The International Commission on Illumination (usually abbreviated CIE for its French name, Commission internationale de l'éclairage) is the international authority on light
, and colour spaces
. It was established in 1913 as a successor to the Commission Internationale de Photométrie
, which was founded in 1900, and is today based in Vienna, Austria
The CIE has six active divisions, each of which establishes technical committees to carry out its program:
* Division 1: Vision and Colour
* Division 2: Physical Measurement of Light and Radiation
* Division 3: Interior Environment and Lighting Design
* Division 4: Transportation and Exterior Applications
* Division 6: Photobiology and Photochemistry
* Division 8: Image Technology
Two divisions are no longer active:
* Division 5: Exterior Lighting and Other Applications
* Division 7: General Aspects of Lighting
The President of the CIE from 2019 is Dr Peter Blattner from Switzerland.
CIE publishes Technical Reports (TRs), International Standards (ISs) and Technical Notes (TNs). International Standards (ISs) are often further developed as dual standards with the ISO
* In 1924 it established the standard photopic observer
defined by the spectral luminous efficiency function
''V''(''λ''), followed in 1951 by the standard scotopic observer
defined by the function ''V''’(''λ'').
Building on the Optical Society of America
's report on colorimetry
[ The report defined colour as follows: "Color is the general name for all sensations arising from the activity of the retina of the eye and its attached nervous mechanisms, this activity being, in nearly every case in the normal individual, a specific response to radiant energy of certain wave-lengths and intensities."]
the CIE convened its eighth session in 1931, with the intention of establishing an international agreement on colorimetric specifications and updating the OSA's 1922 recommendations based on the developments during the past decade. The meeting, held in Cambridge
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the European mainland, continental mainland. It comprises England, Scotlan ...
, concluded with the formalization of the CIE 1931 XYZ color space
and definitions of the 1931 CIE 2° standard observer
with the corresponding color matching functions
, and standard illuminant
s A, B, and C.
* In 1964 the 10° CIE standard observer and its corresponding color matching functions as well as the new standard daylight illuminant
D6500 were added, as well as a method for calculating daylight illuminants at correlated color temperature
s other than 6500 kelvin
* In 1976, the commission developed the CIELAB
color spaces, which are widely used today.
* Based on CIELAB, color difference formulas CIEDE94 and CIEDE2000 were recommended in the corresponding years.
* International Color Consortium
* International Colour Association
* International Electrotechnical Commission
* International Organization for Standardization
CIE Web siteInter-Society Color Council
Members of the International Council for Science
Organisations based in Vienna
Scientific organisations based in Austria
Standards organisations in Austria
Members of the International Science Council