HOME

TheInfoList




Istria ( ;
Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also

* Croatia (disambiguation) * Serbo-Croatian (di ...
and
Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...
: ''Istra'';
Istriot Istriot is a Romance languages, Romance language spoken by about 400 people in the southwestern part of the Istrian peninsula in Croatia, particularly in Rovinj and Vodnjan. It should not be confused with the Venetian_language#Regional_variants, I ...
: ''Eîstria''; Istro-Romanian,
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
and Venetian: ''Istria''), formerly ''Histria'' (
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
), ''Ἴστρια'' (
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
), is the largest
peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding water is usually understood to be continuous, though ...

peninsula
within the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the from the . The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the , extending from the (where it connects to the ) to the northwest and the . The countries with coasts on the Adriatic are , , , , and ...

Adriatic Sea
. The peninsula is located at the head of the Adriatic between the
Gulf of Trieste The Gulf of Trieste ( it, Golfo di Trieste, sl, Tržaški zaliv, hr, Tršćanski zaljev, german: Golf von Triest) is a very shallow bay of the Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the from the . The Adriatic is t ...

Gulf of Trieste
and the
Kvarner Gulf The Kvarner Gulf (, or , la, Sinus Flanaticus or ), sometimes also Kvarner Bay, is a bay in the northern Adriatic Sea, located between the Istrian peninsula and the northern Croatian Littoral mainland. The bay is a part of Croatia's internal wate ...
. It is shared by three countries:
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
,
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, lin ...

Slovenia
, and
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of Italy, several islands surrounding it, whose ...

Italy
.Marcel Cornis-Pope, John Neubauer
''History of the literary cultures of East-Central Europe: junctures and disjunctures in the 19th And 20th Centuries''
John Benjamins Publishing Co. (2006),
Alan John Day, Roger East, Richard Thomas
''A political and economic dictionary of Eastern Europe''
Routledge, 1sr ed. (2002),
Croatia encapsulates most of the Istrian peninsula with its
Istria County Istria County (; hr, Istarska županija; it, Regione istriana, "Istrian Region") is the westernmost Counties of Croatia, county of Croatia which includes the biggest part of the Istrian peninsula ( out of , or 89%). Administrative centers in ...
.


Geography

The geographical features of Istria include the
Učka The Učka ([], it, Monte Maggiore) is a mountain range in northwestern Croatia. It rises behind the Opatija riviera, on the eastern side of the Istrian peninsula. It forms a single morphological unit together with the Ćićarija range which stre ...

Učka
mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure, and alignment that have arisen from the same cause, us ...

mountain range
, which is the highest portion of the Ćićarija mountain range; the rivers
Dragonja The Dragonja (; it, Dragogna) is a long river in the northern part of the Istria, Istrian peninsula. It is a meandering river with a very branched drainage basin, basin and a small quantity of water. It has the pluvial regime and often dries up ...

Dragonja
,
Mirna A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small single-stranded non-coding RNA A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is an RNA Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymer A polymer (; Greek '' poly-'', "many" + '' -mer'', "part") is a substance or materi ...
,
Pazinčica
Pazinčica
, and Raša; and the Lim bay and valley. Istria lies in three countries: Croatia, Slovenia and Italy. By far the largest portion (89%) lies in Croatia. "Croatian Istria" is divided into two counties, the larger being
Istria County Istria County (; hr, Istarska županija; it, Regione istriana, "Istrian Region") is the westernmost Counties of Croatia, county of Croatia which includes the biggest part of the Istrian peninsula ( out of , or 89%). Administrative centers in ...
in western Croatia. Important towns in Istria County include
Pula Pula (; : ''Pola'', : ''Puola'', : ''Pulj'') is the largest city in , , and the , situated at the southern tip of the , with a population of 57,460 in 2011. It is known for its multitude of ancient buildings, the most famous of which is the , ...

Pula
,
Poreč Poreč (; it, Parenzo; la, Parens or ; grc, Πάρενθος, Párenthos) is a town and municipality on the western coast of the Istrian peninsula Istria ( ; Croatian, Slovene: ''Istra''; Istriot Istriot is a Romance languages, Romance l ...
,
Rovinj Rovinj (Croatian ; it, Rovigno, Istriot Istriot is a Romance languages, Romance language spoken by about 400 people in the southwestern part of the Istrian peninsula in Croatia, particularly in Rovinj and Vodnjan. It should not be confused with ...

Rovinj
,
Pazin Pazin ( it, Pisino, german: Mitterburg) is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different pa ...
,
Labin Labin ( it, Albona) is a town in Istria, Croatia, with a town population of 6,893 (2011) and 11,642 in the greater municipality (which also includes the small towns of Rabac and Vinež, as well as a number of smaller villages). History Labin dev ...

Labin
,
Umag Umag (; it, Umago) is a coastal town in Istria Istria ( ; Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics ...

Umag
,
Motovun Motovun (, it, Montona or ''Montona d'Istria'') is a village and a municipality in central Istria, Croatia. In ancient times, both Celts and Illyrians built their fortresses at the location of present-day Motovun. The name of the village is also ...

Motovun
,
Buzet Buzet (; la, Piquentum; it, Pinguente) is a town in Istria Istria ( ; Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, s ...
, and
Buje Buje ( it, Buie) is a town situated in Istria, Croatia's westernmost peninsula. Buje was known as the "sentinel of Istria" for its hilltop site located inland from the Adriatic Sea. History Buje has a rich history; traces of life in the region d ...
. Smaller towns in Istria County include
Višnjan
Višnjan
,
Roč Roč ( it, Rozzo, german: Rotz) is a village in Istria County, north-west Croatia. Administratively it belongs to the List of cities and towns in Croatia, town of Buzet. Roč is considered a historic town rather than a village due to its rich cult ...
, and
Hum
Hum
. The northwestern part of Istria lies in Slovenia: it is known as
Slovenian Istria Slovene Istria ( sl, slovenska Istra, it, Istria slovena) is a region in southwest Slovenia. It comprises the northern part of the Istria Istria ( ; Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name * ...
, and includes the coastal municipalities of
Piran Piran (; it, Pirano ) is a town in southwestern Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), o ...

Piran
/
Pirano Piran (; it, Pirano ) is a town in southwestern on the on the . It is one of the three major towns of . The town is known for its , with narrow streets and compact houses. Piran is the administrative seat of the and one of Slovenia's major to ...
,
Izola Izola (; it, Isola ) is an old fishing town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts o ...
, and
Koper Koper (; it, Capodistria, hr, Kopar) is the fifth largest city in Slovenia. Located in the Slovenian Istria, Istrian region in the southwestern part of the country, approximately five kilometres () south of the border with Italy and 20 kilometr ...

Koper
. It also includes the
Karstic Karst is a topography Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surfaces. The topography of an area could refer to the surface forms and features themselves, or a description (especially their depiction in maps). Topograph ...
municipality of Hrpelje-Kozina. Northwards of Slovenian Istria, there is a tiny portion of the peninsula that lies in Italy. This smallest portion of Istria consists of the ''
comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public services: Civil registry, registry of births a ...
s'' of
Muggia Muggia ( vec, label= Venetian, Triestine dialect The Triestine dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different typ ...

Muggia
and
San Dorligo della Valle San Dorligo della Valle ( sl, Dolina; Triestine dialect, Triestine: or ) is a ''comune'' (municipality) in the Province of Trieste in the Italy, Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about southeast of Trieste, on the border with Slovenia. ...
with Santa Croce (
Trieste Trieste ( , ; sl, Trst ; german: Triest ) is a city and seaport The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola The thumb is the first digit of the hand, next to the index finger. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position (wher ...

Trieste
) lying farthest to the north. The ancient region of ''Histria'' extended over a much wider area, including the whole
Karst plateau The Karst Plateau or the Karst region ( sl, Kras, it, Carso), also locally called Karst, is a karst plateau region extending across the border of southwestern Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slov ...
with the southern edges of the
Vipava Valley The Vipava Valley (; sl, Vipavska dolina, german: Wippachtal, it, Valle del Vipacco) is a valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountains, which will typically contain a river or stream running from one ...

Vipava Valley
, the southwestern portions of modern
Inner Carniola Inner Carniola ( sl, Notranjska; german: Innerkrain) is a traditional region of Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe Central Europe is th ...
with
Postojna Postojna (; german: Adelsberg, it, Postumia) is a town in the traditional region of Inner Carniola, from Trieste, in southwestern Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is ...

Postojna
and
Ilirska Bistrica Ilirska Bistrica (; german: Illyrisch Feistritz; it, Villa del Nevoso, before 1927: ''Bisterza'') is a town in the Inner Carniola region of southwestern Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: ...

Ilirska Bistrica
, and the Italian
Province of Trieste Image:Trieste mappa.png, 220px, Map of the Province of Trieste. The Province of Trieste ( it, Provincia di Trieste, sl, Tržaška pokrajina; fur, provinzia di Triest) was a Provinces of Italy, province in the autonomous Friuli-Venezia Giulia regio ...
, but not the
Liburnia Liburnia ( grc, Λιβουρνία) in ancient geography was the land of the Liburnians, a region along the northeastern Adriatic coast in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...
n coast which was already part of
Illyricum Illyricum may refer to: * Illyria In classical antiquity, Illyria ( grc, Ἰλλυρία, ''Illyría'' or , ''Illyrís''; la, Illyria, ''Illyricum'') was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by numerous tribes of peopl ...
.


Climate

* Central Istria (Pazin) has a
continental climate Continental climates often have a significant annual variation in temperature (hot summers and cold winters). They tend to occur in the middle latitudes (40 to 55 north), within large landmasses where prevailing winds In meteorology Mete ...
. * The northern (or Slovenian and Italian) coast of Istria (Ankaran/Ancarano, Koper/Capodistria, Izola/Isola, Muggia/Milje) has a sub-Mediterranean climate. * The western and southern coast (Piran/Pirano, Portorož/Portorose, Novigrad/Cittanova, Rovinj/Rovigno, Pula/Pola) has a
Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degre ...
. * The eastern coast (Rabac/Porto Albona, Labin/Albona, Opatija/Abbazia) has a sub-Mediterranean climate with
oceanic Oceanic may refer to: *Of or relating to the ocean *Of or relating to Oceania **Oceanic climate **Oceanic languages **Oceanic person or people, also called "Pacific Islander(s)" Places *Oceanic, British Columbia, a settlement on Smith Island, Br ...
influences. * The warmest places are Pula/Pola and Rovinj/Rovigno, while the coldest is Pazin/Pisino. * Precipitation is moderate, with between falling in the coastal areas, and up to in the hills.


History


Early history

The name is derived from the Histri ( el, Ἱστρών έθνος) tribes, which
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pre ...

Strabo
refers to as living in the region and who are credited as being the builders of the hillfort settlements (castellieri). The Histri are classified in some sources as a "Venetic" Illyrian tribe with certain linguistic differences from other Illyrians. The
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
described the Histri as a fierce tribe of pirates, protected by the difficult navigation of their rocky coasts. It took two military campaigns for the Romans to finally subdue them in 177 BC. The region was then called together with the Venetian part the X. Roman Region of "Venetia et Histria", the ancient definition of the northeastern border of Italy.
Dante Alighieri Dante Alighieri (), probably baptized Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri and often referred to simply as Dante (, also ; – 14 September 1321), was an Italian poet A poet is a person who creates poetry Poetry (derived from t ...

Dante Alighieri
refers to it as well, the eastern border of Italy per ancient definition is the river '' Arsia''. The eastern side of this river was settled by people whose culture was different than Histrians. Earlier influence of the
Iapodes The Iapydes (or Iapodes, Japodes; el, Ἰάποδες) were an ancient people who dwelt north of and inland from the Liburnians The Liburnians or Liburni ( grc, Λιβυρνοὶ) were an ancient tribe inhabiting the district called Liburnia, ...
was attested there, while at some time between the 4th and 1st century BC the
Liburnians The Liburnians or Liburni ( grc, Λιβυρνοὶ) were an ancient tribe inhabiting the district called Liburnia Liburnia ( grc, Λιβουρνία) in ancient geography was the land of the Liburnians, a region along the northeastern Adriati ...
extended their territory and it became a part of
Liburnia Liburnia ( grc, Λιβουρνία) in ancient geography was the land of the Liburnians, a region along the northeastern Adriatic coast in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...
. On the northern side, Histria extended much further north and included the Italian city of Trieste. Some scholars speculate that the names Histri and Istria are related to the Latin name Hister, or
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central Europe, Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. It ...

Danube
(especially its lower course). Ancient folktales reported —inaccurately— that the Danube split in two or "bifurcated" and came to the sea near
Trieste Trieste ( , ; sl, Trst ; german: Triest ) is a city and seaport The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola The thumb is the first digit of the hand, next to the index finger. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position (wher ...

Trieste
as well as at the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
. The story of the "bifurcation of the Danube" is part of the
Argonaut red-figure krater A krater or crater ( grc-gre, , ''kratēr'', literally "mixing vessel") was a large vase in Ancient Greece, used for the dilution of wine with water. Form and function At a Greek symposium, kraters were placed in the cente ...
legend. There is also a suspected link (but no historical documentation in support of it) to the commune of
Istria Istria ( ; Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also * Croatia (disambiguation) ...
in Constanța, Romania which is named after the ancient city Histria, named after River Hister. In the
Dark Ages Dark Ages or Dark Age may refer to: History and sociology *Dark Ages (historiography), the use of the term ''Dark Ages'' by historians and lay people **Byzantine Dark Ages (7th–8th centuries), period of large-scale transformation but obscure du ...
, Istria was conquered and occupied by the Goths. Ostrogoth coins were found in Istria, as well as the remains of some buildings. South of
Poreč Poreč (; it, Parenzo; la, Parens or ; grc, Πάρενθος, Párenthos) is a town and municipality on the western coast of the Istrian peninsula Istria ( ; Croatian, Slovene: ''Istra''; Istriot Istriot is a Romance languages, Romance l ...
there are the remains of the church of Sv. Petar, erected in the 5th century (with a baptistery added later), which reportedly served the Arian eastern Goths ruling Istria. Most notably, the Goths used
Istrian stone Istrian stone, ''pietra d'Istria'', the characteristic group of building stones in the architecture of Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Re ...
to build their best known monument, the
Mausoleum of Theodoric A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or Chamber tomb, burial chamber of a deceased person or people. A mausoleum without the person's remains is called a cenotaph. A mausoleum ...
in
Ravenna Ravenna ( , , also ; rgn, Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna The province of Ravenna ( it, provincia di Ravenna; ) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, admin ...

Ravenna
. In the following centuries, the peninsula was attacked and conquered by the
Lombards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on ...
, often in conjunction with the Slavs, such as in 601. However, the extent to which the Lombards occupied Istria is a matter of debate. After the Goths, Istria became part of the
Exarchate of Ravenna The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy ( la, Exarchatus Ravennatis) was a lordship of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Rom ...
. Gulfaris, who served the Byzantines but was of Lombard descent, is reported as its dux in 599.
Pope Gregory I Pope Gregory I ( la, Gregorius I; – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, was the from 3 September 590 to his death. He is known for instigating the first recorded large-scale mission from Rome, the , to convert the then- ...

Pope Gregory I
in 600 wrote to bishop of
Salona Salona ( grc, Σάλωνα) was an ancient city and the capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia Dalmatia (; hr, Dalmacija ; it, Dalmazia; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croati ...
Maximus in which he expresses concern about arrival of the
Slavs Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central Europe, ...

Slavs
, ''"Et quidem de Sclavorum gente, quae vobis valde imminet, et affligor vehementer et conturbor. Affligor in his quae jam in vobis patior; conturbor, quia per Istriae aditum jam ad Italiam intrare coeperunt"'' (And as for the people of the Slavs who are really approaching you, I am very depressed and confused. I am depressed because I sympathize with you, confused because they over the Istria began to enter the Italy) After the fall of the
Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprises the western provinces of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican ...

Western Roman Empire
, the region was pillaged by the
Goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between West ...
, the
Eastern Roman Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Eastern Roman Empire
, and the
Avars Avar(s) or AVAR may refer to: Peoples and states * Avars (Caucasus), a modern Northeast Caucasian-speaking people in the North Caucasus, Dagestan, Russia **Avar language, the modern Northeast Caucasian language spoken by the Avars of the North Ca ...
. It western part was subsequently annexed to the
Lombard The term Lombard refers to members of or things related to Lombardy (man) it, Lombarda (woman) lmo, Lombard (man) lmo, Lombarda (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 ...
Kingdom in 751, and then annexed to the Frankish kingdom by
Pepin of Italy Pepin or Pippin (or ''Pepin Carloman'', ''Pepinno'', April 777 – 8 July 810), born Carloman, was the son of Charlemagne and King of the Lombards (781–810) under the authority of his father. Pepin was the second son of Charlemagne by his the ...
in 789. In 804, the Placitum of Riziano was held in the Parish of Rižan ( la, Risanum), which was a meeting between the representatives of Istrian towns and castles and the deputies of
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
and his son Pepin. The report about this judicial diet illustrates the changes accompanying the transfer of power from the Eastern Roman Empire to the
Carolingian Empire The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient nort ...
and the discontent of the local residents. Afterwards it was successively controlled by the dukes of
Carantania Carantania, also known as Carentania ( sl, Karantanija, german: Karantanien, in Old Slavic ), was a early Slavs, Slavic principality that emerged in the second half of the 7th century, in the territory of present-day southern Austria and nort ...
,
Merania The Duchy of Merania, it, Ducato di Merania, sl, Vojvodina Meranija, hr, Vojvodina Meranije was a fiefdom of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic com ...
,
Bavaria Bavaria (; German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...

Bavaria
and by the
patriarch of AquileiaThis is a list of bishops and patriarchs of Aquileia in northeastern Italy. For the ecclesiastical history of the diocese, see Patriarchate of Aquileia. From Council of Aquileia, 553, 553 until Council of Aquileia, 698, 698 the archbishops renounced ...
, before it became the territory of the
Republic of Venice The Republic of Venice ( it, Repubblica di Venezia; vec, Repùblega de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic ( it, Repubblica Veneta; vec, Repùblega Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima ( en, Most Serene Republic Most Serene Republic ( ...
in 1267. The medieval Croatian kingdom held only the far eastern part of Istria (the border was near the river Raša), but they lost it to the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
in the late 11th century.


Venetian Republic

The coastal areas and cities of Istria came under Venetian Influence in the 9th century. On 15 February 1267, Parenzo was formally incorporated with the Venetian state. Other coastal towns followed shortly thereafter. Bajamonte Tiepolo was sent away from Venice in 1310, to start a new life in Istria after his downfall. A description of the 16th-century Istria with a precise map was prepared by the Italian geographer
Pietro Coppo Pietro Coppo (1469/70 – 1555/56; la, Petrus Coppus) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian lang ...
. A copy of the map inscribed in stone can now be seen in the Pietro Coppo Park in the center of the town of
Izola Izola (; it, Isola ) is an old fishing town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts o ...
in southwestern
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, lin ...

Slovenia
.


Habsburg Monarchy (1797–1805)

The Inner part of Istria around Mitterburg (
Pazin Pazin ( it, Pisino, german: Mitterburg) is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different pa ...
) had been part of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
for centuries, and more specifically part of the since the 14th century. In 1797, with the
Treaty of Campo Formio The Treaty of Campo Formio (today Campoformido) was signed on 17 October 1797 (26 Vendémiaire VI) by Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte ; co, Napulione Buonaparte. (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a ...
, the Venetian parts of the peninsula also passed to the Habsburg Monarchy which became the
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It compr ...
in 1804.


Napoleonic Era (1805–1814)

Following the Austrian defeat by
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
during the
War of the Third Coalition The War of the Third Coalition) * In French historiography, it is known as the Austrian campaign of 1805 (french: Campagne d'Autriche de 1805) or the German campaign of 1805 (french: Campagne d'Allemagne de 1805) was a European conflict spanni ...
, Istria became part of the
Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia; french: Royaume d'Italie) was a kingdom in Northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region i ...

Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy
(1806–1810) following the Peace of Pressburg, and then part of the
Illyrian provinces The Illyrian Provinces sl, Ilirske province hr, Ilirske provincije it, Province illirichegerman: Illyrische Provinzen, group=note were an autonomous province Autonomous province is a term for a type of province A province is almost always an a ...
of the
French Empire#REDIRECT French Empire {{Redirect shell , {{R from ambiguous page {{R from other capitalisation ...
(1810–1813) after the Treaty of Paris.


Austrian Empire (1814–1918)

After this seven-year period, the Austrian Empire regained Istria, which became part of the constituent
Kingdom of Illyria The Kingdom of Illyria was a crown land of the Austrian Empire from 1816 to 1849, the successor state of the Napoleonic Illyrian Provinces, reconquered by Austria in the War of the Sixth Coalition and restored according to the Final Act of the Con ...
. This kingdom was broken up in 1849, after which Istria formed part of
Austrian Littoral The Austrian Littoral (german: Österreichisches Küstenland, it, Litorale Austriaco, hr, Austrijsko primorje, sl, Avstrijsko primorje, hu, Osztrák Partvidék) was a crown land (''Kronland'') of the Austrian Empire, established in 1849. It c ...
, also known as the "Küstenland", which also included the city of Trieste and the
Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca The Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca (german: Gefürstete Grafschaft Görz und Gradisca; it, Principesca Contea di Gorizia e Gradisca; sl, Poknežena grofija Goriška in Gradiščanska), historically sometimes shortened to and spelled "G ...
until 1918. At that time the borders of Istria included part of what is now Italian Venezia-Giulia and parts of modern-day Slovenia and Croatia, but not the city of Trieste. Many
Istrian Italians Istrian Italians are an ethnic group from the Adriatic Sea, Adriatic region of Istria in modern northwestern Croatia and southwestern Slovenia. Istrian Italians descend from the original Latinized population of Roman Empire, Roman Istria#Early hist ...
looked with sympathy towards the
Risorgimento The unification of Italy ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the ''Risorgimento'' (, ; meaning "Resurgence"), was the 19th-century political and social movement that resulted in the consolidation of different states of the Italian Penins ...

Risorgimento
movement that fought for the unification of Italy. However, after the
Third Italian War of Independence The Third Italian War of Independence ( it, Terza Guerra d'Indipendenza Italiana) was a war between the Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia ...
(1866), when the
Veneto it, Veneto (man) it, Veneta (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = ...

Veneto
and
Friuli Friuli ( fur, Friûl) is an area of Northeast Italy with its own particular cultural and historical identity containing 1,000,000 Friulians. It comprises the major part of the autonomous region Friuli Venezia Giulia, i.e. the administrative Provin ...
regions were ceded by the
Austrians Austrians (german: Österreicher) are a Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic languages :* Pro ...
to the newly formed Kingdom Italy, Istria remained part of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exer ...
, together with other Italian-speaking areas on the eastern Adriatic. This triggered the gradual rise of
Italian irredentism , Ticino Ticino (), sometimes Tessin (), officially the Republic and Canton of Ticino or less formally the Canton of Ticino,, informally ''Canton Ticino'' ; lmo, Canton Tesin ; german: Kanton Tessin ; french: canton du Tessin ; rm, chantun dal ...
among many Italians in Istria, who demanded the unification of Istria with Italy. The Italians in Istria supported the Italian
Risorgimento The unification of Italy ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the ''Risorgimento'' (, ; meaning "Resurgence"), was the 19th-century political and social movement that resulted in the consolidation of different states of the Italian Penins ...

Risorgimento
: as a consequence, the Austrians saw the Italians as enemies and favored the Slav communities of Istria,''Die Protokolle des Österreichischen Ministerrates 1848/1867. V Abteilung: Die Ministerien Rainer und Mensdorff. VI Abteilung: Das Ministerium Belcredi'', Wien, Österreichischer Bundesverlag für Unterricht, Wissenschaft und Kunst 1971 fostering the nascent nationalism of Slovenes and Croats.Relazione della Commissione storico-culturale italo-slovena, Relazioni italo-slovene 1880-1956
"Capitolo 1980-1918"
, Capodistria, 2000
During the meeting of the Council of Ministers of 12 November 1866, Emperor
Franz Joseph I of Austria Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I (german: Franz Josef Karl, hu, Ferenc József Károly, hr, Franjo Josip Karlo, cs, František Josef Karel, 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was , , and , , and the of from 2 December 1848 until his death ...

Franz Joseph I of Austria
outlined a wide-ranging project aimed at the
Germanization Germanisation, or Germanization, is the spread of the German language German ( Standard High German: , ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern ...
or Slavization of the areas of the empire with an Italian presence: With its strategic position at the southern tip of the peninsula and good harbor Pula was the primary base of the Austrian Navy.


Italy (1919–1947)

After
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
and the dissolution of
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exe ...

Austria-Hungary
, there was a strong local movement toward Istrian independence but in the end Istria was partitioned to
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...
in the
Treaty of Rapallo (1920) The Treaty of Rapallo was a treaty between the Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II en, Victor Emmanuel Mario Albert Eugene Ferdinand Thomas , hou ...
. Istria's political and economic importance declined under Italian rule, and after the fascist takeover of Italy in 1922 the Italian government began a campaign of forced Italianization. In 1926, use of Slavic languages was banned, to the extent that Slavic family names were ordered to be changed to suit the fascist authorities. The organization
TIGR Tigr may refer to: * TIGR Tigr may refer to: * TIGR Tigr may refer to: * TIGR, an anti-Fascist insurgent organization, active in the 1920–30s in the regions Italy was given by the Treaty of Rappallo after the First World War * GAZ Tigr, a Russ ...
, founded in 1927 by young Slovene liberal nationalists from Gorizia region and
Trieste Trieste ( , ; sl, Trst ; german: Triest ) is a city and seaport The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola The thumb is the first digit of the hand, next to the index finger. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position (wher ...

Trieste
and regarded as the first armed
antifascist Anti-fascism is a political movement in opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals. Beginning in European countries in the 1920s, it was at its most significant shortly before and during World War II, where the Axis powers were ...
resistance group in Europe soon penetrated into Slovene and Croatian-speaking parts of Istria. In World War II, Istria became a battleground of competing ethnic and political groups. Istrian nationalist groups which were pro-fascist and pro-Allied and Yugoslav-supported pro-communist groups fought with each other and the Italian army. After the German withdrawal in 1945, Yugoslav partisans gained the upper hand and began a violent purge of real or suspected opponents in an "orgy of revenge".


SFR Yugoslavia (1947–1991)

After the end of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, Istria was ceded to
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (; sh, Jugoslavija / ; sl, Jugoslavija ; mk, Југославија ;; rup, Iugoslavia; hu, Jugoszlávia; Pannonian Rusyn Image:Novi Sad mayor office.jpg, 250px, Mayor office written in four official languages used in the ...
, except for a small part in the northwest corner that formed Zone B of the provisionally independent
Free Territory of Trieste The Free Territory of Trieste was an independent territory situated in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural identity. ...
; Zone B was under Yugoslav administration and after the ''
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with ''de jure'' ("by law"), which refers to th ...
'' dissolution of the Free Territory in 1954 it was also incorporated into Yugoslavia. Only the small town of
Muggia Muggia ( vec, label= Venetian, Triestine dialect The Triestine dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different typ ...

Muggia
, near
Trieste Trieste ( , ; sl, Trst ; german: Triest ) is a city and seaport The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola The thumb is the first digit of the hand, next to the index finger. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position (wher ...

Trieste
, being part of Zone A remained with Italy.Katia Pizzi
''A city in search of an author: the literacy identity of Trieste''
pg. 23, Sheffield Academic Press (2002),
The events of the period are visible in
Pula Pula (; : ''Pola'', : ''Puola'', : ''Pulj'') is the largest city in , , and the , situated at the southern tip of the , with a population of 57,460 in 2011. It is known for its multitude of ancient buildings, the most famous of which is the , ...

Pula
. The city had an
Istrian Italians Istrian Italians are an ethnic group from the Adriatic Sea, Adriatic region of Istria in modern northwestern Croatia and southwestern Slovenia. Istrian Italians descend from the original Latinized population of Roman Empire, Roman Istria#Early hist ...
majority and is located on the southernmost tip of the Istrian peninsula. Between December 1946 and September 1947, a large proportion of the city's inhabitants were forced to emigrate to Italy. Most of them left in the immediate aftermath of the signing of the
Paris Peace Treaty The Paris Peace Treaties (french: Traités de Paris) were signed on 10 February 1947 following the end of World War II in 1945. The Paris Peace Conference lasted from 29 July until 15 October 1946. The victorious wartime Allies of World War II, ...
on February 10, 1947 which granted Pula and the greater part of Istria to Yugoslavia.


After the breakup of Yugoslavia (after 1991)

The division of Istria between Croatia and Slovenia runs on the former republic borders, which were not precisely defined in the former Yugoslavia. Various points of contention remain unresolved between the two countries regarding the precise line of the border. It became an international boundary with the independence of both countries from Yugoslavia in 1991. Since
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
's first multi-party elections in 1990, the regionalist party
Istrian Democratic Assembly The Istrian Democratic Assembly ( hr, Istarski demokratski sabor, it, Dieta democratica istriana or IDS-DDI) is a centre to centre-left Centre-left politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the Engli ...
(IDS-DDI, ''Istarski demokratski sabor'' or ''Dieta democratica istriana'') has consistently received a majority of the vote and maintained through the 1990s a position often contrary to the government in
Zagreb Zagreb ( , , , ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smalle ...

Zagreb
, led by the then nationalistic party
Croatian Democratic Union The Croatian Democratic Union ( hr, Hrvatska demokratska zajednica, lit=Croatian Democratic Community, HDZ) is the major party, major conservative, centre-right list of political parties in Croatia, political party in Croatia. It is one of the ...
(HDZ, ''Hrvatska demokratska zajednica''), with regards to decentralization in Croatia and certain facets of
region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The ...

region
al
autonomy In developmental psychology Developmental psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions ...
. The Istrian regionalist movement is known as Istrianism. However, that changed in 2000 when the IDS formed with five other parties a left-centre coalition government, led by the
Social Democratic Party of Croatia The Social Democratic Party of Croatia ( hr, Socijaldemokratska partija Hrvatske, SDP) is a social-democratic political party in Croatia and the largest party of the Croatian centre-left. The SDP is one of the two major political parties in Croa ...
(SDP, ''Socijaldemokratska Partija Hrvatske''). After the reformed HDZ won the Croatian parliamentary elections in late 2003 and formed a minority government, the IDS has cooperated with the state government on many projects, both local (in
Istria County Istria County (; hr, Istarska županija; it, Regione istriana, "Istrian Region") is the westernmost Counties of Croatia, county of Croatia which includes the biggest part of the Istrian peninsula ( out of , or 89%). Administrative centers in ...
) and national. Since Slovenia's accession to the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
and the
Schengen Area The Schengen Area ( , ) is an area comprising 26 Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''ge ...

Schengen Area
, customs and immigration checks have been abolished at the Italian-Slovenian border.


Demographic history

The region has traditionally been ethnically mixed. Under in the 19th century it included a large population of
Italians Italians ( it, italiani ) are a Romance Romance (from Vulgar Latin , "in the Roman language", i.e., "Latin") may refer to: Common meanings * Romance (love) Romance or Romantic love is an emotional feeling of love for, or a strong att ...
,
Croats Croats (; hr, Hrvati ), also known as Croatians, are a nation A nation is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), customs, o ...

Croats
, and
Slovenes The Slovenes, also known as Slovenians ( sl, Slovenci ), are a nation A nation is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), cust ...
as well as some
Istro-Romanians The Istro-Romanians ( ruo, rumeri or ) are a Romance Romance (from Vulgar Latin , "in the Roman language", i.e., "Latin") may refer to: Common meanings * Romance (love) Romance or Romantic love is an emotional feeling of love for, or a ...
,
Serbs Serbs ( sr-Cyr, Срби, Srbi, ) are a South Slavic ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from ...
, and
Montenegrins Montenegrins (Montenegrin language, Montenegrin and Serbian language, Serbian: Crnogorci / Црногорци, or ; literal translation, lit. "Black Mountain People") are a South Slavs, South Slavic ethnic group native to Montenegro. Genetic orig ...
; however, official statistics in those times did not show those nationalities as they do today. In 1910, the ethnic and linguistic composition was completely mixed. According to the Austrian census results (Istria included here parts of the Karst and Liburnia which are not really part of Istria and excluded ancient Istrian parts, like Trieste), out of 404,309 inhabitants in Istria, 168,116 (41.6%) spoke
Serbo-Croatian Serbo-Croatian () – also called Serbo-Croat (), Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), and Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS) – is a South Slavic language The South Slavic languages are one of three branche ...
, 147,416 (36.5%) spoke
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
, 55,365 (13.7%) spoke
Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...
, 13,279 (3.3%) spoke
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
, 882 (0.2%) spoke Istro-Romanian, 2,116 (0.5%) spoke other languages, and 17,135 (4.2%) were non-citizens, which had not been asked for their language of communication. During the last decades of the
Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...

Habsburg
dynasty the coast of Istria profited from tourism within the Empire. Generally speaking, Italians lived on the coast and in the inland cities of northern Istria, while Croats and Slovenes lived in the eastern and southeastern inland parts of the countryside. In the second half of the 19th century a clash of new
ideological An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of ...
movements,
Italian irredentism , Ticino Ticino (), sometimes Tessin (), officially the Republic and Canton of Ticino or less formally the Canton of Ticino,, informally ''Canton Ticino'' ; lmo, Canton Tesin ; german: Kanton Tessin ; french: canton du Tessin ; rm, chantun dal ...
(which claimed Trieste and Istria), Slovene
nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target ...
, and Croatian nationalism (developing individual identities in some quarters while seeking to unite in a Southern Slav identity in others) resulted in growing ethnic conflict between Italians on one side and Slovenes and Croats on the other side. This was intertwined with class conflict, as inhabitants of Istrian towns were mostly Italian, while
Croats Croats (; hr, Hrvati ), also known as Croatians, are a nation A nation is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), customs, o ...

Croats
and
Slovenes The Slovenes, also known as Slovenians ( sl, Slovenci ), are a nation A nation is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), cust ...
largely lived out in the eastern countryside. The Croatian word for the Istrians is ''Istrani'', or ''Istrijani'', the latter being in the local
Chakavian dialect Chakavian or Čakavian (, , , sh-Latn, čakavski proper name: or own name: ''čokovski, čakavski, čekavski'') is a South Slavic languages, South Slavic regiolect or language spoken primarily by Croats along the Adriatic coast, in the histor ...
. The term ''Istrani'' is also used in Slovenia. The Italian word for the Istrians is ''Istriani'' and today the Italian minority is organized in many towns and consists officially of around 45,000 inhabitants. The Istrian county in Croatia is bilingual, as are large parts of Slovenian Istria. Every citizen has the right to speak either Italian or Croatian (Slovene in Slovenian Istria and Italian in the town of Koper/Capodistria, Piran/Pirano, Portorož/Portorose, and Izola/Isola d'Istria) in public administration or in court. Furthermore, Istria is a supranational European Region that includes Italian, Slovenian and Croatian Istria.


Ethnicity

Discussions about Istrian ethnicity often use the words "Italian", "Croatian", and "Slovene" to describe the character of the Istrian people. However these terms are best understood as "national affiliations" that may exist in combination with or independently of linguistic, cultural and historical attributes. In the Istrian context, for example, the word "Italian" can just as easily refer to
autochthonous River ecosystems are flowing waters that drain the landscape, and include the Biotic component, biotic (living) interactions amongst plants, animals and micro-organisms, as well as abiotic (nonliving) physical and chemical interactions of its many ...
speakers of the
Venetian language Venetian or Venetan ( or ), is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries. They are a subgroup ...
whose antecedents in the region extend before the inception of the
Venetian Republic The Republic of Venice ( it, Repubblica di Venezia; vec, Repùblega de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic ( it, Repubblica Veneta; vec, Repùblega Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima ( en, Most Serene Republic of Venice, italics=yes; ...
or to the
Istriot language Istriot is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries. They are a subgroup of the Italic languages in t ...
the oldest spoken language in Istria, dated back to the Romans, today spoken in the southwest of Istria. It can also refer to Istrian Croats who adopted the veneer of
Italian culture Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the . Italy is located in the c ...
as they moved from rural to urban areas, or from the farms into the bourgeoisie. Similarly, national powers claim Istrian Croats according to local language, so that speakers of Čakavian and Štokavian dialects of
Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also

* Croatia (disambiguation) * Serbo-Croatian (di ...
are considered to be Croatians while speakers of other dialects may be considered to be Slovene. Croatian dialect speakers are descendants of the refugees of the Turkish invasion and
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
of
Bosnia Bosnia ( bs, Bosna / , ) is the north North is one of the four compass points The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar r ...
and
Dalmatia Dalmatia (; hr, Dalmacija ; it, Dalmazia; see #Name, names in other languages) is a region on the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, a narrow belt stretching from the island of Rab in the north to the Bay of Kotor in the south. The Dalmatian Hin ...

Dalmatia
in the 16th century. The government of the
Republic of Venice The Republic of Venice ( it, Repubblica di Venezia; vec, Repùblega de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic ( it, Repubblica Veneta; vec, Repùblega Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima ( en, Most Serene Republic Most Serene Republic ( ...
had settled them in Inner Istria, which had been devastated by wars and plague. As with other regions, the local dialects of the Croatian communities vary greatly across close distances. The Istrian Croatian and Italian vernaculars had both developed for many generations before being divided as they are today. This meant that Croats/Slovenes on the one side and Venetians/other Italians on the other side yielded to each other culturally while simultaneously distancing themselves from members of their ethnic groups living farther away. Another important Istrian community are the
Istro-Romanians The Istro-Romanians ( ruo, rumeri or ) are a Romance Romance (from Vulgar Latin , "in the Roman language", i.e., "Latin") may refer to: Common meanings * Romance (love) Romance or Romantic love is an emotional feeling of love for, or a ...
in the south and north of the Učka mountain range of Istria. A small
Albanian Albanian may refer to: *Pertaining to Albania in Southeast Europe; in particular: **Albanians, an ethnic group native to the Balkans **Albanian language **Albanian culture **Demographics of Albania, includes other ethnic groups within the country ...

Albanian
community, which until the late 19th century spoke the
Istrian Albanian Istrian Albanian was a Gheg Albanian, Gheg variety of the Albanian language, spoken History From the 13th to the 17th century the depopulation of the Istrian Peninsula prompted the Republic of Venice to repopulate the region with settlers, which ...
dialect is also present in the peninsula.


Austro-Hungarian census

According to Austro-Hungarian censuses, the ethnic composition of Istria (i.e. the Habsburg Magraviate of Istria) was as follows:


Recent census

According to the 2011 Croatian census data for the
Istria County Istria County (; hr, Istarska županija; it, Regione istriana, "Istrian Region") is the westernmost Counties of Croatia, county of Croatia which includes the biggest part of the Istrian peninsula ( out of , or 89%). Administrative centers in ...
, 68.33% of the inhabitants were
Croats Croats (; hr, Hrvati ), also known as Croatians, are a nation A nation is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), customs, o ...

Croats
, 6.03% were
Italians Italians ( it, italiani ) are a Romance Romance (from Vulgar Latin , "in the Roman language", i.e., "Latin") may refer to: Common meanings * Romance (love) Romance or Romantic love is an emotional feeling of love for, or a strong att ...
, 3.46% were
Serbs Serbs ( sr-Cyr, Срби, Srbi, ) are a South Slavic ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from ...
, 2.95% were
Bosniaks The Bosniaks or Bosniacs ( bs, Bošnjaci, ; , ) are a and native to the an of , which is today part of . A native minority of Bosniaks live in other countries in the ; especially in the region of and (where Bosniaks form a regional ...
, 1.15% were
Albanians The Albanians (; sq, Shqiptarët, ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attrib ...

Albanians
, and 1.96% did not state their nationality. Those declaring themselves regionally as Istrians made up 12.11%. Other nationalities had less than 1% each. The data for Slovenian Istria is not as neatly organized, but the 2002 Slovenian census indicates that the three Istrian municipalities (
Izola Izola (; it, Isola ) is an old fishing town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts o ...
,
Piran Piran (; it, Pirano ) is a town in southwestern Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), o ...

Piran
,
Koper Koper (; it, Capodistria, hr, Kopar) is the fifth largest city in Slovenia. Located in the Slovenian Istria, Istrian region in the southwestern part of the country, approximately five kilometres () south of the border with Italy and 20 kilometr ...

Koper
) had a total of 56,482 Slovenes, 6,426 Croats, and 1,840 Italians. The small town of
Peroj Peroj ( it, Peroi, cnr, Перој) is a village in the Town of Vodnjan on the south-western coast of Istria County, Istria, Croatia. Peroj originally dates back to the Copper Age of prehistory, as testified by a necropolis within the old walls o ...
has had a unique history which exemplifies the multi-ethnic complexity of the history of the region, as do some villages on both sides of the Učka that are still identified with the Istro-Romanian people which the
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
Redbook of Endangered Languages calls "the smallest ethnic group in Europe".


Image gallery

File:Pula-avion.JPG, Aerial picture of
Pula Pula (; : ''Pola'', : ''Puola'', : ''Pulj'') is the largest city in , , and the , situated at the southern tip of the , with a population of 57,460 in 2011. It is known for its multitude of ancient buildings, the most famous of which is the , ...

Pula
(Croatia) File:Porec riva.jpg, The promenade of
Poreč Poreč (; it, Parenzo; la, Parens or ; grc, Πάρενθος, Párenthos) is a town and municipality on the western coast of the Istrian peninsula Istria ( ; Croatian, Slovene: ''Istra''; Istriot Istriot is a Romance languages, Romance l ...
(Croatia) File:Rovinj.jpg,
Rovinj Rovinj (Croatian ; it, Rovigno, Istriot Istriot is a Romance languages, Romance language spoken by about 400 people in the southwestern part of the Istrian peninsula in Croatia, particularly in Rovinj and Vodnjan. It should not be confused with ...

Rovinj
, as seen from the bell tower of the church of Saint Eufemia (Croatia) File:Motovun aerial view.jpg,
Motovun Motovun (, it, Montona or ''Montona d'Istria'') is a village and a municipality in central Istria, Croatia. In ancient times, both Celts and Illyrians built their fortresses at the location of present-day Motovun. The name of the village is also ...

Motovun
(Croatia) File:Lim canal.jpg, Lim canal (Croatia) File:Koper Praetorian Palace.jpg, The Praetorian Palace in
Koper Koper (; it, Capodistria, hr, Kopar) is the fifth largest city in Slovenia. Located in the Slovenian Istria, Istrian region in the southwestern part of the country, approximately five kilometres () south of the border with Italy and 20 kilometr ...

Koper
(Slovenia) File:Piran - overview.jpg, Old town of
Piran Piran (; it, Pirano ) is a town in southwestern Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), o ...

Piran
(Slovenia) File:Muggia z001.JPG, Port in
Muggia Muggia ( vec, label= Venetian, Triestine dialect The Triestine dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different typ ...

Muggia
(Italy) File:Istarska narodna nošnja.2.jpg, Traditional folk costume of Istrian Croats File:Vineyards of Istria (Croatia).jpg, Vineyards of Istria


Major towns and

municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
of Istria

This list includes towns and municipalities of Istria with populations estimated to be higher than 8,000 people. *
Trieste Trieste ( , ; sl, Trst ; german: Triest ) is a city and seaport The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola The thumb is the first digit of the hand, next to the index finger. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position (wher ...

Trieste
*
Koper Koper (; it, Capodistria, hr, Kopar) is the fifth largest city in Slovenia. Located in the Slovenian Istria, Istrian region in the southwestern part of the country, approximately five kilometres () south of the border with Italy and 20 kilometr ...

Koper
*
Pula Pula (; : ''Pola'', : ''Puola'', : ''Pulj'') is the largest city in , , and the , situated at the southern tip of the , with a population of 57,460 in 2011. It is known for its multitude of ancient buildings, the most famous of which is the , ...

Pula
*
Poreč Poreč (; it, Parenzo; la, Parens or ; grc, Πάρενθος, Párenthos) is a town and municipality on the western coast of the Istrian peninsula Istria ( ; Croatian, Slovene: ''Istra''; Istriot Istriot is a Romance languages, Romance l ...
*
Rovinj Rovinj (Croatian ; it, Rovigno, Istriot Istriot is a Romance languages, Romance language spoken by about 400 people in the southwestern part of the Istrian peninsula in Croatia, particularly in Rovinj and Vodnjan. It should not be confused with ...

Rovinj
*
Umag Umag (; it, Umago) is a coastal town in Istria Istria ( ; Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics ...

Umag
*
Labin Labin ( it, Albona) is a town in Istria, Croatia, with a town population of 6,893 (2011) and 11,642 in the greater municipality (which also includes the small towns of Rabac and Vinež, as well as a number of smaller villages). History Labin dev ...

Labin
*
Pazin Pazin ( it, Pisino, german: Mitterburg) is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different pa ...


See also

* List of Istrians * March of Istria * Istrian–Dalmatian exodus *
Istrian Italians Istrian Italians are an ethnic group from the Adriatic Sea, Adriatic region of Istria in modern northwestern Croatia and southwestern Slovenia. Istrian Italians descend from the original Latinized population of Roman Empire, Roman Istria#Early hist ...
* ''Acta Histriae''


References

;Notes


Further reading

* * Luigi Tomaz, ''Il confine d'Italia in Istria e Dalmazia. Duemila anni di storia'', Presentazione di Arnaldo Mauri, Think ADV, Conselve 2008. * Luigi Tomaz, ''In Adriatico nel secondo millennio'', Presentazione di Arnaldo Mauri, Think ADV, Conselve, 2010. * Louis François Cassas "Travels in Istria and Dalmatia, drawn up from the itinerary of L. F. Cassas" Eng trans. from 1802 Fr pub.


External links

*
Istria on the Internet (a non-commercial, non-political, cultural site)

Old postcards of Istria

A Brief History of Istria / Darko Darovec



Istrian cultural heritage. Bukaleta Kazun, wall paintings

Travels in Istria and Dalmatia: drawn up from the itinerary of L. F. Cassas
on Google Books {{Authority control Istria, Peninsulas of Croatia Geography of Italy Geography of Southern Europe Peninsulas of Slovenia Austrian Littoral Former states and territories in Slovenia