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Jammu is the
winter capital Some countries have multiple capitals. In some cases, one city is the capital for some purposes, and one or more others are capital for other purposes, without any being considered an official capital in preference to the others. There are also ...
of the Indian union territory of
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
. It is the headquarters and the largest city in
Jammu district Jammu district is the most populous of the in India, and is home to the winter capital () of Jammu and Kashmir. The capital moves to in the summer. Administrative divisions Jammu District has 7 Sub-Divisions: * Jammu South * Jammu North * R ...
of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river
TawiTawi may refer to: * Tawi River, India * Tawi Sli (1912–1987), second chief minister of Sarawak, Malaysia * Tawi-Tawi Province, Philippines ** Tawitawi Island, Philippines See also

* Tavi (disambiguation) * Tiwi (disambiguation) * Tiwa (disam ...
, the city of Jammu, with an area of , is surrounded by the
Himalayas The Himalayas, or Himalaya (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It ar ...

Himalayas
in the north and the in the south. Jammu is the second most populous city of the union territory. Known as the ''City of Temples'' for its ancient temples and Hindu shrines, Jammu is the most visited place in the union territory. Jammu city shares its borders with the neighbouring
Samba district Samba District is a district in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of count ...
.


Etymology

According to local tradition, Jammu is named after its founder, Raja Jambulochan, who is believed to have ruled the area in the 9th century. The local tradition holds the city to be 3000 years old but this is not supported by historians.


Geography

Jammu is located at . It has an average elevation of . Jammu city lies at uneven ridges of low heights at the
Shivalik hills The Sivalik Hills (also known as the Shivalik Hills and Churia Hills) are a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain r ...
. It is surrounded by the Shivalik range to the north, east, and southeast while the Trikuta Range surrounds it in the northwest. It is approximately from the national capital,
New Delhi New Delhi (, ''Naī Dillī'') is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majusc ...

New Delhi
. The city spreads around the Tawi river with the old city overlooking it from the north (right bank) while the new neighbourhoods spread around the southern side (left bank) of the river. There are five bridges on the river. The city is built on a series of
ridge A ridge or a mountain ridge is a geographical feature consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance. The sides of the ridge slope away from narrow top on either side. The lines along th ...

ridge
s.


History

According to ''
Tarikh-i-Azmi Khwaja Muhammad Azam Kaul Didamari (died 1765) was a Sufi Sufism ( ar, ٱلصُّوفِيَّة), also known as Tasawwuf ( ar, ٱلتَّصَوُّف, link=no), is mysticism Mysticism is popularly known as becoming one with God or the ...
'', Jammu came into existence around 900 CE. The state of ''Durgara'' (modern forms "Duggar" and "
Dogra The Dogras or Dogra people, are an Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *Aryan invasion theor ...

Dogra
)") is also attested from around this time. The capital of the Durgara state at that time is believed to have been Vallapura (identified with modern
Billawar Billawar is a town and a notified area committee A Nagar Panchayat (town panchayat; ) or Notified Area Council (NAC) in India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of ...
). Its rulers are repeatedly mentioned in Kalhana's ''
Rajatarangini ''Rajatarangini'' (, "The River of Kings") is a metrical legendary and historical chronicle of the north-western Indian subcontinent, particularly the kings of Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr () is the northernmost geogra ...

Rajatarangini
''. Babbapura (modern Babor) is another state mentioned in ''Rajatarangini'', some of whose rulers occur in the ''Vamshavali'' (family chronicles) of later Jammu rulers. These rulers are believed to have enjoyed almost independent status and allied themselves with the Sultans of Delhi. Raja Bhim Dev is prominently mentioned in the Delhi chronicles as a supporter of Mubarah Shah (). Jammu is mentioned by name in the chronicles of
Timur Timur ; chg, ''Aqsaq Temür'', 'Timur the Lame') or as ''Sahib-i-Qiran'' ( 'Lord of the Auspicious Conjunction'), his epithet. ( chg, ''Temür'', 'Iron'; 9 April 133617–19 February 1405), later Timūr Gurkānī ( chg, ''Temür Kür ...

Timur
(), who invaded Delhi in 1398 and returned to Samarkand via Jammu. In the Mughal chronicles of
Babur Babur ( fa, , lit= tiger, translit= Bābur; 14 February 148326 December 1530), born Zahīr ud-Dīn Muhammad, was the founder of the Mughal Empire and first Mughal emperors, Emperor of the Mughal dynasty () in the Indian subcontinent. He ...

Babur
in the early 16th century, Jammu is mentioned as a powerful state in the Punjab hills. It is said to have been ruled by Manhas Rajputs. Emperor
Akbar Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated ...

Akbar
brought the hill kingdoms of the region under Mughal suzerainty, but the kings enjoyed considerable political autonomy. In addition to Jammu, other kingdoms of the region such as
Kishtwar Kishtwar is a municipality in the Kishtwar District of the Jammu region in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, ...
and
Rajauri Rajouri or Rajauri (, sa, राजपुरी, ) is a town in Rajouri district in the union territory A union territory ( hi, script=latn, kendraśāsit pradeś, , centrally administered province) is a type of administrative division ...
were also prominently mentioned. It is evident that the Mughal empire treated these hill chiefs as allies and partners in the empire.


Modern history

After the decline of the Mughal power in the 18th century, the Jammu state under Raja Dhruv Dev of the ''Jamuwal'' (''
Jamwal Jamwal is a clan that has Rajput Rajput (from ''raja-putra'', "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the ...
'') family asserted its supremacy among all the Dugar states. Its ascent reached its peak under his successor Raja Ranjit Dev (r. 1728–1780), who was widely respected among the hill states. Ranjit Dev promoted religious freedom and security, which attracted many craftsmen and traders to settle in Jammu, contributing to its economic prosperity. Towards the end of Ranjit Dev's rule, the Sikh clans of Punjab (''
misls The misls were the twelve sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, in ...
'') gained ascendency, and Jammu began to be contested by the
Bhangi Chuhra, also known as Bhanghi and Balmiki, is a Dalit Dalit (from sa, दलित, dalita meaning "broken/scattered", hi, दलित, dalit, same meaning) is a name for people belonging to the lowest stratum castes in India, previously ...
, Kanhaiya and
Sukerchakia The Sukerchakia Misl The misls were the twelve sovereign states of the Sikh Confederacy, which rose during the 18th century in the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent and is cited as one of the causes of the weakening ...
''misls''. Around 1770, the Bhangi ''misl'' attacked Jammu and forced Ranjit Dev to become a tributary. Brij Lal Dev, Ranjit Dev's successor, was defeated by the Sukerchakia chief Mahan Singh, who sacked Jammu and plundered it. Thus Jammu lost its supremacy over the surrounding country. In 1808, Jammu itself was annexed to the
Sikh Empire The Sikh Empire ( fa, , Sarkār-ē-Khālsā, lit=Government of the Khalsa; pa, , ਸਿੱਖ ਖ਼ਾਲਸਾ ਰਾਜ , Sikkh Khālsā Rāj, lit=Sikh Khalsa rule), also known as the Punjab Empire, was a state originating in the Indian ...

Sikh Empire
by
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Maharaja Ranjit Singh (2 November 1780 – 27 June 1839), popularly known as Sher-e-Punjab or "Lion of Punjab", was the first Maharaja Mahārāja (; also spelled Maharajah, Maharaj) is a Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively ...

Maharaja Ranjit Singh
, the son of Mahan Singh. In 1818 Raja Kishore Singh Father of Raja
Gulab Singh Maharaja Gulab Singh (1792–1857) was the founder of Dogra dynasty and the first Maharaja Mahārāja ; (also spelled Maharajah, Maharaj) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great Monarch, king" or "high king". A few ruled mighty ...

Gulab Singh
was appointed and anointed the ruler of Jammu Principality hence started the Jamwal Dynasty, aka
Dogra dynasty The Dogra dynasty Dogra Rajput The term Dogra Rajput refers to a number of Dogri speaking Rajput clans found in the Jammu region and parts of Himachal Pradesh. Dogra dynasty, Dogra Rajput dynasty ruled Kashmir and Jammu (princely state), Jammu ...
, which came to rule the princely state of
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
under British suzerainty. The rulers built large temples, renovated old shrines, built educational institutes and many more. A 43 km long
railway line Rail terminology is a form of technical terminology Jargon is the specialized terminology Terminology is a general word for the group of specialized words or meanings relating to a particular field, and also the study of such terms and thei ...
connecting Jammu with
Sialkot Sialkot (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjā ...

Sialkot
was laid in 1897 Jammu has historically been the capital of Jammu Province and the winter capital of the princely state of
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
(1846–1952). After the partition of India, Jammu continues as the winter capital of the Indian state of
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
.


Battles

# Battle of Jammu (1712) #
Battle of Jammu (1808) The Battle of Jammu was fought between Sikhs and the Dogra Rajputs in 1808. The Rajputs were defeated and Hukam Singh Chimni a khatri (kshatriya) captured the Jammu city along with the Sikh general Hari Singh Nalwa. This was a great success for the ...


Climate

Jammu, like the rest of north-western India, features a
humid subtropical climate A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitude In geography Geograp ...
( Köppen ''Cwa''), with extreme summer highs reaching , and temperatures in the winter months occasionally falling below . June is the hottest month with average highs of , while January is the coldest month with average lows reaching . Average yearly precipitation is about with the bulk of the rainfall in the months from June to September, although the winters can also be rather wet. In winter dense smog causes much inconvenience and temperature even drops to . In summer, particularly in May and June, extremely intense sunlight or hot winds can raise the temperature to . Following the hot season, the
monsoon A monsoon () is traditionally a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology ...

monsoon
lashes the city with heavy downpours along with thunderstorms; rainfall may total up to in the wettest months. The city is exposed to heatwaves.


Transport

Jammu city has a railway station called
Jammu Tawi Jammu Tawi (station code: JAT) is a railway station Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on tracks. In contrast to road tra ...

Jammu Tawi
(station code JAT) that is connected with major cities of India. The old railway link to Sialkot was suspended by Pakistan in September 1947, and Jammu had no rail services until 1971, when the
Indian Railways Indian Railways (IR) is a government-owned-railway system under the ownership Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive right In Anglo-Saxon law Anglo-Saxon law (Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recor ...

Indian Railways
laid the
Pathankot Pathankot is a city in Punjab, India. Pathankot district shares an international border, on its west, with Pakistan. Pathankot was officially declared a district of the Punjab state on 27th of July, 2011. It was previously a Tehsil of Gurdaspur ...
-Jammu Tawi
Broad Gauge A broad-gauge railway is a railway Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is a man-made device that u ...
line. The new Jammu Tawi station was opened in October 1972 and is an origination point for Express trains. With the commencement of the
Jammu–Baramulla line The Jammu–Baramulla line is a Track (rail transport), railway track being laid to connect the Kashmir Valley in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir with Jammu Tawi railway station, Jammu railway ...
, all trains to the
Kashmir Valley #REDIRECT Kashmir Valley The Kashmir Valley, also known as the ''Vale of Kashmir'', is an intermontane valley in Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until t ...

Kashmir Valley
will pass through Jammu Tawi. A part of the Jammu–Baramulla project has been executed and the track has been extended to .
Jalandhar Jalandhar is third most-populous City in the Indian state of Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . T ...
-
Pathankot Pathankot is a city in Punjab, India. Pathankot district shares an international border, on its west, with Pakistan. Pathankot was officially declared a district of the Punjab state on 27th of July, 2011. It was previously a Tehsil of Gurdaspur ...
- Jammu Tawi section has been doubled and electrified. National Highway 44 which passes through Jammu connects it to the
Kashmir valley #REDIRECT Kashmir Valley The Kashmir Valley, also known as the ''Vale of Kashmir'', is an intermontane valley in Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until t ...

Kashmir valley
. National Highway 1B connects Jammu with Poonch town. Jammu is from Kathua town, while it is from Udhampur city. The famous pilgrimage town of is from Jammu.
Jammu Airport Jammu Airport, officially known as Jammu Civil Enclave, is a Domestic airport, domestic airport serving Jammu (city), Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is situated 14 km (8.7 miles) from the internat ...

Jammu Airport
is in the middle of Jammu. It has direct flights to
Srinagar Srinagar (English: , ) is the largest city and the summer capital A summer capital is a city used as an administrative capital during extended periods of particularly hot ummerweather. The term is mostly of relevance in a historical context ...

Srinagar
,
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
,
Amritsar Amritsar (), historically also known as ''Rāmdāspur'' and colloquially as ''Ambarsar'', is a historic and the second largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality o ...

Amritsar
,
Chandigarh Chandigarh (; ) is a city, district A district is a type of that, in some countries, is managed by the . Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning s or , several , subdivisions of municipalities, , or . ...

Chandigarh
,
Leh Leh () is the joint capital and largest town of the union territory of Ladakh in India. Leh, located in the Leh district, was also the historical capital of the Kingdom of Ladakh, the seat of which was in the Leh Palace, the former residence ...

Leh
and
Mumbai Mumbai (, ; also known as Bombay — List of renamed Indian cities and states#Maharashtra, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian States and union territories of India, state of Maharashtra. According to the United ...

Mumbai
and
Bengaluru Bangalore , List of renamed Indian cities and states, officially known as Bengaluru (), is the Capital city, capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of more than and a metropolitan area, metropolit ...

Bengaluru
. Jammu Airport operate daily 30 arrival and departure flights which is
Goair Go First, founded as GoAir, is an Indian ultra-low-cost airline based in Mumbai Mumbai (, ; also known as Bombay — List of renamed Indian cities and states#Maharashtra, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Ind ...
,
Air India Air India is the flag carrier A flag carrier is a transport Transport (commonly used in the U.K.), or transportation (used in the U.S.), is the Motion, movement of humans, animals and cargo, goods from one location to another. In ...

Air India
,
Spicejet SpiceJet is an Indian low-cost airline headquartered in Gurgaon, Haryana. It is the second largest airline in the country by number of domestic passengers carried, with a market share of 13.6% as of March 2019. The airline operates 630 daily f ...

Spicejet
and
Indigo InterGlobe Aviation Ltd d/b/a IndiGo is an Indian low-cost airline headquartered in Gurgaon, Haryana, India. It is the largest List of airlines of India, airline in India by passengers carried and fleet size, with a 57% domestic market shar ...

Indigo
running daily flights. The city has JKSRTC city buses under and minibusses for local transport which run on some defined routes. These minibusses are called "Matadors". Besides this auto-rickshaw and cycle-rickshaw service is also available. Local taxis are also available.


Administration

Jammu city View Jammu city serves as the winter capital of
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
state from November to April when all the offices move from
Srinagar Srinagar (English: , ) is the largest city and the summer capital A summer capital is a city used as an administrative capital during extended periods of particularly hot ummerweather. The term is mostly of relevance in a historical context ...

Srinagar
to Jammu. Srinagar serves as the summer capital from May to October. Jammu was a municipal committee during 2001 census of India. With effect from 5 September 2003, it has upgraded status of a municipal corporation.


Economy

Jammu city is the main cultural and economic centre of the administrative division of Jammu. One of the most famous local
Basmati rice Basmati (pronounced ) is a variety of long, slender-grained aromatic rice which is traditionally grown in India and Pakistan.
is produced in the RS Pura area near Jammu, which is then processed in rice mills in Jammu. Apart from rice mills scattered all around Jammu, industrial estate at Bari Brahamna has a large presence of industrial units manufacturing a variety of products right from carpets, electronic goods, electric goods.


Tourism

Tourism is the largest industry in Jammu city. It is also a focal point for the pilgrims going to
Vaishno Devi Vaishno Devi (also known as Mata Rani, Trikuta, Ambe and Vaishnavi) is a manifestation of the Hindu Mother Goddess, Devi Devī (Sanskrit: देवी) is the Sanskrit word for 'goddess'; the masculine form is Deva (Hinduism), ''deva'' ...
and Kashmir valley as it is second last railway terminal in North India. All the routes leading to Kashmir, Poonch, Doda and Laddakh start from Jammu city. So throughout the year, the city remains full of people from all the parts of India. Places of interest include old historic palaces like
Mubarak Mandi Palace Mubarak Mandi is a palace in Jammu, India. The palace was the royal residence of the maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir from the Dogra dynasty. It was their main seat till 1925 when maharaja Hari Singh moved to the Hari Niwas Palace in the northe ...
, Purani Mandi, Rani Park, Amar Mahal,
Bahu Fort The Bahu Fort is a historic fort A fortification is a military construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, or organizations,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ...
, Raghunath Temple, Ranbireshwar Temple, Karbala, Peer Meetha, Old city. File:Bahu Fort 01.JPG,
Bahu Fort The Bahu Fort is a historic fort A fortification is a military construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, or organizations,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ...
File:Historical architecture.jpg,
Mubarak Mandi Palace Mubarak Mandi is a palace in Jammu, India. The palace was the royal residence of the maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir from the Dogra dynasty. It was their main seat till 1925 when maharaja Hari Singh moved to the Hari Niwas Palace in the northe ...
File:Amar Mahal Palace1.JPG, Amar Mahal File:Raghunath Temple Jammu.JPG, Raghunath Temple


Demographics

As of 2011 census, the population of Jammu city was 502,197. Males constituted 52.7% of the population; females numbered constituted 47.3% of the population. The sex ratio was 898 females per 1,000 males against the national average of 940. Jammu had an average
literacy Literacy is popularly understood as an ability to read and write Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (p ...
rate of 89.66%, much higher than the national average of 74.4%: male literacy was 93.13% and female literacy was 85.82%. 8.47% of the population were under 6 years of age. The urban agglomeration of Jammu had a population of 657,314. Most of Jammu and Kashmir's Hindus live in the Jammu region; many speak
Dogri Dogri (Dogra The Dogras or Dogra people, are an Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *A ...
,.


Muslim communities

The Jammu city and the Jammu district had a significant Muslim population prior to the
Partition of India The partition of India was the division of British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the Indian subcon ...

Partition of India
, 37 per cent by the 1941 census. During the
1947 Jammu massacres After the Partition of India The Partition of India of 1947 was the division of British India The provinces of India, earlier presidencies of British India and still earlier, presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of B ...
, which preceded and continued during the Pakistan tribal invasion of Kashmir, many Muslims were killed and the rest driven away to Pakistan. The estimates of the number killed vary between 20,000 and 100,000. The killings were carried out by extremist Hindus and Sikhs, allegedly orchestrated by the
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, (; Hindi language, Hindi: राष्ट्रीय स्वयंसेवक संघ, , , ), is an Indian Right-wing politics, right-wing, Hindu nationalist, paramilitary volunteer organisation. The RSS i ...
, and aided and abetted by the state forces and the
Maharaja Mahārāja (; also spelled Maharajah, Maharaj) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great Monarch, king" or "high king". A few ruled mighty states informally called empires, including ruler raja Sri Gupta, founder of the ancient Indian ...
Hari Singh Maharaja Sir Hari Singh (23 September 1895 – 26 April 1961) was the last ruling Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir (princely state), Jammu and Kashmir. Hari Singh was the son of Amar Singh and Bhotiali Chib. In 1923, foll ...

Hari Singh
. As a result of the violence and migration, by 1961, less than 10 per cent of the population in the Jammu district was Muslim. The displaced Muslims took refuge in the
Sialkot District Sialkot District (Punjabi language, Punjabi and ur, ), is one of the Districts of Pakistan, districts of the Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab Administrative units of Pakistan, provinces of Pakistan. It is located in the north-east of the province. Th ...

Sialkot District
and other parts of Pakistani Punjab. Many prominent Punjabi residents in Pakistan, including politician
Chaudhry Amir Hussain Chaudhry Amir Hussain is a Pakistani politician. He was the 17th Speaker of the National Assembly of Pakistan, Speaker of National Assembly of Pakistan, serving from 2002 to 2008. Chaudhry Amir Hussain was born in Jammu, to a Gujjar family. His fam ...

Chaudhry Amir Hussain
, economist
Mahbub ul Haq Mahbub ul Haq ( ur, ; 24 February 1934 – 16 July 1998) was a Pakistani economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories a ...
, Air Marshal
Asghar Khan Air Marshal Muhammad Asghar Khan (Retd.) ( ur,   17 January 1921 – 5 January 2018), was a Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asi ...
, journalist Khalid Hasan and singer
Malika Pukhraj Malika Pukhraj ( ur, ملكہ پکھراج ) (1912–2004) was a highly popular Ghazal The ''ghazal'' ( ar, غَزَل, bn, গজল, Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia Sou ...
were from Jammu.


Education

Government College of Engineering and Technology, Jammu In the 2014–2015
General Budget of India The Union Budget of India, also referred to as the ''Annual Financial Statement'' in Article 112 of the Constitution of India, is the annual budget of the Republic of India. The Government presents it on the first day of February so that it could ...
,
Arun Jaitley Arun Jaitley (28 December 1952 – 24 August 2019) was an Indian politician and attorney. A member of the Bharatiya Janata Party The Bharatiya Janata Party (; ; BJP) is one of two major List of political parties in India, political par ...
, the
Finance Minister of India The Minister of Finance (Vitt Mantrī ) (or simply, the Finance Minister, short form FM) is the head of the Ministry of Finance of the Government of India. One of the senior-most offices in the Union Cabinet, the finance minister is responsibl ...
, proposed an
Indian Institute of Technology The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) ( hi, भारतीय प्रद्योगिकी संस्थान , ISO 15919 : ''Bhāratīya Pradyōgikī Saṁsthāna'' ) are autonomous public university, public technical universit ...
and an
Indian Institute of Management The Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) are institutes of management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth Engli ...
for the division. List of some educational institutions is provided below. Engineering Colleges in Jammu:- *
Indian Institute of Technology Jammu The Indian Institute of Technology Jammu (IIT Jammu) is a public research university located in Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir, India. As one of India's premier Indian Institutes of Technology, the university came ...
* Government College of Engineering and Technology, Jammu * Model Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jammu * Yogananda College of Engineering and Technology, Jammu Medical Institutions:- * Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, CSIR * Government Medical College, Jammu Legal Institutions:- * Kishen Chand Law College, Jammu * Dogra Law College, Jammu * Calliope School of Legal Studies, Jammu * R. K. Law College, Jammu General Degree Courses (colleges):- * Govt. Gandhi Memorial Science College, Jammu * Govt. MAM PG College, Jammu Universities:- * Central University of Jammu * Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu *
University of Jammu The University of Jammu informally known as Jammu University (JU), accredited as A+ grade by National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC), was established in 1969 by an Act of the State Legislature which effectively split the Jammu and Ka ...
Schools * Kendriya Vidyalaya, Bantalab * Kendriya Vidyalaya, Sunjuwan


Cuisine

Jammu is known for its sund panjeeri,
patisa Soan papdi (also known as patisa, san papri, sohan papdi or shonpapdi) is a popular Indian dessert. It is usually cube-shaped or served as flakes, and has a crisp and flaky texture. It was traditionally sold loose in a rolled paper cone, but mode ...
,
rajma Rājmā ( hi, राजमा, ur, راجما), also known as rajmah, rāzmā, or lal lobia, is a vegetarian dish, originating from the Indian subcontinent, consisting of red kidney beans The kidney bean is a variety of the common bean ( ...

rajma
with rice and
Kalari cheese Kalari (Dogri Dogri (Dogra The Dogras or Dogra people, are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group in India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dep ...
. Dogri food specialties include ambal, khatta meat, , dal patt, maa da madra,
rajma Rājmā ( hi, राजमा, ur, راجما), also known as rajmah, rāzmā, or lal lobia, is a vegetarian dish, originating from the Indian subcontinent, consisting of red kidney beans The kidney bean is a variety of the common bean ( ...

rajma
, and . Pickles typical of Jammu are made of kasrod, , mango with saunf, jimikand, , , and potatoes. Auriya is a dish made with potatoes. Jammu cuisine features various
chaat Chaat or chāt () is a family of savoury snack A snack is a small portion of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, ...
s, especially , kachalu,
Chole bhature Chole bhature () is a food dish popular in the Northern areas of the Indian subcontinent. It is a combination of chana masala Chana masala (, literally 'mix-spiced small-chickpeas'), also known as channay, chole masala, chhole masala, cho ...

Chole bhature
, gulgule,
rajma Rājmā ( hi, राजमा, ur, راجما), also known as rajmah, rāzmā, or lal lobia, is a vegetarian dish, originating from the Indian subcontinent, consisting of red kidney beans The kidney bean is a variety of the common bean ( ...

rajma
and , among various others.


Refugees and migration

Being comparatively safe from terrorism, Jammu city has become a hub of refugees. These primarily include
Kashmiri Hindus Kashmiri Hindus are ethnic Kashmiris Kashmiris, also known as Koshurs (), are first-language speakers of the Kashmiri language Kashmiri () or Koshur (, /kəːʃur/) is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages, spok ...
who migrated from Kashmir Valley in 1989. Hindus from who migrated to India have also settled in Jammu city. As per the records approximately 31,619 Hindu families had migrated from Pakistan administered Jammu and Kashmir to India, out of them 26,319 families are settled in Jammu.
Rohingyas The Rohingya people () are a stateless Indo-Aryan ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common s ...
who fled Myanmar during 2016 have also currently settled in Jammu. Settlements of Rohingya Muslims have also raised security threats in Jammu. During the 2018 Sunjuwan attack, intelligence agencies had suspected involvement of Rohingya Muslims in the attack.


References


Bibliography

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External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Jammu (City) Cities and towns in Jammu district Indian capital cities Municipal corporations in Jammu and Kashmir Capitals of former nations Former capital cities in India