Ivor Owen Grattan-Guinness (23 June 1941 – 12 December 2014) was a historian of mathematics and

from

''From the Calculus to Set Theory 1630–1910: An Introductory History''

(with chapters written by H. J. M. Bos).

''Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics''

A Sideways Look at Hilbert's Twenty-Three Problems of 1900

Handbook of Whiteheadian Process Thought

Frankfurt / Lancaster, Ontos Verlag: 97-104. Cf. Michel Weber,

Ivor Grattan-Guinness, "Algebras, Projective Geometry, Mathematical Logic, and Constructing the World. Intersections in the Philosophy of Mathematics of A.N. Whitehead", Historia Mathematica 29, N° 4, 2002, pp. 427-462

», ''Zentralblatt MATH'', European Mathematical Society, Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe & Springer-Verlag, 1046.00003. * 2014. "From Anomaly to Fundament: Louis Poinsot's Theories of the Couple in Mechanics." ''Historia Mathematica'', Vol. 41, No. 1, February 2014, pp. 82-102.

Encomium

at Mathematical Sciences Foundation * *

Hommage à I. Grattan-Guinness

December 2014. * {{DEFAULTSORT:Grattan-Guinness, Ivor 1941 births 2014 deaths People from Bakewell Alumni of Wadham College, Oxford Alumni of the London School of Economics Alumni of the University of London Academics of Middlesex University Academics of the London School of Economics Institute for Advanced Study visiting scholars Parapsychologists English mathematicians English logicians English historians English philosophers British historians of mathematics Academic journal editors

logic
Logic is the study of correct reasoning. It includes both formal and informal logic. Formal logic is the science of deductively valid inferences or of logical truths. It is a formal science investigating how conclusions follow from premi ...

.
Life

Grattan-Guinness was born inBakewell
Bakewell is a market town and civil parish in the Derbyshire Dales district of Derbyshire, England, known also for its local Bakewell pudding. It lies on the River Wye, about 13 miles (21 km) south-west of Sheffield. In the 2011 census, ...

, England; his father was a mathematics teacher and educational administrator. He gained his bachelor degree as a Mathematics Scholar at Wadham College, Oxford
Wadham College () is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. It is located in the centre of Oxford, at the intersection of Broad Street and Parks Road.
Wadham College was founded in 1610 by Dorot ...

, and an MSc (Econ) in Mathematical Logic and the Philosophy of Science at the London School of Economics
, mottoeng = To understand the causes of things
, established =
, type = Public research university
, endowment = £240.8 million (2021)
, budget = £391.1 milli ...

in 1966. He gained both the doctorate (PhD) in 1969, and higher doctorate (D.Sc.
Doctor of Science ( la, links=no, Scientiae Doctor), usually abbreviated Sc.D., D.Sc., S.D., or D.S., is an academic research degree awarded in a number of countries throughout the world. In some countries, "Doctor of Science" is the degree used f ...

) in 1978, in the History of Science at the University of London
The University of London (UoL; abbreviated as Lond or more rarely Londin in post-nominals) is a federal public research university located in London, England, United Kingdom. The university was established by royal charter in 1836 as a degree- ...

. He was Emeritus Professor
''Emeritus'' (; female: ''emerita'') is an adjective used to designate a retired chair, professor, pastor, bishop, pope, director, president, prime minister, rabbi, emperor, or other person who has been "permitted to retain as an honorary title ...

of the History of Mathematics and Logic at Middlesex University
Middlesex University London (legally Middlesex University and abbreviated MDX) is a public research university in Hendon, northwest London, England. The name of the university is taken from its location within the historic county boundaries of ...

, and a Visiting Research Associate at the London School of Economics.
He was awarded the Kenneth O. May Medal for services to the History of Mathematics by the International Commission on the History of Mathematics (ICHM) on 31 July 2009, at Budapest
Budapest (, ; ) is the capital and most populous city of Hungary. It is the ninth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits and the second-largest city on the Danube river; the city has an estimated population ...

, on the occasion of the 23rd International Congress for the History of Science.Awarding of the K.O. May Prizefrom

International Mathematical Union
The International Mathematical Union (IMU) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to international cooperation in the field of mathematics across the world. It is a member of the International Science Council (ISC) and supports ...

In 2010, he was elected an Honorary Member of the Bertrand Russell Society.
Grattan-Guinness spent much of his career at Middlesex University. He was a fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study
The Institute for Advanced Study (IAS), located in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States, is an independent center for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry. It has served as the academic home of internationally preeminent schola ...

in Princeton, New Jersey
Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, in the U.S. state of New Jersey. It was established on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township, both of wh ...

, United States, and a member of the International Academy of the History of Science.
From 1974 to 1981, Grattan-Guinness was editor of the history of science
The history of science covers the development of science from ancient times to the present. It encompasses all three major branches of science: natural, social, and formal.
Science's earliest roots can be traced to Ancient Egypt and Mesop ...

journal ''Annals of Science
''Annals of Science'' is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the history of science and technology. It is published by Taylor & Francis and was established in 1936. The founding editor-in-chief was the Canadian historian of science Harcour ...

''. In 1979 he founded the journal ''History and Philosophy of Logic
History (derived ) is the systematic study and the documentation of the human activity. The time period of event before the invention of writing systems is considered prehistory. "History" is an umbrella term comprising past events as well ...

'', and edited it until 1992. He was an associate editor of ''Historia Mathematica
''Historia Mathematica: International Journal of History of Mathematics'' is an academic journal on the history of mathematics published by Elsevier. It was established by Kenneth O. May in 1971 as the free newsletter ''Notae de Historia Mathemat ...

'' for twenty years from its inception in 1974, and again from 1996.
He also acted as advisory editor to the editions of the writings of C.S. Peirce and Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British mathematician, philosopher, logician, and public intellectual. He had a considerable influence on mathematics, logic, set theory, linguistics, ...

, and to several other journals and book series. He was a member of the Executive Committee of the International Commission on the History of Mathematics from 1977 to 1993.
Grattan-Guinness gave over 570 invited lectures to organisations and societies, or to conferences and congresses, in over 20 countries around the world. These lectures include tours undertaken in Australia, New Zealand, Italy, South Africa and Portugal.
From 1986 to 1988, Grattan-Guinness was the President of the British Society for the History of Mathematics, and for 1992 the Vice-President. In 1991, he was elected an effective member of the Académie Internationale d'Histoire des Sciences The International Academy of the History of Science (french: Académie Internationale d'Histoire des Sciences) is a membership organization for historians of science.
The academy was founded on 17 August 1928 at the Congress of Historical Science b ...

. He was the Associate Editor for mathematicians and statisticians for the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
The ''Dictionary of National Biography'' (''DNB'') is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published since 1885. The updated ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'' (''ODNB'') was published on 23 September ...

(2004).
Grattan-Guinness took an interest in the phenomenon of coincidence and has written on it for the Society for Psychical Research
The Society for Psychical Research (SPR) is a nonprofit organisation in the United Kingdom. Its stated purpose is to understand events and abilities commonly described as psychic or paranormal. It describes itself as the "first society to cond ...

. He claimed to have a recurrent affinity with one particular number, namely the square of 15 (225), even recounting one occasion when a car was in front of him with the number plate IGG225, i.e. his very initials and that number. He died of heart failure
Heart failure (HF), also known as congestive heart failure (CHF), is a syndrome, a group of signs and symptoms caused by an impairment of the heart's blood pumping function. Symptoms typically include shortness of breath, excessive fatigue, ...

on 12 December 2014, aged 73, survived by his wife Enid Grattan-Guinness.
Work

The work of Grattan-Guinness touched on all historical periods, but he specialised in the development of the calculus and mathematical analysis, and their applications to mechanics and mathematical physics, and in the rise ofset theory
Set theory is the branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which can be informally described as collections of objects. Although objects of any kind can be collected into a set, set theory, as a branch of mathematics, is mostly concer ...

and mathematical logic
Mathematical logic is the study of formal logic within mathematics. Major subareas include model theory, proof theory, set theory, and recursion theory. Research in mathematical logic commonly addresses the mathematical properties of formal s ...

. He was especially interested in characterising how past thinkers, far removed from us in time, view their findings differently from the way we see them now (for example, Euclid
Euclid (; grc-gre, Εὐκλείδης; BC) was an ancient Greek mathematician active as a geometer and logician. Considered the "father of geometry", he is chiefly known for the '' Elements'' treatise, which established the foundations of ...

). He has emphasised the importance of ignorance as an epistemological notion in this task. He did extensive research with original sources both published and unpublished, thanks to his reading and spoken knowledge of the main European languages.
Selected publications

Books written

* 1970. ''The Development of the Foundations of Mathematical Analysis from Euler to Riemann''.MIT Press
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States). It was established in 1962.
History
The MIT Press traces its origins back to 1926 when MIT publis ...

.
* 1972. ''Joseph Fourier, 1768–1830'' (In collaboration with J.R. Ravetz). MIT Press.
* 1977. ''Dear Russell—Dear Jourdain: a Commentary on Russell's Logic, Based on His Correspondence with Philip Jourdain''. Duckworth.
* 1980. ''From the Calculus to Set Theory, 1630–1910: An Introductory History'' (with chapters written by H. J. M. Bos). Duckworth.
* 1982. ''Psychical Research: A Guide to Its History, Principles & Practices - in celebration of 100 years of the Society for Psychical Research'', Aquarian Press, .
* 1990. ''Convolutions in French Mathematics, 1800–1840'' in 3 Vols. Birkhauser.
* 1997. ''The Rainbow of Mathematics: A History of the Mathematical Sciences''. Fontana. (pbk). W. W. Norton and Company (1999). (hbk), (pbk).
* 2000. (Reprint''From the Calculus to Set Theory 1630–1910: An Introductory History''

(with chapters written by H. J. M. Bos).

Princeton University Press
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University. Its mission is to disseminate scholarship within academia and society at large.
The press was founded by Whitney Darrow, with the financial s ...

. .
* 2000. ''The Search for Mathematical Roots, 1870–1940: Logics, Set Theories, and the Foundations of Mathematics from Cantor through Russell to Gödel''. Princeton University Press. . Bibliography. (For research on this book he held a Leverhulme Fellowship from 1995 to 1997.)
* 2009 ''Routes of Learning: Highways, Pathways, and Byways in the History of Mathematics''. Johns Hopkins University Press
The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University. It was founded in 1878 and is the oldest continuously running university press in the United States. The press pub ...

. .
Editions

* W.H. and G.C. Young, ''The theory of sets of points'', 2nd edition (ed. with R.C.H. Tanner; 1972, New York: Chelsea). ntroduction and appendix.* E.L. Post, "The modern paradoxes", ''History and philosophy of logic'', 11 (1990), 85–91. * Philip E. B. Jourdain, ''Selected essays on the history of set theory and logics (1906–1918)'', (1991, Bologna: CLUEB), xlii + 352 pages. ntroduction and indexes.*George Boole
George Boole (; 2 November 1815 – 8 December 1864) was a largely self-taught English mathematician, philosopher, and logician, most of whose short career was spent as the first professor of mathematics at Queen's College, Cork in Ire ...

, ''Selected manuscripts on logic and its philosophy'' (ed. with G. Bornet, 1997, Basel: Birkhäuser), lxvi + 236 pages. art Introduction and editorial material.* Grattan-Guinness' ''The Search for Mathematical Roots 1870–1940'' is a sweeping study of the rise of mathematical logic
Mathematical logic is the study of formal logic within mathematics. Major subareas include model theory, proof theory, set theory, and recursion theory. Research in mathematical logic commonly addresses the mathematical properties of formal s ...

during that critical period. The central theme of the book is the rise of logicism
In the philosophy of mathematics, logicism is a programme comprising one or more of the theses that — for some coherent meaning of 'logic' — mathematics is an extension of logic, some or all of mathematics is reducible to logic, or some or all ...

, thanks to the efforts of Frege, Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British mathematician, philosopher, logician, and public intellectual. He had a considerable influence on mathematics, logic, set theory, linguistics, ...

, and Alfred Whitehead, and its demise due to Gödel and indifference. Whole chapters are devoted to the emergence of algebraic logic
In mathematical logic, algebraic logic is the reasoning obtained by manipulating equations with free variables.
What is now usually called classical algebraic logic focuses on the identification and algebraic description of models appropriate fo ...

in the 19th century UK, Cantor
A cantor or chanter is a person who leads people in singing or sometimes in prayer. In formal Jewish worship, a cantor is a person who sings solo verses or passages to which the choir or congregation responds.
In Judaism, a cantor sings and l ...

and the emergence of set theory
Set theory is the branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which can be informally described as collections of objects. Although objects of any kind can be collected into a set, set theory, as a branch of mathematics, is mostly concer ...

, the emergence of mathematical logic in Germany told in a way that downplays Frege's importance, and to Peano
Giuseppe Peano (; ; 27 August 1858 – 20 April 1932) was an Italian mathematician and glottologist. The author of over 200 books and papers, he was a founder of mathematical logic and set theory, to which he contributed much notation. The st ...

and his followers. There follow four chapters devoted to the ideas of the young Bertrand Russell, the writing of both ''The Principles of Mathematics
''The Principles of Mathematics'' (''PoM'') is a 1903 book by Bertrand Russell, in which the author presented his famous paradox and argued his thesis that mathematics and logic are identical.
The book presents a view of the foundations of ...

'' and ''Principia Mathematica
The ''Principia Mathematica'' (often abbreviated ''PM'') is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics written by mathematician–philosophers Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell and published in 1910, 1912, and 1913. ...

'', and to the mixed reception the ideas and methods encountered over the period 1910–40. The book touches on the rise of model theory
In mathematical logic, model theory is the study of the relationship between formal theories (a collection of sentences in a formal language expressing statements about a mathematical structure), and their models (those structures in which the ...

as well as proof theory
Proof theory is a major branchAccording to Wang (1981), pp. 3–4, proof theory is one of four domains mathematical logic, together with model theory, axiomatic set theory, and recursion theory. Barwise (1978) consists of four corresponding part ...

, and on the emergence of American research on the foundation of mathematics
Foundations of mathematics is the study of the philosophical and logical and/or algorithmic basis of mathematics, or, in a broader sense, the mathematical investigation of what underlies the philosophical theories concerning the nature of mathem ...

, especially in the hands of E. H. Moore
Eliakim Hastings Moore (; January 26, 1862 – December 30, 1932), usually cited as E. H. Moore or E. Hastings Moore, was an American mathematician.
Life
Moore, the son of a Methodist minister and grandson of US Congressman Eliakim H. Moore, di ...

and his students, of the postulate theorists, and of Quine
Quine may refer to:
* Quine (surname), people with the surname ''Quine''
* Willard Van Orman Quine, the philosopher, or things named after him:
** Quine (computing), a program that produces its source code as output
** Quine–McCluskey algorithm ...

. While Polish logic is often mentioned, it is not covered systematically. Finally, the book is a contribution to the history of philosophy
Philosophy (from , ) is the systematized study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence, reason, knowledge, values, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. Some ...

as well as of mathematics.
Books edited

* 2003. ''Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences'', 2 vols. Johns Hopkins University Press. * 2005''Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics''

Elsevier
Elsevier () is a Dutch academic publishing company specializing in scientific, technical, and medical content. Its products include journals such as '' The Lancet'', '' Cell'', the ScienceDirect collection of electronic journals, '' Trends'', t ...

.
Articles

* 1975. "Mathematical Bibliography for W. H. and G. C. Young." ''Historia Mathematica'', Vol. 2, No. 1, February 1975, pp. 43-58. * 1978. "How Bertrand Russell Discovered His Paradox." ''Historia Mathematica'', Vol. 5, No. 2, May 1978, pp. 127-137. * 1989. "The Earliest Contribution to Location Theory? Spatio-economic Equilibrium with Lamé and Clapeyron, 1829." ''Mathematics and Computers in Simulation'', Vol. 31, No. 3, July 1986, pp. 195-220. * 1990. "The Varieties of Mechanics by 1800." ''Historia Mathematica'', Vol. 17, No. 4, November 1990, pp. 313-338. * 1992. "A Note on The Educational Times and Mathematical Questions" ''Historia Mathematica'', Vol. 19, No. 1, February 1992, pp. 76-78. * 1994. "Contributing to the Educational Times: Letters to W.J.C. Miller." ''Historia Mathematica'', Vol. 21, No. 2, May 1994, pp. 204-205. * 1996. "Mozart 18, Beethoven 32: Hidden Shadows of Integers in Classical Music", pages 29 to 48 in ''History of Mathematics: States of the Art'', edited by Joseph W. Dauben, Menso Folkerts,Eberhard Knobloch
Eberhard Knobloch (born 6 November 1943, in Görlitz) is a German historian of science and mathematics.
Career
From 1962 to 1967 Knobloch studied classics and mathematics at the University of Berlin and the Technical University of Berlin, a ...

and Hans Wussing, Academic Press
Academic Press (AP) is an academic book publisher founded in 1941. It was acquired by Harcourt, Brace & World in 1969. Reed Elsevier bought Harcourt in 2000, and Academic Press is now an imprint of Elsevier.
Academic Press publishes refe ...

* 1996. "Numbers, Magnitudes, Ratios, and Proportions in Euclid's Elements: How Did He Handle Them?" ''Historia Mathematica'', Vol. 23, No. 4, November 1996, pp. 355-375.
* 2000. "Christianity and Mathematics: Kinds of Link and the Rare Occurrences after 1750." ''Physis: Rivista Internazionale di Storia della Scienza XXXVII.'' Nuova Serie. Fasc. 2. 2000: 467–500.
* 2001. "Manifestations of Mathematics in and around the Christianities: Some Examples and Issues." ''Historia Scientiarum 11-1.'' July 2001: 48–84.
* 2002A Sideways Look at Hilbert's Twenty-Three Problems of 1900

Notices of the American Mathematical Society
''Notices of the American Mathematical Society'' is the membership journal of the American Mathematical Society (AMS), published monthly except for the combined June/July issue. The first volume appeared in 1953. Each issue of the magazine since ...

47: 752–57.
* 2002. "Algebras, Projective Geometry, Mathematical Logic, and Constructing the World: Intersections in the Philosophy of Mathematics of A. N. Whitehead." ''Historia Mathematica'', Vol. 29, No. 4, November 2002, pp. 427-462.
* 2004. "The Mathematics of the Past: Distinguishing Its History From Our Heritage." ''Historia Mathematica'', Vol. 31, No. 2, May 2004, pp. 163-185.
* 2008. "Foundations of Mathematics and Logicism," in Michel Weber and Will Desmond (eds.)Handbook of Whiteheadian Process Thought

Frankfurt / Lancaster, Ontos Verlag: 97-104. Cf. Michel Weber,

Ivor Grattan-Guinness, "Algebras, Projective Geometry, Mathematical Logic, and Constructing the World. Intersections in the Philosophy of Mathematics of A.N. Whitehead", Historia Mathematica 29, N° 4, 2002, pp. 427-462

», ''Zentralblatt MATH'', European Mathematical Society, Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe & Springer-Verlag, 1046.00003. * 2014. "From Anomaly to Fundament: Louis Poinsot's Theories of the Couple in Mechanics." ''Historia Mathematica'', Vol. 41, No. 1, February 2014, pp. 82-102.

References

External links

Encomium

at Mathematical Sciences Foundation * *

Hommage à I. Grattan-Guinness

December 2014. * {{DEFAULTSORT:Grattan-Guinness, Ivor 1941 births 2014 deaths People from Bakewell Alumni of Wadham College, Oxford Alumni of the London School of Economics Alumni of the University of London Academics of Middlesex University Academics of the London School of Economics Institute for Advanced Study visiting scholars Parapsychologists English mathematicians English logicians English historians English philosophers British historians of mathematics Academic journal editors