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An Islamic republic can be considered a
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social relation, social relatio ...
in the form of a
republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...

republic
that is officially ruled by Islamic laws, contrasted to
Islamic monarchy An Islamic monarchy is a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life ...
. As a name or title, three current states are Islamic republics:
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
,
Mauritania Mauritania (; ar, موريتانيا, ', french: Mauritanie; Berber languages, Berber: ''Agawej'' or ''Cengit''; Pulaar language, Pulaar: ''Moritani''; Wolof language, Wolof: ''Gànnaar''; Soninke language, Soninke: ''Murutaane''), officially ...

Mauritania
and
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
. The term is, however, vague. Despite sharing the "Islamic republic" name, the countries differ greatly in their governments and laws, and of the three only Iran is a religious
theocratic Theocracy is a form of government in which one or more deities A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the . This term is attributed to , such as s, s, , and ...
state. Additionally, Pakistan was the first to adopt the name in 1956, despite the fact Islam was not the state religion at the time. It can therefore be considered a symbolic term. As a term, it has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. To some Muslim religious leaders in the regions who advocate it, an Islamic republic is a state under a particular
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
ic
form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...
. They see it as a compromise between a purely Islamic
caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = '' Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' ...
and a
secular Secularity, also the secular or secularness (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through t ...

secular
,
nationalist Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation (as in a in-group and out-group, group of people),Anthony D. Smith, Smith, Anthony. ''Nationalism: Theory, Ideology, History''. Polity (publisher), Polity, ...
republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...

republic
. In their conception of the Islamic republic, the
penal code A criminal code (or penal code) is a document that compiles all, or a significant amount of, a particular jurisdiction's criminal law Criminal law is the body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting o ...
of the state is required to be compatible with some or all laws of
Sharia Sharia (; ar, شريعة, sharīʿa ) is a religious law Religious law includes ethical Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong action ...
and the state may not be a monarchy as many Middle Eastern states are presently. Despite this, there are republics with Islam as a
state religion A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whethe ...
and that are (at least partly) ruled by Islamic laws, but do not carry the "Islamic republic" name - examples include
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
,
Yemen ) , image_map = Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a Sanaa ( ar, صَنْعَاء, ' , Yemeni Arabic: ; Old South Arabian: 𐩮 ...

Yemen
,
Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , religion = , official_languages = , languages_type = Oth ...

Algeria
and
Maldives Maldives (, ; dv, ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ, translit=Dhivehi Raajje IPA: ), officially the Republic of Maldives, is an archipelagic country in the Indian subcontinent of Asia, situated in the Indian Ocean. It lies southwest of Sri Lanka and ...

Maldives
. Iran officially uses it as a title in all governance names referring to the country (e.g. the
Islamic Republic of Iran Army , founded = , current_form = (Islamic Republic An Islamic republic can be considered a sovereign state in the form of a republic that is officially ruled by Islamic laws, contrasted to Islamic monarchy. As a name or title, ...
or the
Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting The Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) ( fa, صدا و سيمای جمهوری اسلامی ايران, ''Sedā va Sīmā-ye Jomhūri-ye Eslāmi-ye Īrān'', lit. ''Voice and Vision of the Islamic Republic of Iran'', formerly called Na ...
) as opposed to its equivalents in Pakistan which are called the
Pakistan Armed Forces The Pakistan Armed Forces (; ) are the Military, combined military forces of Pakistan. It is the List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel, world's sixth-largest military measured by Active duty, active military personn ...
and the
Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation Radio Pakistan serves as the national public broadcaster for radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication, communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30 hertz (Hz) a ...
. Unlike the others, Iran also uses the IRI acronym of the Islamic Republic of Iran as part of official acronyms.


List of current Islamic republics


Iran

Two months after the
Islamic Revolution The Iranian Revolution ( fa, انقلاب ایران, Enqelâb-e Irân, ), also known as the Islamic Revolution ( fa, انقلاب اسلامی, Enqelâb-e Eslâmī) was a series of events that culminated in the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynas ...
in 1979, the new government held the Iranian Islamic Republic referendum on 10 and 11 Farvardin (30 and 31 March) to change the
Pahlavi dynasty The Pahlavi dynasty ( fa, خاندان پهلوی) is the last Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. ...
into an Islamic republic. On 12 Farvardin (1 April), it was announced that 98.2% of the Iranian voters wanted to establish the Islamic republic. Before the referendum, some political groups suggested various names for the ideology of the Iranian revolution such as the Republic (without Islam) or the
Democratic Republic A democratic republic is a form of government operating on principles adopted from a republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state ...
.
Ruhollah Khomeini Sayyid ''Sayyid'' (, ; ar, سيد ; ; meaning 'Lord', 'Master'; Arabic plural: ; feminine: ; ) is an title denoting people accepted as descendants of the and his cousin and son-in-law (Ali ibn Abi Talib) through his grandson ...

Ruhollah Khomeini
, the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran, asked people to vote for the name Islamic Republic, "not a word more and not a word less". According to the
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
, the
Islamic Republic of Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tur ...
is a system based on the following beliefs:


Commentary

According to a commentary on the constitution, just as the establishment of Islamic republic system is based on the beliefs of people, namely governing of right,
justice Justice, in its broadest sense, is the principle that people receive that which they deserve, with the interpretation of what then constitutes "deserving" being impacted upon by numerous fields, with many differing viewpoints and perspectives, ...

justice
and
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
. However, its continuation lasted with the same principles and there is an important role for the beliefs of Iranian people. Furthermore, those beliefs are of complete and determinate roles in all affairs. They are considered as guidelines for governors and statesmen. There is an important role for beliefs such as the principle of unity of
God In monotheistic Monotheism is the belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the ...

God
and believing in it. In spite of that, there are other principles are to the submission in front of
Allah Allah (; ar, الله, translit=Allāh, ) is the Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East ...

Allah
and His order. Therefore, legislation is limited to Allah and laws so far as correspond to divine legislation are valid. Belief in
divine revelation In religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involu ...

divine revelation
and
prophecy A prophecy is a message that is claimed by a person (typically a prophet In religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whethe ...
are essential to Islamic worldview and there are two kinds of justice. The first kind is legislative (''Tashri'i'') and the other kind is creative (''Takivini''). Creative justice is based on justice and equality. Legislative justice is respected to making divine law in Islamic society. Besides, the basis of
Shia Shia Islam or Shi'ism is the second largest Islamic schools and branches, branch of Islam. It holds that the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad designated Ali, Ali ibn Abi Talib as his Succession to Mu ...
school is in terms of
imamateThe term imamate or ''imamah'' ( ar, إمامة, ''imāmah'') means "leadership" and refers to the office of an ''imam Imam (; ar, إمام '; plural: ') is an Islamic leadership position. It is most commonly used as the title of a worship ...
or leadership. According to the principle of imamate in
Shia Shia Islam or Shi'ism is the second largest Islamic schools and branches, branch of Islam. It holds that the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad designated Ali, Ali ibn Abi Talib as his Succession to Mu ...
, it is indispensable to obey of the prophet of Allah and of those possessed of authority.
Shia clergy In Shi'a Islam Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main branches of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , a ...
believes that the conception of the term "those possessed of authority" denoted on innocent Shia imams. When the Imam is absent, the valy faghih is in charge of leadership of society. In other words, religious leaders undertake the responsibility of the imamate. There is more emphasizing on the dignity (''karamat'') and the high value of humans which is along with freedom and responsibility. The principle of dignity is a necessary condition of the Islamic republic in terms of existence, but there are many meanings for the term dignity. Sometimes it refers to generosity, nobleness and honor, but Islam considers it two sorts of dignity for human beings, namely essential or innate dignity and acquired dignity. According to innate dignity, human being possessed of the right of living among other creatures. The principle is also mentioned by the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the six p ...
in 1948. On the basis of acquired dignity, the human is able to pass the degrees of perfection with the aid of actuality of his potentialities and talents.


Opinions

For the first time,
Ruhollah Khomeini Sayyid ''Sayyid'' (, ; ar, سيد ; ; meaning 'Lord', 'Master'; Arabic plural: ; feminine: ; ) is an title denoting people accepted as descendants of the and his cousin and son-in-law (Ali ibn Abi Talib) through his grandson ...

Ruhollah Khomeini
referred to the terms of Islamic republic for the Iranian people. He believes that the Iranian people want an
Islamic state , caption = , active = {{Collapsible list , title = 1999–present , 1 = 1999: Established under the name of Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad , 2 = October 2004: Joined al-Qaeda , 3 = 13 October 2006: Declaration of an Islamic ...
which is a
republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...

republic
. Responding to a journalist's question on the ambiguity of the term Islamic republic, Khomeini stated that the term republic has the same sense as other uses and Islamic republic has considered both Islamic ideology and the choice of people.


Mauritania

The Islamic Republic of Mauritania is a country in the
Maghreb The Maghreb (; ar, المغرب, al-Maghrib, lit=the west), also known as Northwest Africa, is the western part of North Africa and the Arab world. The region includes Algeria, Libya, Mauritania (also considered part of West Africa), Morocco and ...

Maghreb
region of western
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
.


Pakistan

Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
was the first country to adopt the adjective Islamic to modify its republican status under its otherwise secular constitution in 1956. Despite this definition, the country did not have a state religion until 1973, when a new constitution, more democratic and less secular, was adopted. Pakistan only uses the Islamic name on its passports, visas and coins. Although Islamic Republic is specifically mentioned in the constitution of 1973, all government documents are prepared under the name of the
Government of Pakistan The Government of Pakistan ( ur, , translit=hakúmat-e pákistán) abbreviated as GoP, is a federal government A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group ...
. The
Constitution of Pakistan The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ( ur, ), also known as the 1973 Constitution, is the supreme law of Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is ...
, Part IX, Article 227 states: "All existing laws shall be brought in conformity with the Injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah,in this Part referred to as the Injunctions of Islam, and no law shall be enacted which is repugnant to such Injunctions".


Former


Chechen Republic of Ichkeria

The
Chechen Republic of Ichkeria The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (; ce, Нохчийн Республик Ичкери, Nóxçiyn Respublik Içkeri; russian: Чеченская Республика Ичкерия; abbreviated as "ChRI" or "CRI") was a List of active separati ...
used an Islamic republic government system from 1996 to 2000.


Comoros

Between 1978 and 2001, the
Comoros The Comoros,; ar, جزر القمر, ' officially the Union of the Comoros,Comorian languages, Comorian: ''Udzima wa Komori,'' french: Union des Comores, ar, الاتحاد القمري ' is an island country in the Indian Ocean, at the nor ...
was the Federal and Islamic Republic of the Comoros.


East Turkestan

The
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...
UyghurUyghur may refer to: * Uyghurs, a Turkic ethnic group living in Eastern and Central Asia * Uyghur language, a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Uyghurs ** Uyghur alphabets, any of four systems used to write the language * Uyghur Khaganate, a T ...
- and -controlled Turkish Islamic Republic of East Turkestan was declared in 1933 as an independent Islamic republic by
Sabit Damulla Abdulbaki Sabit Damolla ( ug, سابىت داموللا; ; June 1883 – 1934) was a East Turkestan independence movement, Uyghur independence movement leader who led the Hotan rebellion against the Xinjiang Province government of Jin Shuren and later the Uy ...
and . However, the Chinese Muslim 36th Division of the
National Revolutionary Army The National Revolutionary Army (NRA; ), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army () before 1928, and as National Army () after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT) () is a major political party in Taiwan ...
defeated their armies and destroyed the republic during the Battles of Kashgar,
Yangi Hissar Yengisar County, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (also known as Yangi Hissar); via Mandarin Chinese known as Yingjisha, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, United States National ...
and
Yarkand Yarkant County,, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency also Shache County,, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency also SASM/GNC rom ...
. The Chinese Muslim Generals
Ma Fuyuan Ma Fuyuan () was a Chinese Muslim general of the 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army) The 36th Division was a cavalry division in the National Revolutionary Army The National Revolutionary Army (NRA; ), sometimes shortened to Revolut ...
and
Ma Zhancang Ma Zhancang (, Xiao'erjing: ) was a Hui Chinese Muslim general of the 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army), who served under Generals Ma Zhongying and Ma Hushan. At the Battle of Kashgar (1933), he repulsed an attack of Uighurs led by ...

Ma Zhancang
declared the destruction of the rebel forces and the return of the area to the control of the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
in 1934, followed by the executions of the Turkic Muslim Emirs
Abdullah Bughra Abdullah Bughra ( ug, (Kona Yëziq) ئابدۇللا بۇغرا, عبد الله بغرا; zh, c=阿不都拉·布格拉, p=Ābùdūlā·Bùgélā; died 1934) was a Uyghurs, Uighur Emir of the First East Turkestan Republic. He was the younger brot ...
and
Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra ( ug, (Kona Yëziq) نۇر ئەخمەتجان بۇغرا, نور احمد جان بغرا; zh, s=努尔·阿合买提江·布格拉, t=努爾·阿合買提江·布格拉, p=Nǔ'ěr·Āhémǎitíjiāng·Bùgélā; d. April 16, ...
. The Chinese Muslim General
Ma Zhongying Ma Zhongying, also Ma Chung-ying (, Xiao'erjing: ; c. 1910 or 1908 – after 1936), was a Hui Chinese Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religion. The deri ...

Ma Zhongying
then entered the
Id Kah Mosque The Id Kah Mosque ( ug, ھېيتگاھ مەسچىتى, translit=Hëytgah Meschiti, ; zh, s=艾提尕尔清真寺, t=艾提尕爾清真寺, p=Àitígǎěr Qīngzhēnsì; from Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, histori ...
in
Kashgar Kashgar ( ug, قەشقەر – ''Qeshqer'') or Kashi ( zh, c=喀什) is an oasis In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, feat ...

Kashgar
and lectured the Turkic Muslims on being loyal to the Nationalist Government.


Afghanistan

Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...
was an Islamic republic from 1990 to 1996, and from 2001 to 2021. The 1990 constitution was imposed by the Mohammad Najibullah government and eliminated communism. The constitution formed in 2004 was very similar to the 1964 Constitution of Afghanistan, created when Afghanistan was a
constitutional A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents A precedent is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case A legal case is in a general sense a dispute between opposing parties which may be ...
Islamic monarchy An Islamic monarchy is a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life ...
. It consisted of three branches, the executive, the legislative and the judicial. The
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media L ...
was the legislature, a
bicameral Bicameralism is the practice of having a legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) ...
body having two chambers, the House of the People and the
House of Elders The House of Elders or Mesherano Jirga ( ps, د افغانستان مشرانو جرګه), is the upper house of the bicameral Bicameralism is the practice of having a legislature divided into two separate Deliberative assembly, assemblies ...
. The Islamic prefix to Republic was considered symbolic as it was a name supported by pro-Mujahideen delegates during the assembly of forming the constitution. From 1996 to the re-establishment of the Islamic republic in 2001, Afghanistan was ruled by the
Taliban The Taliban (; ps, طالبان, ṭālibān, lit=students or 'seekers'), which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, Taliban Islamic Movement and/or Islamic Movement of Taliban is a Deobandi Deobandi ( hi, देव ...

Taliban
, a militant group based in
Kandahar Kandahar (; Kandahār, , Qandahār) is a List of cities in Afghanistan, city in Afghanistan, located in the south of the country on the Arghandab River, at an elevation of . It is Afghanistan's second largest city after Kabul, with a population ...

Kandahar
, who governed Afghanistan as an
Islamic Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling ...
) is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that Muhammad is a Muhammad in Islam, messenger of God.Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , ed ...
theocracy Theocracy is a form of government in which one or more deities A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the laws of nature. This term is attributed to non-phys ...

theocracy
officially known as the
Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari language, Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central Asia, Central and South Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the ea ...

Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
. In 2021, the Taliban initiated a month-long
insurgency An insurgency is a violent, armed rebellion Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority In the fields of sociology Sociol ...

insurgency
to effectively end the Islamic republic and ultimately, re-establish the Islamic Emirate in August 2021.


The Gambia

In December 2015, the then-president
Yahya Jammeh Yahya Abdul-Aziz Jemus Junkung Jammeh (born 25 May 1965) is a Gambian politician and former military officer who was the leader of The Gambia from 1994 to 2017, firstly as chairman of the Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council (AFPRC) from 1994 ...

Yahya Jammeh
declared
The Gambia The Gambia (), officially the Republic of The Gambia, is a country in West Africa. It is the smallest country within mainland AfricaHoare, Ben. (2002) ''The Kingfisher A-Z Encyclopedia'', Kingfisher Publications. p. 11. . and is surrounded by ...
to be an Islamic republic. Jammeh said that the move was designed to distance the West African state from its colonial past, that no dress code would be imposed and that citizens of other faiths would be allowed to practice freely. However, he later ordered all female government employees to wear headscarves before rescinding the decision shortly after. The announcement of an Islamic republic has been criticized as unconstitutional by at least one opposition group.Rifai, Ryan (12 December 2015)
"Gambia's president declares Islamic statehood"
Al-Jazeera Al Jazeera ( ar, الجزيرة, translit-std=DIN, translit=al-jazīrah, , literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّ ...

Al-Jazeera
. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
After the removal of Jammeh in 2017, his successor
Adama Barrow Adama Barrow (born 15 February 1965) is a Gambian politician and real estate developer who is the third and current President of the Gambia The president of the Republic of The Gambia is the head of state and head of government of The Gambia ...
said the Gambia would no longer be an Islamic republic.


See also

* Application of sharia by country *
Christian republic A Christian republic is a government that is both Christianity, Christian and republicanism, republican. As of the 21st century, the only countries in the world with a republican form of government and with Christianity as the state religion, est ...
*
Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist The Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist, also called the Governance of the Jurist ( fa, , Velâyat-e Faqih; ar, وِلاَيَةُ ٱلْفَقِيهِ, Wilāyat al-Faqīh), is a post-Occultation An occultation is an event that occurs whe ...
*
Halachic state A halachic state ( he, מדינת הלכה, ''Medinat Halakha'') is a Jewish state governed by ''halakha'', Jewish religious law. Public opinion An opinion poll released in March 2016 by the Pew Research Center found high support for a halachic s ...
*
Islamic state , caption = , active = {{Collapsible list , title = 1999–present , 1 = 1999: Established under the name of Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad , 2 = October 2004: Joined al-Qaeda , 3 = 13 October 2006: Declaration of an Islamic ...
*
Islamism Islamism (also often called political Islam Political Islam is any interpretation of Islam as a source of political identity and action. It can refer to a wide range of individuals and/or groups who advocate the formation of state and society a ...
*
Islamic religious police Islamic religious police are official Islamic vice squad police agencies which enforce religious observance and public morality on behalf of national or regional authorities based on its interpretation of sharia. Modern Islamic religious police f ...
*
Political aspects of Islam Political aspects of Islam are derived from the Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy ...


References

*


External links


Islam and Politics
from th
Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives


as an unofficial English translation hosted at University of Bern, Switzerland (with good summaries) {{DEFAULTSORT:Islamic Republic 1956 introductions Political terminology in Pakistan Islamic states by type, Republic