HOME

TheInfoList




The Hijri calendar ( ar, ٱلتَّقْوِيم ٱلْهِجْرِيّ '), also known as the Lunar Hijri calendar and (in English) as the Islamic, Muslim or Arabic calendar, is a
lunar calendar A lunar calendar is a calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, specific day with ...
consisting of 12
lunar month In lunar calendar A lunar calendar is a calendar based on the monthly cycles of the Moon's lunar phase, phases (Lunar month#Synodic month, synodic months, lunations), in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly o ...
s in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to determine the proper days of
Islamic holiday There are two official holidays in Islam, Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha Eid al-Adha ( ar, عيد الأضحى, ʿīd al-ʾaḍḥā, lit=Feast of the Sacrifice, ) is the latter of the two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year (the othe ...
s and rituals, such as the
annual period of fasting Annual may refer to: *Annual publication, periodical publications appearing regularly once per year **Yearbook **Literary annual *Annual plant *Annual report *Annual giving *Annual, Morocco, a settlement in northeastern Morocco *Annuals (band), a ...

annual period of fasting
and the proper time for the
Hajj The Hajj (; ar, حَجّ ' "wikt:pilgrimage, ''pilgrimage''"; sometimes also spelled Hadj, Hadji or Haj in English) is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city for Muslims. Hajj is a Far ...
. In almost all countries where the predominant religion is Islam, the
civil calendar The civil calendar is the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, specific day wi ...
is the
Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, speci ...
, with Syriac month-names used in the Levant and Mesopotamia (
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
,
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
,
Jordan Jordan ( ar, الأردن; tr. ' ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,; tr. ') is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In ge ...

Jordan
,
Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part ...

Lebanon
and
Palestine Palestine ( or ) most often refers to: * State of Palestine, a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East * Palestine (region), a geographical and historical region in the Middle East Palestine may also refer to: * Palestinian National Aut ...
). The Islamic calendar employs the
Hijri era The Hijri year ( ar, سَنة هِجْريّة) or era ( ''at-taqwīm al-hijrī'') is the era An era is a span of time defined for the purposes of chronology or historiography, as in the regnal eras in the history of a given monarchy, a calenda ...
whose
epoch In chronology 222px, Joseph Scaliger's ''De emendatione temporum'' (1583) began the modern science of chronology Chronology (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-E ...
was established as the
Islamic New Year __NOTOC__ The Islamic New Year ( ar, رأس السنة الهجرية, '), also called the Hijri New Year or Arabic New Year, is the day that marks the beginning of a new lunar Hijri year The Hijri year ( ar, سَنة هِجْريّة) or er ...
of 622 CE. During that year,
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
and his followers migrated from
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ),Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inland ...

Mecca
to
Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, ), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam and the Capital city, capital of the Me ...

Medina
and established the first Muslim community (''
ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental cou ...
''), an event commemorated as the Hijra. In the West, dates in this era are usually denoted AH ( la, Anno Hegirae, "in the year of the Hijra") in parallel with the
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...
(AD),
Common Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone County Tyrone (; ) is one of the thirty-two counties of Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, ...
(CE) and Jewish eras (AM). In Muslim countries, it is also sometimes denoted as H from its Arabic form (, abbreviated ). In English, years prior to the Hijra are denoted as BH ("Before the Hijra"). CE, . In the
Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, speci ...
reckoning, 1443 AH runs from approximately 10 August 2021 to 28 July 2022.


History


Pre-Islamic calendar

For central Arabia, especially
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ),Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inland ...

Mecca
, there is a lack of epigraphical evidence but details are found in the writings of Muslim authors of the
Abbasid The Abbasid Caliphate ( or ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّةُ, ') was the third caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islam Islam (;There ar ...
era. Inscriptions of the ancient
South Arabia South Arabia also known as Greater Yemen is a historical region that consists of the southern region of the Arabian Peninsula, mainly centered in what is now the Republic of Yemen, yet it has also historically included Najran Region, Najran, Jiz ...
n calendars reveal the use of a number of local calendars. At least some of these South Arabian calendars followed the lunisolar system. Both
al-Biruni Abu Rayhan al-Biruni (973 – after 1050) was an Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a co ...
and
al-Mas'udi Al-Mas'udi ( ar, أَبُو ٱلْحَسَن عَلِيّ ٱبْن ٱلْحُسَيْن ٱبْن عَلِيّ ٱلْمَسْعُودِيّ, '; –956) was an Arab historian, geographer A geographer is a physical scientist, social scientist a ...
suggest that the ancient Arabs used the same month names as the Muslims, though they also record other month names used by the pre-Islamic Arabs. The Islamic tradition is unanimous in stating that Arabs of
Tihamah Tihamah or Tihama ( ar, تِهَامَةُ ') refers to the Red Sea coastal plain of the Arabian Peninsula from the Gulf of Aqaba to the Bab el Mandeb. Etymology Tihāmat is the Proto-Semitic language's term for 'sea'. Tiamat (or Tehom, in mascul ...

Tihamah
,
Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia. It includes the cities of Mecca, Medina, Jeddah, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia, Tabuk, Yanbu and Taif. It is also known as the "Western P ...

Hejaz
, and
Najd Najd ( ar, نَجْدٌ, ), or the Nejd, forms the geographic center of Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia ...

Najd
distinguished between two types of months, permitted (''ḥalāl'') and forbidden (''ḥarām'') months. The forbidden months were four months during which fighting is forbidden, listed as Rajab and the three months around the
pilgrimage A pilgrimage is a journey, often into an unknown or foreign place, where a person goes in search of new or expanded meaning about their self, others, nature, or a higher good, through the experience. It can lead to a personal transformation, aft ...
season, Dhu al-Qa‘dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, and Muharram. A similar if not identical concept to the forbidden months is also attested by
Procopius Procopius of Caesarea ( grc-gre, Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς ''Prokópios ho Kaisareús''; la, Procopius Caesariensis; – after 565) was a prominent late antique Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, fr ...
, where he describes an armistice that the Eastern Arabs of the Lakhmid al-Mundhir respected for two months in the
summer solstice The summer solstice, also known as estival solstice or midsummer Midsummer is the period of time in the middle of the summer. The exact dates vary among different cultures, but is primarily held close to the summer solstice The summer solst ...

summer solstice
of 541 CE. However, Muslim historians do not link these months to a particular season. The
Qur'an The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, believed by Muslims to be a revelation in Islam, revelation from God in Islam, God (''Allah''). It is widely rega ...

Qur'an
links the four forbidden months with ''Nasī'', a word that literally means "postponement". According to Muslim tradition, the decision of postponement was administered by the tribe of
Kinanah The Kinana ( ar, كِنَاَنَة, Kināna) were an Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an ethnic group An e ...
, by a man known as the ''al-Qalammas'' of Kinanah and his descendants (pl. ''qalāmisa''). Different interpretations of the concept of ''Nasī'' have been proposed. Some scholars, both Muslim and Western,F.C. De Blois, "TA’RĪKH": I.1.iv. "Pre-Islamic and agricultural calendars of the Arabian peninsula", ''The Encyclopaedia of Islam'', 2nd edition, X:260.A. Moberg, "NASI'", ''The Encyclopaedia of Islam'', 2nd, VII: 977. maintain that the pre-Islamic calendar used in central Arabia was a purely lunar calendar similar to the modern Islamic calendar. According to this view, ''Nasī'' is related to the pre-Islamic practices of the Meccan Arabs, where they would alter the distribution of the forbidden months within a given year without implying a calendar manipulation. This interpretation is supported by Arab historians and lexicographers, like
Ibn Hisham Abu Muhammad 'Abd al-Malik bin Hisham ibn Ayyub al-Himyari al-Mu'afiri al-Baṣri ( ar, أبو محمد عبدالملك بن هشام ابن أيوب الحميري المعافري البصري; died 7 May 833), or Ibn Hisham, edited the biog ...
,
Ibn Manzur Muhammad ibn Mukarram ibn Alī ibn Ahmad ibn Manzūr al-Ansārī al-Ifrīqī al-Misrī al-Khazrajī () also known as Ibn Manẓūr () (June–July 1233 – December 1311/January 1312) was an Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَ ...
, and the corpus of
Qur'anic exegesis Tafsir ( ar, تفسير, tafsīr ) refers to exegesis, usually of the Quran. An author of a ''tafsir'' is a ' ( ar, مُفسّر; plural: ar, مفسّرون, mufassirūn). A Quranic ''tafsir'' attempts to provide elucidation, explanation, int ...

Qur'anic exegesis
. This is corroborated by an early
Sabaic Sabaean, also known as Sabaic, was an Old South Arabian Old South Arabianhttp://e-learning.tsu.ge/pluginfile.php/5868/mod_resource/content/0/dzveli_armosavluri_enebi_-ugarituli_punikuri_arameuli_ebrauli_arabuli.pdf (or Ṣayhadic or Yemenite) ...
inscription, where a religious ritual was "postponed" (''ns'w'') due to war. According to the context of this inscription, the verb ''ns'’'' has nothing to do with intercalation, but only with moving religious events within the calendar itself. The similarity between the religious concept of this ancient inscription and the Qur'an suggests that non-calendaring postponement is also the Qur'anic meaning of ''Nasī''. The ''
Encyclopaedia of Islam The ''Encyclopaedia of Islam'' (''EI'') is an encyclopaedia An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia (British English) is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge either from all branches or from a particular field or dis ...
'' concludes "The Arabic system of asī'can only have been intended to move the Hajj and the fairs associated with it in the vicinity of Mecca to a suitable season of the year. It was not intended to establish a fixed calendar to be generally observed." The term "fixed calendar" is generally understood to refer to the non-intercalated calendar. Others concur that it was originally a lunar calendar, but suggest that about 200 years before the Hijra it was transformed into a
lunisolar calendar A lunisolar calendar is a calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, specific day ...
containing an
intercalary month Intercalation or embolism in timekeeping is the insertion of a leap day, week, or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases. Lunisolar calendar A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many culture Cul ...
added from time to time to keep the pilgrimage within the season of the year when merchandise was most abundant. This interpretation was first proposed by the medieval Muslim astrologer and astronomer
Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi Abu Ma'shar, Latinization (literature), Latinized as Albumasar (also ''Albusar'', ''Albuxar''; full name ''Abū Maʿshar Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿUmar al-Balkhī'' ; 10 August 787 – 9 March 886, Hijri year, AH 171–272), was an early Pe ...
, and later by
al-Biruni Abu Rayhan al-Biruni (973 – after 1050) was an Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a co ...
,
Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi Abu Ma'shar, Latinization (literature), Latinized as Albumasar (also ''Albusar'', ''Albuxar''; full name ''Abū Maʿshar Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿUmar al-Balkhī'' ; 10 August 787 – 9 March 886, Hijri year, AH 171–272), was an early Pe ...
(787–886),
Kitab al-Uluf
', ''Journal Asiatique'', series 5, xi (1858) 168+.
al-Mas'udi Al-Mas'udi ( ar, أَبُو ٱلْحَسَن عَلِيّ ٱبْن ٱلْحُسَيْن ٱبْن عَلِيّ ٱلْمَسْعُودِيّ, '; –956) was an Arab historian, geographer A geographer is a physical scientist, social scientist a ...
, and some western scholars.A. Moberg,
NASI'
, ''E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam''.
This interpretation considers ''Nasī'' to be a synonym to the Arabic word for "intercalation" (''kabīsa''). The Arabs, according to one explanation mentioned by Abu Ma'shar, learned of this type of intercalation from the Jews. The Jewish ''Nasi'' was the official who decided when to intercalate the Jewish calendar. Some sources say that the Arabs followed the Jewish practice and intercalated seven months over nineteen years, or else that they intercalated nine months over 24 years; there is, however, no consensus among scholars on this issue.


Prohibiting Nasī'

In the tenth year of the Hijra, as documented in the
Qur'an The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, believed by Muslims to be a revelation in Islam, revelation from God in Islam, God (''Allah''). It is widely rega ...

Qur'an
(:36–37), Muslims believe
God In monotheistic Monotheism is the belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the ...
revealed the "prohibition of the Nasī'". The prohibition of Nasī' would presumably have been announced when the intercalated month had returned to its position just before the month of Nasi' began. If Nasī' meant intercalation, then the number and the position of the intercalary months between AH 1 and AH 10 are uncertain; western calendar dates commonly cited for key events in early Islam such as the Hijra, the
Battle of Badr The Battle of Badr ( ar, غَزْوَةُ بَدِرْ ), also referred to as The Day of the Criterion (, ) in the Quran, Qur'an and by Muslims, was fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE (17 Ramadan (calendar month), Ramadan, 2 Anno Hegirae, AH), ...

Battle of Badr
, the
Battle of Uhud The Battle of Uhud ( ar, غَزْوَة أُحُد, translit=Ghazwat Uhud) was fought on Saturday, 23 March 625 AD (7 Shawwal, 3 AH), in the valley north of Mount Uhud.Watt (1974) p. 136. The Qurayshi Meccans, led by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, comm ...
and the Battle of the Trench should be viewed with caution as they might be in error by one, two, three or even four lunar months. This prohibition was mentioned by Muhammad during the
farewell sermon The Final Sermon ( ar, خطبة الوداع, ''Khuṭbatu l-Widāʿ''also known as Muhammad's Final Sermon or the Last Sermon, is a religious speech, delivered by the Islamic prophet Prophets in Islam ( ar, الأنبياء في الإسل ...
which was delivered on 9 Dhu al-Hijjah AH 10 (Julian date Friday 6 March 632 CE) on
Mount Arafat Mount Arafat ( ar, جَبَل عَرَفَات, translit=Jabal ʿArafāt), and by its other Arabic name, ''Jabal ar-Raḥmah'' (), is a granodiorite hill about southeast of Mecca, in the Makkah Province, province of the same name in Saudi Ara ...

Mount Arafat
during the
farewell pilgrimageThe Farewell Pilgrimage ( ar, حِجَّة ٱلْوَدَاع, Ḥijjatu Al-Wadāʿ) refers to the one Hajj The Hajj (; ar, حَجّ ' " pilgrimage"; sometimes also spelled Hadj, Hadji or Haj in English) is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mec ...
to Mecca. The three successive sacred (forbidden) months mentioned by Prophet Muhammad (months in which battles are forbidden) are
Dhu al-Qa'dah Dhu al-Qa'dah ( ar, ذُو ٱلْقَعْدَة, ', ), also spelled Dhu al-Qi'dah or Zu al-Qa'dah, is the eleventh month in the Islamic calendar. It could possibly mean "possessor or owner of the sitting and seating place" - the space occupied whi ...
,
Dhu al-Hijjah Dhu al-Hijjah ( ar, ذُو ٱلْحِجَّة, ', ), also spelled Zu al-Hijjah, is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic calendar. It is a very sacred month in the Islamic calendar, one in which the ''Hajj, Ḥajj'' (Pilgrimage) takes place ...
, and
Muharram Muḥarram ( ar, ٱلْمُحَرَّم) is the first month of the Islamic calendar The Hijri calendar ( ar, ٱلتَّقْوِيم ٱلْهِجْرِيّ '), also known as the Lunar Hijri calendar and (in English) as the Islamic, Muslim or ...

Muharram
, months 11, 12, and 1 respectively. The single forbidden month is
Rajab Rajab ( ar, رَجَب) is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar. The lexical definition of the classical Arabic verb ''rajaba'' is "to respect" which could also mean "be awe or be in fear", of which Rajab is a derivative. This month is reg ...

Rajab
, month 7. These months were considered forbidden both within the new Islamic calendar and within the old pagan Meccan calendar.


Days of the week

The Islamic day begins at sunset. Muslims gather for prayer at a mosque at noon on "gathering day" () which corresponds with the lunar start of the day which is Thursday evening, at the moment when the sun has completely set. Maghrib on this day is the start of the day. Thus "gathering day" is often regarded as the weekly day off. This is frequently made official, with many Muslim countries adopting Friday and Saturday (e.g., Egypt, Saudi Arabia) or Thursday and Friday as official weekends, during which offices are closed; other countries (e.g., Iran) choose to make Friday alone a day of rest. A few others (e.g., Turkey, Pakistan, Morocco, Nigeria, Malaysia) have adopted the Saturday-Sunday weekend while making Friday a working day with a long midday break to allow time off for worship.


Months

Four of the twelve Hijri months are considered sacred: Rajab (7), and the three consecutive months of Dhū al-Qa'dah (11), Dhu al-Ḥijjah (12) and Muḥarram (1). As the mean duration of a
tropical year A tropical year (also known as a solar year or tropical period) is the time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past ...
is 365.24219 days, while the long-term average duration of a
synodic month In lunar calendar A lunar calendar is a calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a sing ...
is 29.530587981 days, the average lunar year is (365.24219 − 12 × 29.530587981 ≈) 10.87513 days shorter than the average solar year, causing months of the Hijri calendar to advance about eleven days earlier relative to dates in the Gregorian calendar every calendar year. "As a result, the cycle of twelve lunar months regresses through the seasons over a period of about 33 [
solar Solar may refer to: Astronomy * Of or relating to the Sun. ** A solar telescope 175px, The Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma in the Canary Islands. A solar telescope is a special purpose telescope used ...
] years".


Length of months

Each month of the Islamic calendar commences on the birth of the new lunar cycle. Traditionally, this is based on actual observation of the moon's crescent (''
hilal Hilal or Al hilal may refer to: *Hilal ( ar, هلال, ''hilāl''), a crescent A crescent shape (, British English also ) is a symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, Ob ...

hilal
'') marking the end of the previous lunar cycle and hence the previous month, thereby beginning the new month. Consequently, each month can have 29 or 30 days depending on the visibility of the moon, astronomical positioning of the earth and weather conditions. However, certain sects and groups, most notably Bohras Muslims namely Alavis, Dawoodis and
Sulaymani The Sulaymani branch of Tayyibi Isma'ilism Ṭayyibi Ismā‘īlism is the only surviving sect of the Musta'li branch of Isma'ilism, the other being Hafizi Isma'ilism. Most followers of Tayyibi Isma'ilism are found in various Bohra communities: ...
s and
Shia Shia Islam or Shi'ism is the second largest Islamic schools and branches, branch of Islam. It holds that the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad designated Ali, Ali ibn Abi Talib as his Succession to Mu ...
Ismaili Ismāʿīlism ( ar, الإسماعيلية, ''al-ʾIsmāʿīlīyah''; fa, اسماعیلیان, ''Esmâ'īliyân'') is a branch or sub-sect of Shia Islam Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main Islamic schools and branches, branch ...
Muslims, use a tabular Islamic calendar (see section below) in which odd-numbered months have thirty days (and also the twelfth month in a leap year) and even months have 29.


Year numbering

In pre-Islamic Arabia, it was customary to identify a year after a major event which took place in it. Thus, according to Islamic tradition,
Abraha Abraha (Ge'ez language, Ge’ez: አብርሃ) (also spelled Abreha, died after CE 570;Stuart Munro-Hay (2003) "Abraha" in Siegbert Uhlig (ed.) ''Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: A-C''. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. r. 525–at least 553S. C. Munro-Hay ...
, governor of Yemen, then a province of the Christian
Kingdom of Aksum The Kingdom of Aksum ( gez, መንግሥተ አኵስም), also known as the Kingdom of Axum or the Aksumite Empire, was an ancient kingdom, from the 2nd to the 10th century, with its capital at the city of Axum Aksum or Axum (; ti, ኣኽሱ ...
(
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the ...

Ethiopia
), attempted to destroy the
Kaaba The Kaaba (, ), also spelled Ka'bah or Kabah, sometimes referred to as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah ( ar, ٱلْكَعْبَة ٱلْمُشَرَّفَة, lit=Honored Ka'bah, links=no, translit=al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah), is a building at the cent ...

Kaaba
with an army which included several elephants. The raid was unsuccessful, but that year became known as the ''
Year of the Elephant The ʿām al-fīl ( ar, عام الفيل, Year of the Elephant) is the name in History of Islam, Islamic history for the year approximately equating to 570–571 Common Era, CE. According to Islamic resources, it was in this year that Muhammad wa ...
'', during which Muhammad was born (sura
al-Fil The Elephant ( ar, أَلْفِيل, ) is the 105th chapter (sura A ''surah'' (; ar, سورة, sūrah) is the equivalent of "chapter" in the Qur'an The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Kora ...

al-Fil
). Most equate this to the year 570 CE, but a minority use 571 CE. The first ten years of the Hijra were not numbered, but were named after events in the life of Muhammad according to
Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī Abu Rayhan al-Biruni (973 – after 1050) was an Iranian peoples, Iranian in scholar and polymath during the Islamic Golden Age. He has been variously called as the "founder of Indology", "Father of Comparative religion, Comparative Religion ...
: # The year of permission. # The year of the order of fighting. # The year of the trial. # The year of congratulation on marriage. # The year of the earthquake. # The year of enquiring. # The year of gaining victory. # The year of equality. # The year of exemption. # The year of farewell. In AH 17 (638 CE),
Abu Musa Ashaari Abu Musa Abd Allah ibn Qays al-Ash'ari, better known as Abu Musa al-Ash'ari ( ar, أبو موسى الأشعري) (died c. 662 or 672) was a Sahaba, companion of Muhammad and an important figure in early Islamic history. He was at various times go ...
, one of the officials of the
Caliph A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = '' Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' ...
Umar ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb ( ar, عمر بن الخطاب; 3 November 644), also spelled Omar, was the second Rashidun, Rashidun caliph, reigning from 634 until his assassination in 644. He succeeded Abu Bakr (632–634) as the second caliph ...

Umar
in
Basra Basra ( ar, ٱلْبَصْرَة, al-Baṣrah) is an Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, ...

Basra
h, complained about the absence of any years on the correspondence he received from Umar, making it difficult for him to determine which instructions were most recent. This report convinced Umar of the need to introduce an era for Muslims. After debating the issue with his counsellors, he decided that the first year should be the year of Muhammad's arrival at Medina (known as Yathrib, before Muhammad's arrival).
Uthman ibn Affan Uthman ibn Affan ( ar, عثمان بن عفان, ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān; – 17 June 656), also spelled by the Turkish and Persian rendering Osman, was the third Rashidun , image = تخطيط كلمة الخلفاء الراشدون.pn ...
then suggested that the months begin with Muharram, in line with the established custom of the Arabs at that time. The years of the Islamic calendar thus began with the month of Muharram in the year of Muhammad's arrival at the city of Medina, even though the actual emigration took place in Safar and Rabi' I of the intercalated calendar, two months before the commencement of Muharram in the new fixed calendar. Because of the Hijra, the calendar was named the Hijri calendar. F A Shamsi (1984) postulated that the Arabic calendar was never intercalated. According to him, the first day of the first month of the new fixed Islamic calendar (1 Muharram AH 1) was no different from what was observed at the time. The day the Prophet moved from Quba' to Medina was originally 26 Rabi' I on the pre-Islamic calendar. 1 Muharram of the new fixed calendar corresponded to Friday, 16 July 622 CE, the equivalent civil tabular date (same daylight period) in the
Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century B ...
. The Islamic day began at the preceding sunset on the evening of 15 July. This Julian date (16 July) was determined by medieval Muslim astronomers by projecting back in time their own
tabular Islamic calendar The Tabular Islamic calendar (an example is the Fatimid or Misri calendar) is a rule-based variation of the Islamic calendar. It has the same numbering of years and months, but the months are determined by arithmetical rules rather than by obser ...
, which had alternating 30- and 29-day months in each lunar year plus eleven leap days every 30 years. For example, al-Biruni mentioned this Julian date in the year 1000 CE. Although not used by either medieval Muslim astronomers or modern scholars to determine the Islamic epoch, the thin crescent moon would have also first become visible (assuming clouds did not obscure it) shortly after the preceding sunset on the evening of 15 July, 1.5 days after the associated
dark moon The term dark moon describes the last visible crescent of a waning Moon The Moon is Earth's only proper natural satellite. At one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia Australia, officially the Com ...
(astronomical
new moon In astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses ...

new moon
) on the morning of 14 July. Though Cook and
Crone In folklore Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some ...
in '' Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World'' cite a coin from AH 17, the first surviving attested use of a Hijri calendar date alongside a date in another calendar (
Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century * Coptic alphabet, th ...
) is on a
papyrus Papyrus ( ) is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface. It was made from the pith of the papyrus plant, ''Cyperus papyrus'', a wetland sedge. ''Papyrus'' (plural: ''papyri'') can also refer to a do ...

papyrus
from
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
in AH 22,
PERF 558 PERF 558 is the oldest surviving Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcont ...
.


Astronomical considerations

Due to the Islamic calendar's reliance on certain variable methods of observation to determine its month-start-dates, these dates sometimes vary slightly from the month-start-dates of the astronomical lunar calendar, which are based directly on astronomical calculations. Still, the Islamic calendar seldom varies by more than three days from the astronomical-lunar-calendar system, and roughly approximates it. Both the Islamic calendar and the astronomical-lunar-calendar take no account of the
solar year A tropical year (also known as a solar year or tropical period) is the time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past ...
in their calculations, and thus both of these strictly lunar based calendar systems have no ability to reckon the timing of the four seasons of the year. In the astronomical-lunar-calendar system, a year of 12 lunar months is 354.37 days long. In this calendar system, lunar months begin precisely at the time of the monthly "conjunction", when the Moon is located most directly between the Earth and the Sun. The month is defined as the average duration of a revolution of the Moon around the Earth (29.53 days). By convention, months of 30 days and 29 days succeed each other, adding up over two successive months to 59 full days. This leaves only a small monthly variation of 44 minutes to account for, which adds up to a total of 24 hours (i.e., the equivalent of one full day) in 2.73 years. To settle accounts, it is sufficient to add one day every three years to the lunar calendar, in the same way that one adds one day to the Gregorian calendar every four years. The technical details of the adjustment are described in
Tabular Islamic calendar The Tabular Islamic calendar (an example is the Fatimid or Misri calendar) is a rule-based variation of the Islamic calendar. It has the same numbering of years and months, but the months are determined by arithmetical rules rather than by obser ...
. The Islamic calendar, however, is based on a different set of conventions being used for the determination of the month-start-dates. Each month still has either 29 or 30 days, but due to the variable method of observations employed, there is usually no discernible order in the sequencing of either 29 or 30-day month lengths. Traditionally, the first day of each month is the day (beginning at sunset) of the first sighting of the hilal (crescent moon) shortly after sunset. If the hilal is not observed immediately after the 29th day of a month (either because clouds block its view or because the western sky is still too bright when the moon sets), then the day that begins at that sunset is the 30th. Such a sighting has to be made by one or more trustworthy men testifying before a committee of Muslim leaders. Determining the most likely day that the hilal could be observed was a motivation for Muslim interest in astronomy, which put Islam in the forefront of that science for many centuries. Still, due to the fact that both lunar reckoning systems are ultimately based on the lunar cycle itself, both systems still do roughly correspond to one another, never being more than three days out of synchronisation with one another. This traditional practice for the determination of the start-date of the month is still followed in the overwhelming majority of Muslim countries. Each Islamic state proceeds with its own monthly observation of the new moon (or, failing that, awaits the completion of 30 days) before declaring the beginning of a new month on its territory. But, the lunar crescent becomes visible only some 17 hours after the conjunction, and only subject to the existence of a number of favourable conditions relative to weather, time, geographic location, as well as various astronomical parameters. Given the fact that the moon sets progressively later than the sun as one goes west, with a corresponding increase in its "age" since conjunction, Western Muslim countries may, under favorable conditions, observe the new moon one day earlier than eastern Muslim countries. Due to the interplay of all these factors, the beginning of each month differs from one Muslim country to another, during the 48-hour period following the conjunction. The information provided by the calendar in any country does not extend beyond the current month. A number of Muslim countries try to overcome some of these difficulties by applying different astronomy-related rules to determine the beginning of months. Thus,
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
,
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
, and a few others begin each month at sunset on the first day that the moon sets after the sun (moonset after sunset). In Egypt, the month begins at sunset on the first day that the moon sets at least five minutes after the sun. A detailed analysis of the available data shows, however, that there are major discrepancies between what countries say they do on this subject, and what they actually do. In some instances, what a country says it does is impossible. Due to the somewhat variable nature of the Islamic calendar, in most Muslim countries, the Islamic calendar is used primarily for religious purposes, while the Solar-based Gregorian calendar is still used primarily for matters of
commerce Commerce is the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale. Etymology The English-language word ''commerce'' has been derived from the Latin word ''commercium'', from ''com'' ("together") and ''merx'' ("merchandise"). History ...

commerce
and
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

agriculture
.


Theological considerations

If the Islamic calendar were prepared using astronomical calculations, Muslims throughout the Muslim world could use it to meet all their needs, the way they use the Gregorian calendar today. But, there are divergent views on whether it is licit to do so. A majority of theologians oppose the use of calculations (beyond the constraint that each month must be not less than 29 nor more than 30 days) on the grounds that the latter would not conform with Muhammad's recommendation to observe the new moon of Ramadan and Shawal in order to determine the beginning of these months. However, some
jurists A jurist is a person with expert knowledge of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influence ...
see no contradiction between Muhammad's teachings and the use of calculations to determine the beginnings of lunar months. They consider that Muhammad's recommendation was adapted to the culture of the times, and should not be confused with the acts of worship. Thus the jurists
Ahmad Muhammad Shakir Aḥmad Muḥammad Shākir ( ar, أحمد محمد شاكر) (January 29, 1892, Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic: ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the capital and largest city of Egypt. The Cairo metropolitan area, with ...
and
Yusuf al-Qaradawi Yusuf al-Qaradawi ( ar, يوسف القرضاوي, translit=Yūsuf al-Qaraḍāwī; or ''Yusuf al-Qardawi''; born 9 September 1926) is an Egyptian Islamic scholar based in Doha, Qatar, and chairman of the International Union of Muslim Scholars. ...

Yusuf al-Qaradawi
both endorsed the use of calculations to determine the beginning of all months of the Islamic calendar, in 1939 and 2004 respectively. So did the Fiqh Council of North America (FCNA) in 2006 and the
European Council for Fatwa and ResearchThe European Council for Fatwa and Research (ECFR) is a Dublin Dublin (, ; ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Ireland, Ireland. Situated on a bay on the east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey, it lies within the Provinces ...
(ECFR) in 2007. The major Muslim associations of France also announced in 2012 that they would henceforth use a calendar based on astronomical calculations, taking into account the criteria of the possibility of crescent sighting in any place on Earth. But, shortly after the official adoption of this rule by the
French Council of the Muslim Faith The French Council of the Muslim Faith (french: Conseil français du culte musulman, usually abbreviated to CFCM), is a national elected body, to serve as an official interlocutor with the French state in the regulation of Muslim religious activiti ...
(CFCM) in 2013, the new leadership of the association decided, on the eve of Ramadan 2013, to follow the Saudi announcement rather than to apply the rule just adopted. This resulted in a division of the Muslim community of France, with some members following the new rule, and others following the Saudi announcement. Isma'ili-Taiyebi Bohras having the institution of ''
da'i al-mutlaq The term Da'i al-Mutlaq ( ar, الداعي المطلق, al-Dā'ī al-Mutlaq; pl. , ) literally meaning 'the absolute, or unrestricted, missionary', is the most senior spiritual rank and office in Tayyibi Isma'ilism. The Da'i al-Mutlaq has heade ...
'' follow the tabular Islamic calendar (see section below) prepared on the basis of astronomical calculations from the days of
Fatimid The Fatimid Caliphate ( ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْفَاطِمِيَّة , al-Ḫilāfa al-Fāṭimiyya) was an Ismaili Shia Ismāʿīlism ( ar, الإسماعيلية, ''al-ʾIsmāʿīlīyah''; fa, اسماعیلیان, ''E ...

Fatimid
imam Imam (; ar, إمام '; plural: ') is an Islamic leadership position. For Sunni Islam, Sunni Muslims, Imam is most commonly used as the title of a worship leader of a mosque. In this context, imams may lead Salah, Islamic worship services, ...
s.


Astronomical 12-moon calendars


Islamic calendar of Turkey

Turkish Muslims use an Islamic calendar which is calculated several years in advance by the Turkish Presidency of Religious Affairs (Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı). From 1 Muharrem 1400 AH (21 November 1979) until 29 Zilhicce 1435 (24 October 2014) the computed Turkish lunar calendar was based on the following rule: "The lunar month is assumed to begin on the evening when, within some region of the terrestrial globe, the computed centre of the lunar crescent at local sunset is more than 5° above the local horizon and (geocentrically) more than 8° from the Sun." In the current rule the (computed) lunar crescent has to be above the local horizon of
Ankara Ankara, historically known as Ancyra and Angora, is the list of national capitals, capital of Turkey. Located in the Central Anatolia Region, central part of Anatolia, the city has a population of 4.5 million in its urban centre and over ...

Ankara
at sunset.


Saudi Arabia's ''Umm al-Qura'' calendar

Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
uses the sighting method to determine the beginning of each month of the Hijri calendar. Since AH 1419 (1998/99), several official hilal sighting committees have been set up by the government to determine the first visual sighting of the lunar crescent at the beginning of each lunar month. Nevertheless, the religious authorities also allow the testimony of less experienced observers and thus often announce the sighting of the lunar crescent on a date when none of the official committees could see it. The country also uses the Umm al-Qura calendar, based on astronomical calculations, but this is restricted to administrative purposes. The parameters used in the establishment of this calendar underwent significant changes during the decade to AH 1423. Before AH 1420 (before 18 April 1999), if the moon's age at sunset in
Riyadh Riyadh ( ar, الرياض, 'ar-Riyāḍ, Literal translation, lit.: 'The Gardens' Najdi Arabic, Najdi pronunciation: ) is the capital of Saudi Arabia and the largest city on the Arabian Peninsula. Located in the center of the An Nafud, an-Naf ...

Riyadh
was at least 12 hours, then the day ''ending'' at that sunset was the first day of the month. This often caused the Saudis to celebrate holy days one or even two days before other predominantly Muslim countries, including the dates for the Hajj, which can only be dated using Saudi dates because it is performed in Mecca. For AH 1420–22, if moonset occurred after sunset at Mecca, then the day beginning at that sunset was the first day of a Saudi month, essentially the same rule used by Malaysia, Indonesia, and others (except for the location from which the hilal was observed). Since the beginning of AH 1423 (16 March 2002), the rule has been clarified a little by requiring the geocentric conjunction of the sun and moon to occur before sunset, in addition to requiring moonset to occur after sunset at Mecca. This ensures that the moon has moved past the sun by sunset, even though the sky may still be too bright immediately before moonset to actually see the crescent. In 2007, the
Islamic Society of North America The Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), based in Plainfield, Indiana Indiana () is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, ...
, the ''Fiqh'' Council of North America and the European Council for ''
Fatwa A fatwā (, also ; ar, فتوىٰ; plural ''fatāwā'' ) is a nonbinding legal opinion In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a ...

Fatwa
'' and Research announced that they will henceforth use a calendar based on calculations using the same parameters as the ''Umm al-Qura'' calendar to determine (well in advance) the beginning of all lunar months (and therefore the days associated with all religious observances). This was intended as a first step on the way to unify, at some future time, Muslims' calendars throughout the world. Since AH 1438 (1 October 2016), Saudi Arabia adopted the Gregorian calendar for payment of the monthly salaries of government employees (as a cost cutting measure), while retaining the Islamic calendar for religious purposes.The prince's time machine: Saudi Arabia adopts the Gregorian calendar
The Economist ''The Economist'' is an international weekly newspaper A weekly newspaper is a general-news or current affairsCurrent affairs may refer to: Media * Current Affairs (magazine), ''Current Affairs'' (magazine), a bimonthly magazine of cult ...
, 17 Dec 2016.


Other calendars using the Islamic era

The
Solar Hijri calendar The Solar Hijri calendar ( fa, گاه‌شماری هجری خورشیدی, gāhshomāri-ye hejri-ye khorshidi; ps, لمريز لېږدیز کلیز, lamrez legdez kalhandara) is a solar calendar and one of the various ancient Iranian calendars. ...
is a solar calendar used in Iran and Afghanistan which counts its years from the Hijra or migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE.


Tabular Islamic calendar

The Tabular Islamic calendar is a rule-based variation of the Islamic calendar, in which months are worked out by arithmetic rules rather than by observation or astronomical calculation. It has a 30-year cycle with 11
leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a lunisolar calendar, a month) added to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astron ...

leap year
s of 355 days and 19 years of 354 days. In the long term, it is accurate to one day in about 2,500 solar years or 2,570 lunar years. It also deviates up to about one or two days in the short term.


Kuwaiti algorithm

Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation which produces Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best-know ...

Microsoft
uses the "Kuwaiti algorithm", a variant of the tabular Islamic calendar, to convert Gregorian dates to the Islamic ones. Microsoft claimed that the variant is based on a statistical analysis of historical data from
Kuwait Kuwait (; ar, الكويت ', or ), officially the State of Kuwait ( ar, دولة الكويت '), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regi ...

Kuwait
, however it matches a known tabular calendar.


Notable dates

Important dates in the Islamic (Hijri) year are: * 1 Muharram:
Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part o ...
Islamic New Year __NOTOC__ The Islamic New Year ( ar, رأس السنة الهجرية, '), also called the Hijri New Year or Arabic New Year, is the day that marks the beginning of a new lunar Hijri year The Hijri year ( ar, سَنة هِجْريّة) or er ...
. * 10 Muharram:
Day of Ashura The word day has a number of meanings, depending on the context it is used such as of astronomy, physics, and various calendar systems. As a term in physics and astronomy it is approximately the period during which the Earth completes one ro ...
. For both Shias and Sunnis, the martyrdom of
Husayn ibn Ali Al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib ( ar, الحسين بن علي بن أبي طالب; 10 January 626 – 10 October 680 ), also known as Abu Abd Allah or Imam Husayn, was a grandson of the Islamic prophet and a of (the fourth calip ...
, the grandson of Muhammad, and his followers. For Sunnis, the crossing of the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر, translit=al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar; or ; Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a North ...

Red Sea
by
Moses Moses he, מֹשֶׁה, ''Mōše''; also known as Moshe Rabbenu ( he, מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ "Moshe our Teacher"); syr, ܡܘܫܐ, ''Mūše''; ar, موسى '; el, Mωϋσῆς, ' () is considered the most important prophet in Judais ...
occurred on this day. * 12 Rabi al-Awwal:
Mawlid Mawlid) and Maouloud The day is sometimes called Mawlid an-Nabi ( ar, مَولِد النَّبِي) and Eid Milad un-Nabi ( ar, مَولِد, translit=, lit=Birth f Muhammad}) is the observance of the birthday of the which is commemorated p ...
or Birth of the Prophet for Sunnis. * 17 Rabi al-Awwal:
Mawlid Mawlid) and Maouloud The day is sometimes called Mawlid an-Nabi ( ar, مَولِد النَّبِي) and Eid Milad un-Nabi ( ar, مَولِد, translit=, lit=Birth f Muhammad}) is the observance of the birthday of the which is commemorated p ...
for Shias. * 27 Rajab:
Isra and Mi'raj The Israʾ and Miʿraj ( ar, الإسراء والمعراج, ') are the two parts of a Night Journey that, according to Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllab ...
for the majority of Muslims. * 15 Sha'ban:
Mid-Sha'ban , observedby = Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is from an Arabic language, Arabic word meaning "submitter (to God) ...
, or Night of Forgiveness. For Shiites, also the birthday of
Muhammad al-Mahdi Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Mahdi ( ar, مُحَمَّد بِن ٱلْحَسَن ٱلْمَهْدِي, ') is believed by the Twelver Shia to be the Mahdi, an Islamic eschatology, eschatological redeemer of Islam and the final Imamah (Shia doctrine ...
, the Twelfth Imam. * 1 Ramadan:
Shia Shia Islam or Shi'ism is the second largest Islamic schools and branches, branch of Islam. It holds that the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad designated Ali, Ali ibn Abi Talib as his Succession to Mu ...
Islamic New Year __NOTOC__ The Islamic New Year ( ar, رأس السنة الهجرية, '), also called the Hijri New Year or Arabic New Year, is the day that marks the beginning of a new lunar Hijri year The Hijri year ( ar, سَنة هِجْريّة) or er ...
. The first day of fasting. * 27 Ramadan: Nuzul al-Qur'an. The most probable day Muhammad received the first verses of the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
. (17 Ramadan in Indonesia and Malaysia) * Last third of Ramadan which includes
Laylat al-Qadr Laylat al-Qadr ( ar, لیلة القدر), variously rendered in English as the Night of Decree, Night of Power, Night of Value, Night of Destiny, or Night of Measures, is, in Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Isl ...
. * 1 Shawwal: Eid ul-Fitr. * 8–13 Dhu al-Hijjah: The
Hajj The Hajj (; ar, حَجّ ' "wikt:pilgrimage, ''pilgrimage''"; sometimes also spelled Hadj, Hadji or Haj in English) is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city for Muslims. Hajj is a Far ...
pilgrimage to Mecca. * 9 Dhu al-Hijjah:
Day of Arafa The Day of Arafah ( ar, يوم عرفة, Yawm ‘Arafah) is an Islamic holiday that falls on the 9th day of Dhu al-Hijjah of the lunar Islamic Calendar. It is the holiest day in the Islamic calendar (the holiest night being Laylat al-Qadr, The Nig ...
. * 10 Dhu al-Hijjah:
Eid al-Adha Eid al-Adha () is the latter of the two official Islamic holidays, holidays which are celebrated within Islam (the other being Eid al-Fitr). It honors the willingness of Abraham in Islam, Ibrahim (Abraham) to human sacrifice, sacrifice his son I ...
. Days considered important predominantly for Shia Muslims: * 9 Rabi' al-Awwal:
Eid-e-Shuja'Eid al Shuja, also known as Umar Koshan ( fa, عمر کشان), is an observance by most Twelver Twelver ( ar, ٱثْنَا عَشَرِيَّة; ' fa, شیعه دوازده‌امامی, '), also known as Imamiyyah ( ar, إِمَامِيَّة), ...
(
Mukhtar al-Thaqafi Al-Mukhtar ibn Abi Ubayd Al-Thaqafi ( ar, ٱلْمُخْتَار ٱبْن أَبِي عُبَيْد ٱلثَّقَفِيّ, '; c. 622 – 3 April 687) was a pro- Alid revolutionary based in Kufa, who led a rebellion against the Umayyad Cal ...
avenges the events of
Ashura Ashura ( ar, عَاشُورَاء, ʿĀshūrāʾ ), also known as Yawm Ashura ( ar, يَوْم عَاشُورَاء) is the tenth day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic calendar. For most Muslims except Shia Muslims, Ashura marks the ...
). *
13 Rajab 13 Rajab is the thirteenth day of the seven month (Rajab Rajab ( ar, رَجَب) is the seventh month of the . The lexical definition of the verb ''rajaba'' is "to respect" which could also mean "be awe or be in fear", of which Rajab is a deri ...
: Birthday of
Ali ibn Abi Talib Ali ibn Abi Talib ( ar, عَلِيّ ٱبْن أَبِي طَالِب, ; 13 September 601 – 29 January 661) was a cousin, son-in-law and companion of the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad, who ru ...

Ali ibn Abi Talib
* 3 Sha'ban: Birthday of
Husayn ibn Ali Al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib ( ar, الحسين بن علي بن أبي طالب; 10 January 626 – 10 October 680 ), also known as Abu Abd Allah or Imam Husayn, was a grandson of the Islamic prophet and a of (the fourth calip ...
. *
21 Ramadan 21 Ramadan is the twenty-first day of the ninth month (Ramadan) of the Islamic calendar. In the Islamic calendar, conventional Lunar Hijri calendar, this day is the 257th day of the year. Deaths * 40 Hijri year, AH – Ali, Ali ibn Abi Talib, ...
: Martyrdom of
Ali ibn Abi Talib Ali ibn Abi Talib ( ar, عَلِيّ ٱبْن أَبِي طَالِب, ; 13 September 601 – 29 January 661) was a cousin, son-in-law and companion of the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad, who ru ...

Ali ibn Abi Talib
.


Uses

The Islamic calendar is now used primarily for religious purposes, and for official dating of public events and documents in Muslim countries. Because of its nature as a purely lunar calendar, it cannot be used for agricultural purposes and historically Islamic communities have used other calendars for this purpose: the Egyptian calendar was formerly widespread in Islamic countries, and the Iranian calendars, Iranian calendar and the 1789 Rumi calendar, Ottoman calendar (a modified
Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century B ...
) were also used for agriculture in their countries. In the Levant and
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
the Aramaic names of the Babylonian calendar are still used for all secular matters. In the Maghreb, Berber farmers in the countryside still use the Julian calendar for agrarian purposes. These local solar calendars have receded in importance with the near-universal adoption of the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes. Saudi Arabia uses the lunar Islamic calendar. In Indonesia, the Javanese calendar combines elements of the Islamic and pre-Islamic Indian national calendar, Saka calendars. British author Nicholas Hagger writes that after seizing control of Libya, Muammar Gaddafi "declared" on 1 December 1978 "that the Muslim calendar should start with the death of the prophet Mohammed in 632 rather than the hijra (Mohammed's 'emigration' from Mecca to Medina) in 622". This put the country ten solar years behind the standard Muslim calendar. However, according to the 2006 ''Encyclopedia of the Developing World'', "More confusing still is Qaddafi's unique Libyan calendar, which counts the years from the Prophet's birth, or sometimes from his death. The months July and August, named after Julius Caesar, Julius and Augustus Caesar, are now Gamal Abdel Nasser, Nasser and Hannibal respectively."''Encyclopedia of the Developing World'' (2007), volume 3, p. 1338. Reflecting on a 2001 visit to the country, American reporter Neil MacFarquhar observed, "Life in Libya was so unpredictable that people weren't even sure what year it was. The year of my visit was officially 1369. But just two years earlier Libyans had been living through 1429. No one could quite name for me the day the count changed, especially since both remained in play. ... Event organizers threw up their hands and put the Western year in parentheses somewhere in their announcements." pages 37–38.


Computer support

* Hijri support was available in later versions of traditional Visual Basic (classic), Visual Basic, and is also available in the .NET Framework. * Since the release of Java 8, the Islamic calendar is supported in the new Date and Time API.


See also

*
Solar Hijri calendar The Solar Hijri calendar ( fa, گاه‌شماری هجری خورشیدی, gāhshomāri-ye hejri-ye khorshidi; ps, لمريز لېږدیز کلیز, lamrez legdez kalhandara) is a solar calendar and one of the various ancient Iranian calendars. ...
* Pre-Islamic Arabian calendar * Rumi calendar * Arabic names of Gregorian months * List of observances set by the Islamic calendar *
Islamic New Year __NOTOC__ The Islamic New Year ( ar, رأس السنة الهجرية, '), also called the Hijri New Year or Arabic New Year, is the day that marks the beginning of a new lunar Hijri year The Hijri year ( ar, سَنة هِجْريّة) or er ...
(includes a table of recent and imminent equivalent dates in the Gregorian calendar) * List of Islamic years (most significant dates have both the Hijri date and the Gregorian date)


References


Notes


External links

*
How and Why did the Hijiri Calendar Begin? ''Al-Ain University''Helmer Aslaksen The Islamic CalendarKhalid Chraibi, The reform of the Islamic calendar: the terms of the debate, Tabsir.net, September 2012
*


Open source calendar converters

* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Islamic Calendar Islamic calendar, Islamic terminology, Calendar Arab inventions