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An inorganic nonaqueous solvent is a
solvent A solvent (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...

solvent
other than water, that is not an
organic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during ...
. These solvents are used in chemical research and industry for reactions that cannot occur in aqueous solutions or require a special environment. Inorganic nonaqueous solvents can be classified into two groups, protic solvents and aprotic solvents. Early studies on inorganic nonaqueous solvents evaluated ammonia, hydrogen fluoride, sulfuric acid, as well as more specialized solvents, hydrazine, and selenium oxychloride.


Protic inorganic nonaqueous solvents

Prominent members include
ammonia Ammonia is a compound Compound may refer to: Architecture and built environments * Compound (enclosure), a cluster of buildings having a shared purpose, usually inside a fence or wall ** Compound (fortification), a version of the above fort ...

ammonia
,
hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula . This colorless gas or liquid is the principal industrial source of fluorine, often as an aqueous solution called hydrofluoric acid. It is an important feedstock in the preparation ...

hydrogen fluoride
,
sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid ( and the ) or sulphuric acid (), known in antiquity as oil of vitriol, is a composed of the elements , and , with the . It is a colorless, odorless and liquid that is with water. Pure sulfuric acid does not exist naturally ...

sulfuric acid
,
hydrogen cyanide
hydrogen cyanide
. Ammonia (and several amines as well) are useful for the generating solutions of highly reducing species because the N-H bond resists reduction. The chemistry of
electride Cavities and channels in an electride An electride is an ionic compound structure of sodium chloride Sodium chloride , commonly known as salt (although sea salt also contains other chemical salt (chemistry), salts), is an ionic compound with ...
s and
alkalideAn alkalide is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by chemical ...
s relies on amine solvents. The combination of HF and SbF5 is the basis of a
superacid According to the classical definition, a superacid is an acid An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a proton (hydrogen ion H+) (a Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, Brønsted–Lowry acid), or, alternatively, capable of forming ...
solution. Using this mixture, the conjugate acid of
hydrogen sulfide Hydrogen sulfide is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by havi ...

hydrogen sulfide
can be isolated: :H2S + HF + SbF53SbF6


Autoionization

The limiting acid in a given solvent is the solvonium ion, such as H3O+ (
hydronium In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in th ...

hydronium
) ion in water. An acid which has more of a tendency to donate a
hydrogen ion A hydrogen ion is created when a hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance cons ...
than the limiting acid will be a strong acid in the solvent considered, and will exist mostly or entirely in its dissociated form. Likewise, the limiting base in a given solvent is the solvate ion, such as OH (
hydroxide Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other sym ...
) ion, in water. A base which has more affinity for protons than the limiting base cannot exist in solution, as it will react with the solvent. For example, the limiting acid in liquid ammonia is the
ammonium The ammonium cation An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects t ...

ammonium
ion, which has a p''K''a value in water of 9.25. The limiting base is the
amide In organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, ...

amide
ion, NH2. NH2 is a stronger base than the hydroxide ion and so cannot exist in aqueous solution. The p''K''a value of ammonia is estimated to be approximately 34 (''c.f.'' water, 14).


Aprotic inorganic nonaqueous solvents

Prominent members include
sulfur dioxide Sulfur dioxide (IUPAC The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering OrganizationsNational Adhering Organizations in chemistry are the organizations that work as the autho ...
,
sulfuryl chloride fluoride Sulfuryl chloride fluoride is the chemical compound with the formula SO2ClF. It is a colorless, easily condensed gas. It is a tetrahedral molecule. Liquified sulfuryl chloride fluoride is employed as a solvent for highly oxidizing compounds. Pre ...
,
dinitrogen tetroxide Dinitrogen tetroxide, commonly referred to as nitrogen tetroxide (NTO), and occasionally (usually among ex-USSR/Russia rocket engineers) as amyl, is the chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical mo ...

dinitrogen tetroxide
,
antimony trichloride Antimony trichloride is the chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held togethe ...
, and
bromine trifluoride Bromine trifluoride is an interhalogen compound with the formula BrF3. It is a straw-coloured liquid with a pungent odor. It is soluble in sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid ( American spelling) or sulphuric acid ( Commonwealth spelling), also kno ...

bromine trifluoride
. These solvents have proven useful for study highly electrophilic or highly oxidizing compounds or ions. Several (SO2, SO2ClF, N2O4) are gases near room temperature, so they are handled using vacuum-line techniques. The generation of S7sup>+ and rS7sup>+ are illustrative. These highly electrophilic salts are prepared in SO2 solution. The preparation of Br3sup>+ salts also calls for a mixed solvent composed of SO2 and SO2FCl. Sulfuryl chloride fluoride is often used for the synthesis of
noble gas compound Noble gas compounds are chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having ...
s.


Autoionization

Many inorganic solvents participate in
autoionization Autoionization is a process by which an atom or a molecule in an excited state spontaneous emission, spontaneously emits one of the electron shell, outer-shell electrons, thus going from a state with charge  to a state with charge , for exam ...
reactions. In the solvent system definition of acids and bases, autoionization of solvents affords the equivalent to acids and bases. Relevant autoionizations: : 2BrF3 BrF2+ + BrF4 : N2O4 ⇌ NO+ (
nitrosonium The nitrosonium ion An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects t ...

nitrosonium
) + NO3 (
nitrate Nitrate is a polyatomic ion A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a covalently bonded A covalent bond is a chemical bond A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the format ...

nitrate
) : 2SbCl3 ⇌ SbCl2+ + SbCl4 : 2POCl3 ⇌ POCl2+ + POCl4 According to the solvent-system definition, acids are the compounds that increase the concentration of the solvonium (positive) ions, and bases are the compounds that result in the increase of the solvate (negative) ions, where solvonium and solvate are the ions found in the pure solvent in equilibrium with its neutral molecules: The solvent SO2 is relatively uncomplicated, it does not autoionize.


See also

* Nonaqueous titration *
Protic solvent A protic solvent is a solvent A solvent (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as L ...


References


External links

* {{Chemical solutions Solvents Solutions