procession. Devotees shower flower petals on the Shobha Yatra. Number of market unions and Hindu organisations, organise Bhandara (community kitchen), Bhandaras on this occasion.


Basoa (Vishuva) or Baisakhi (Mesha Sankranti)

The name Baisakhi is taken from the first month of the Hindu calendar, Hindu Vikram calendar. It is celebrated on the first day of Vaisakh month and marks the day of Mesha Sankranti. It is also known as Basoa''' in
Dogri Dogri (Dogra The Dogras or Dogra people, are an Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *A ...
. On this day, devotees get up early in the morning, throng the rivers, canals, and ponds and take a ritual dip every year on this occasion. In Dogras, Dogra households, a Puja (Hinduism), Puja is performed afterwards and part of food crop is offered to the deities. New fruit of the year is enjoyed on this day. A Ritual Bath at Tawi River, Tawi river during Baisakhi is common in Jammu. Baisakhi is celebrated at
Udhampur Udhampur (ˌʊd̪ʱəmpur) is a city and a municipal committee in Udhampur district in the Indian States and territories of India, union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters of Udhampur di ...

Udhampur
on the bank of Devika river where for three days devotees enjoy the folk songs. At Sudhmahadev, this festival is celebrated with great pomp and show where folk singers come down and a competition of folk songs is held. Vendors generally install their shops and stalls of eatables. Many people go to the Nagbani temple to witness the grand New Year celebration. Baisakhi is also considered "harvest festival" and considered auspicious, especially for marriages. Celebrations of Baisakhi also include Dogras, Dogri Bhangra which is quite different from Punjabi variant, with respect to actions, costumes and songs. The occasion is marked by numerous fairs and people come by the thousands to celebrate Baisakhi. For example, Airwan in
Kathua Kathua (kəˈθʊə) is a city located in the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir, near its border with Pakistan,Punjab, India, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. The town is headquarters of Kathua district, the district and is divided into 27 Munici ...
is known for Baisakhi fair attended by 10,000 people as per Census 1961. Every year on Baisakhi festival around 15,000 pilgrims pay their obeisance at 700 tear old temple of Subar Nag Devta temple in Bhaderwah. Other places where Baisakhi fairs are held are Bridge and Ramban, Jammu and Kashmir, Ramban.


Bahu Mela (March–April and September–October)

A major festival is held at the Kali Temple in Bahu Fort twice a year.


Chaitre Chaudash (March–April)

Chaitre Chaudash is celebrated at Uttar Behni and Purmandal, about and from Jammu respectively. Uttar Behni gets its name from the fact that the Devak River (locally also known as Gupt Ganga) flows here in the northerly direction.


Purmandal Mela (February–March)

Purmandal is from Jammu city. On Shivratri the town wears a festive look for three days as people celebrate the marriage of Lord Shiva to the Goddess Parvati. The people of Jammu also come out in their colourful best to celebrate Shivratri at Peer Khoh Cave Temple, the Ranbireshwar Temple, and the Panjbhaktar Temple. In fact, if one visits Jammu during Shivratri, one finds a celebration going on almost everywhere.


Dhamdeh (Dharma Dhihada - Aashada Sankranti) & Nirjala Ekadashi

Both of these festivals are celebrated similarly. ''Dhamdeh'' also known as ''Dharma'' ''Dhihada'' or ''Dharma Divas'' is celebrated on Sankranti of Ashadha, Aashadha month. People take a ritual bath and perform ''Mansana'' (charity) of hand fans, water pitchers and seasonal fruits like melons. These donations are made in name of ''Pitras'' (ancestors). Major celebration is people offering sweet water drinks and food to poor and needy. Similar rituals are observed on Nirjala Ekadashi ( celebrated on Jyeshtha (month), Jyestha Shukla Paksha, Shukla Ekadashi) where in addition a strict Vrata is observed in honour of Vishnu, Lord Vishnu.


Rutt Raahde & Sakolade (Shravana Sankranti)

''Rutt Raahde'' is a festival celebrated by Dogras, Dogra women of all ages from Ashadha, Aashada Sankranti to Shraavana, Shravana Sankranti. The last day i.e. Shravana Sankranti is referred to as ''Sakolade'' or ''Minjraan''. Young girls and women collect necks of broken earthen pitchers and insert them into ground. Seeds of Kharif crops are sown inside these pitchers. These are known as ''Raahde'' which are then decorated with Rangoli, rangoli patterns using natural colors. Every Sunday, women would assemble and sing folk songs and enjoy eatables like ''Rutt'', ''Gheur'' & ''Pudas'', at the site where ''Raahde'' are inserted. On the last day of festival i.e. ''Badda Rutt'', women would again assemble, sing folk songs, enjoy eatables and finally immerse the ''Raahde'' in water bodies. The final day i.e. Shravana Sankranti is also known as ''Sakolade'' (named after the ear ornaments that are worn during this day.) In parts of Himachal, ''Sakolade'' are also referred to as ''Minjraan''.


Thongren Da Vrat (Krishna Janmashtami)

Krishna Janmashtami, Janmashtami in
Dogri Dogri (Dogra The Dogras or Dogra people, are an Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *A ...
is also referred to as ''Thongren'' ''Da Vrat'', meaning Vrata for Thakur (Lord Krishna). A fast is observed in honour of Sri Krishna by adults, while kids & youngsters enjoy Kite-Flying, Kite flying on this day. Girls and women decorate their palms by applying ''Teera,'' dye of an indigenous plant. Some families have tradition of keeping cereal grains in name of ''Kul'' ''Devtas'', ''Pitras'' (ancestors) & family members. This is known as ''Deyaa Parna''. These cereal grains are then offered to wood of a holy tree called ''Jhand.'' This is known as ''Jhand'' ''Puja''. The wood is covered in sacred cloth called ''shoaath''. Clay sculptures of a couple and their children are placed on the cloth, and are worshipped. They are offered ''Kheer'' (without sugar) and ''Butter, Makkhan''. This is followed by offering ''Dropads'' (kind of ''chapatis)'' to cows. This practice is called ‘''dropad mansnaa''‘. Some people also enjoy swings on tree known as ''peengan.'' At night, people dress up their children like deities. Towns and cities witness several processions. At midnight, Panjiri, Sund Panjeeri is offered as Naivedhya, Naivedya to Sri Krishna.


Bacch Dua (Vatsa Dwadashi) & Drubadi (Durvashtami)

Govatsa Dwadashi, Vatsa Dwadashi in Jammu region is celebrated on twelfth day of Krishna Paksha of Bhadrapada month as ''Bacch Dua'' and Durvashtami as ''Drubadi'' on eighth day of Shukla Paksha of Bhadrapada month. In both these festivals, women prepare small sized idols/sculptures of calves using wheat dough. These are worshipped on water bodies. Soaked Chickpea, Black chickpeas & Durva grass is used for Puja. Dogra dishes like ''Rutt'' and ''Dropad'' are used as Naivedhya, Naivedya.


Singh Sankrant (Simha Sankranti)

It is celebrated on first day of solar month of Hindu calendar, Hindu Calendar i.e. Bhadra (Hindu calendar), Bhadrapada. The festival holds special significance in Ramban district of Jammu division. People visit Chenab River, Chandrabhaga river and offer floral offerings. It is popularly known by the name ''Singh Sankrant.'' Local tradition traces the origin of festival to Pandavas.


Tulsi Puja & Panj Bhikham (Bhishma Panchak)

Tulsi in Hinduism, Tulsi Puja is performed in Dogras, Dogra families from Prabodhini Ekadashi, Kartika Shukla Ekadashi till Kartik Purnima, Kartika Purnima. This five-day period is known as ''Panj Bhikham'' (Panchaka, Bhishma Panchak). On the occasion of Tulsi Puja, Dogra families would decorate the Tulsi plant pot and would write ''Ram Ram'' on them. This is known as ''Tulsi Da Chauntra'' in
Dogri Dogri (Dogra The Dogras or Dogra people, are an Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *A ...
. They would cover the plant with Red Dupatta or Chunni. A fast is also observed on Kartika Shukla Ekadashi in honour of Vishnu, Lord Vishnu and Tulsi in Hinduism, Tulsi Mata. Women light up Diya (lamp), Diyas from Ekadashi till Full moon, Purnima on Tulsi plant. This ceremony is known as ''Deeve'' in Dogri. Some families may also organize Tulsi Vivah with Shaligram. It is believed that Tulsi has got affinity with ''Shaligram''.


Jhiri Mela (October–November)

An annual fair is held in the name of Baba Jitto, a simple and honest farmer who preferred to kill himself rather than submit to the unjust demands of the local landlord to part with his crop. He killed himself in the village of Jhiri, 14 km from Jammu. A legend has grown around the Baba and his followers congregate at Jhiri on the appointed day from every corner of North India; they revere him for his compassion, courage, and honesty.


Navratri Festival (September–October)

Though the yatra to the shrine of Mata Vaishno Devi is a round-the-year event, a pilgrimage undertaken during the Navratras is considered the most auspicious. In order to showcase and highlight the regional culture, Industrial Heritage, heritage and traditions of the area during this period, the State Tourism Department has instituted the Navratri Festival as an annual event to be held during September/October for the nine auspicious days of the Navratras. A large number of tourists pay their obeisance to the deity during this period. This festival showcases the religious traditions as well as the popular culture of the region among the millions of pilgrims who visit the Vaishnodeviji Shrine during this period.


Rath Kharda Mela

An eight-day fair is organised in Narsingh and Annapurna Temple in Ghagwal of Samba district of Jammu division. This fair involves taking out procession of deity on a chariot. Hence named ''Rath Kharda Mela''. Thousands of devotees are drawn from neighbouring states of Punjab, India, Punjab and
Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the Snow-laden Mountains") is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper ...

Himachal Pradesh
and also other parts of Jammu region. People from hilly areas of Jammu like: Basholi, Basohli, ,
Kishtwar Kishtwar is a municipality in the Kishtwar District #REDIRECT Kishtwar district Kishtwar District is a District (India), district of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir of India. As of 20 ...
, Bani, India, Bani, Dudu, Jammu and Kashmir, Dudu Basantgarh put stalls in this fair and sell the handicrafts and woolen items like ''Pattus'', blankets & shawls''.'' During this fair, the temple is decorated with flowers and lights. Devotees visit the temple and pay obeisance to the main deity, Bhagwan Narsimha. A Bhandara (community kitchen), Bhandara is also organised for the devotees. Local farmers sow their fields in the name of Narasimha, Bhagwan Narsimha and while harvesting their crops offer a part of it to the temple during this fair. Besides Ghagwal, ''Rath Kharda Mela'' is also held at other places of Jammu division like: Ramgarh, Jammu and Kashmir, Ramgarh tehsil of
Udhampur Udhampur (ˌʊd̪ʱəmpur) is a city and a municipal committee in Udhampur district in the Indian States and territories of India, union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters of Udhampur di ...

Udhampur
district, Parnala village in
Billawar Billawar is a town and a notified area committee in Kathua district of the Indian States and territories of India, Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. Billawar is also a tehsil. It is also called Balaur by ...
tehsil and Hatli village in
Kathua Kathua (kəˈθʊə) is a city located in the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir, near its border with Pakistan,Punjab, India, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. The town is headquarters of Kathua district, the district and is divided into 27 Munici ...
.


Shivratri (Herath)

Maha Shivaratri, Shivaratri () is a festival of great significance for Hindus all over the world, especially for those of Kashmiri origin settled in Jammu. On this day, Lord Siva and his spouse Parvati are worshipped with great devotion everywhere in the country. Esoterically, it is symbolic of the mystic union of Jiva (individual soul) with Paramatma (the Supreme Godhead) and it represents the high state of spiritual realization wherein the world of relativity fades away and perfect peace and calm prevail. Along with worshipping 'Shiva' people observe both social and cultural meets on this festival. They rejoice and exchange greetings with friends and relatives.


Education

Jammu region has many institutes offering higher education. The colleges varies from medical colleges, to engineering colleges, and many other government and private colleges. Some of the major higher educational institutes in Jammu Region are: * Indian Institute of Technology Jammu, Indian Institute of Technology, Jammu (IIT Jammu) * Government College of Engineering and Technology, Jammu * Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu * Govt. MAM PG College, Jammu * Govt. Gandhi Memorial Science College * Maharaja Harisingh Agri Collegiate School * Model Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jammu
Mahant Bachittar Singh College Of Engineering And Technology, Jammu
* Sainik School, Nagrota * Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University * University of Jammu * Central University of Jammu * Cluster University of Jammu * Government Medical College, Jammu


See also

* List of topics on the land and the people of "Jammu and Kashmir" * Roman Catholic Diocese of Jammu–Srinagar * Dogri *
Dogra The Dogras or Dogra people, are an Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *Aryan invasion theor ...

Dogra
* Prakash Singh Chib


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links


The Official Website of Jammu and Kashmir Government

Official Website of Jammu Division

Official Website of Jammu District
*
Shri Mata Vaishno Devi Shrine Board
– Shrines in Jammu
Bhaderwah
– Website about Bhaderwah
Mata Pingla
{{Regions and administrative territories of Kashmir Jammu Division, Jammu and Kashmir Divided regions Divisions of Jammu and Kashmir