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In
botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ...

botany
, an infraspecific name is the
scientific name In taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification scheme. Originally used only ...
for any
taxon In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechani ...
below the
rank Rank is the relative position, value, worth, complexity, power, importance, authority, level, etc. of a person or object within a ranking A ranking is a relationship between a set of items such that, for any two items, the first is either "rank ...
of
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...
, i.e. an infraspecific taxon or infraspecies. (A "taxon", plural "taxa", is a group of organisms to be given a particular name.) The scientific names of botanical taxa are regulated by the ''
International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants The ''International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants'' (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical name A botanical name is a formal scientific name In taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is ...
'' (ICN). This specifies a 'three part name' for infraspecific taxa, plus a 'connecting term' to indicate the rank of the name., Art. 24 An example of such a name is ''Astrophytum myriostigma'' subvar. ''glabrum'', the name of a subvariety of the species ''
Astrophytum myriostigma ''Astrophytum myriostigma'', the bishop's cap cactus, bishop's hat or bishop's miter cactus, is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a u ...

Astrophytum myriostigma
'' (bishop's hat cactus). Names below the rank of species of cultivated kinds of plants and of animals are regulated by different codes of nomenclature and are formed somewhat differently.


Construction of infraspecific names

Article 24 of the ICN describes how infraspecific names are constructed. The order of the three parts of an infraspecific name is: :genus name, specific epithet, connecting term indicating the rank (not part of the name, but required), infraspecific epithet. It is customary to italicize all three parts of such a name, but not the connecting term. For example: * ''Acanthocalycium klimpelianum'' var. ''macranthum'' :genus name = ''Acanthocalycium'', specific epithet = ''klimpelianum'', connecting term = var. (short for "varietas" or
variety Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes of algebraic structures defined by equations in universal algebra Hort ...
), infraspecific epithet = ''macranthum'' *''Astrophytum myriostigma'' subvar. ''glabrum'' :genus name = ''Astrophytum'', specific epithet = ''myriostigma'', connecting term = subvar. (short for "subvarietas" or subvariety), infraspecific epithet = ''glabrum'' The recommended abbreviations for ranks below species are: *
subspecies In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interacti ...
- recommended abbreviation: subsp. (but "ssp." is also in use although not recognised by Art 26) * varietas (
variety Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes of algebraic structures defined by equations in universal algebra Hort ...
) - recommended abbreviation: var. * subvarietas (
subvariety A subvariety (Latin: ''subvarietas'') in botanical nomenclature Botanical nomenclature is the formal, scientific naming of plants. It is related to, but distinct from Alpha taxonomy, taxonomy. Plant taxonomy is concerned with grouping and classif ...
) - recommended abbreviation: subvar. * forma (
form Form is the shape A shape or figure is the form of an object or its external boundary, outline, or external Surface (mathematics), surface, as opposed to other properties such as color, Surface texture, texture, or material type. A plane shap ...
) - recommended abbreviation: f. * subforma (subform) - recommended abbreviation: subf. Although the "connecting terms" mentioned above to indicate rank, such as "var.", are the recommended ones, the ICN allows for other connecting terms in validly published infraspecific taxa. It specifically mentions that Greek letters α, β, γ, etc. can be used in this way in the original document, Note 1 to Art. 32.1 and further ranks may be added without limit., Art. 4.3 and Art. 2 Names which use these connecting terms are now deprecated (though still legal), but they have an importance because they can be
basionym In the scientific name of organisms, basionym or basyonym means the original name on which a new name is based; the author citation of the new name should include the authors of the basionym in parentheses. The term original combination or protonym ...
s of current species. The commonest cases use "β" and "b"; examples mentioned in the ICN are ''Cynoglossum cheirifolium'' β Anchusa (''lanata''), Art. 24.4 Ex. 9 and ''Polyporus fomentarius'' β ''applanatus'', entry ''Boletus applanatus'' of Appendix III whilst other examples (coming from the fungus database
Index Fungorum ''Index Fungorum'' is an international project to index all formal names (scientific name In taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such clas ...
) are ''Agaricus plexipes'' b ''fuliginaria'' and ''Peziza capula'' ß ''cernua''. The ICN allows the possibility that a validly published name could have no defined rank and uses " nranked as the connecting term in such cases., for instance ''Agaricus compactus'' nranked''sarcocephalus'' in Art. 50E.Ex 7, or ''Geranium andicola'' nranked''longipedicellatum'' in Art. 37.3.Ex. 5


Abbreviation of infraspecific names

Like specific epithets, infraspecific epithets cannot be used in isolation as names., Art. 24.1 Thus the name of a particular species of ''
Acanthocalycium ''Acanthocalycium'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also ref ...
'' is ''
Acanthocalycium klimpelianum ''Acanthocalycium klimpelianum'' is a species of ''Acanthocalycium'' from Argentina. References External links

* * Acanthocalycium, klimpelianum Flora of Argentina {{Cactus-stub ...

Acanthocalycium klimpelianum
'', which can be abbreviated to ''A. klimpelianum'' where the context makes the genus clear. The species cannot be referred to as just ''klimpelianum''. In the same way, the name of a particular variety of ''Acanthocalycium klimpelianum'' is ''Acanthocalycium klimpelianum'' var. ''macranthum'', which can be abbreviated to ''A. k.'' var. ''macranthum'' where the context makes the species clear. The variety cannot be referred to as just ''macranthum''. Sometimes more than three parts will be given; strictly speaking, this is not a name, but a
classification Classification is a process related to categorization Categorization is the human ability and activity of recognizing shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience Experience refers to conscious , an English Paracels ...

classification
. The ICN gives the example of ''Saxifraga aizoon'' var. ''aizoon'' subvar. ''brevifolia'' f. ''multicaulis'' subf. ''surculosa''; the name of the subform would be ''Saxifraga aizoon'' subf. ''surculosa''.


Legitimate infraspecific names

For a proposed infraspecific name to be legitimate it must be in accordance with all the rules of the ICN. Only some of the main points are described here. A key concept in botanical names is that of a
type Type may refer to: Science and technology Computing * Typing, producing text via a keyboard, typewriter, etc. * Data type, collection of values used for computations. * File type * TYPE (DOS command), a command to display contents of a file. * Type ...
. In many cases the type will be a particular preserved specimen stored in a
herbarium A herbarium (plural: herbaria) is a collection of preserved plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical ener ...
, although there are other kinds of type. Like other names, an infraspecific name is attached to a type. Whether a plant should be given a particular infraspecific name can then be decided by comparing it to the type. There is no requirement for a species to be divided into infraspecific taxa, of whatever rank; in other words, a species does not have to have subspecies, varieties, forms, etc. However, if infraspecific ranks are created, then the name of the type of the species must repeat the specific epithet as its infraspecific epithet. The type acquires this name automatically as soon as any infraspecific rank is created., Art. 26 As an example, consider ''
Poa secunda ''Poa secunda'' (variously known by the common names of Sandberg bluegrass, alkali bluegrass, big bluegrass, Canby's bluegrass, Nevada bluegrass, one-sided bluegrass, Pacific bluegrass, pine blugrass, slender bluegrass, wild bluegrass, and curly ...
'' J.Presl, whose type specimen is in the Wisconsin State Herbarium. * As soon as a subspecies of ''Poa secunda'' was created, then the type specimen of ''P. secunda'' immediately became the type specimen of ''Poa secunda'' subsp. ''secunda''. The name "''Poa secunda'' subsp. ''secunda''" was automatically created (it is an "autonym"). Soreng created the subspecies ''Poa secunda'' subsp. ''juncifolia'' (whose type specimen is also in the Wisconsin State Herbarium), thereby making the type specimen of ''P. secunda'' also the type specimen of ''Poa secunda'' subsp. ''secunda''. * If in addition to the subspecies any variety of ''Poa secunda'' were to be created, then the type specimen of ''P. secunda'' would automatically become the type specimen of ''Poa secunda'' var. ''secunda''. The type specimen would then have the classification ''Poa secunda'' subsp. ''secunda'' var. ''secunda''. The same epithet can be used again within a species, at whatever level, only if the names with the re-used epithet are attached to the same type. Thus there can be a form called ''Poa secunda'' f. ''juncifolia'' as well as the subspecies ''Poa secunda'' subsp. ''juncifolia'' if, and only if, the type specimen of ''Poa secunda'' f. ''juncifolia'' is the same as the type specimen of ''Poa secunda'' subsp. ''juncifolia'' (in other words, if there is a single type specimen whose classification is ''Poa secunda'' subsp. ''juncifolia'' f. ''juncifolia''). If two infraspecific taxa which have different types are accidentally given the same epithet, then a
homonym In linguistics, homonyms, broadly defined, are words which are homographs (words that share the same spelling, regardless of pronunciation) or homophones (words that share the same pronunciation, regardless of spelling), or both. For example, acc ...
has been created. The earliest published name is the legitimate one and the other must be changed., Art. 53.3


Specifying authors

When indicating authors for infraspecific names, it is possible to show either just the author(s) of the final, infraspecific epithet, or the authors of both the specific and the infraspecific epithets. Examples: *''Adenia aculeata'' subsp. ''inermis'' de Wilde :This identifies de Wilde as the author who published this name for the subspecies (i.e. who created the epithet ''inermis''). Note that here it was decided not to indicate authority for the species. *''Pinus nigra'' J.F.Arnold subsp. ''salzmannii'' (Dunal) Franco :Here, J.F.Arnold is the author who gave the species,
European black pine ''Pinus nigra'', the Austrian pine or black pine, is a moderately variable species of pine A pine is any Pinophyta, conifer in the genus ''Pinus'' () of the family (biology), family Pinaceae. ''Pinus'' is the sole genus in the subfamily Pinoide ...
, its botanical name ''Pinus nigra''; Dunal is the author who was the first to publish the epithet ''salzmanii'' for this taxon (as the species ''Pinus salzmanii''); Franco is the author who reduced the taxon to a subspecies of ''Pinus nigra''.


Difference from zoological nomenclature

In
zoological nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention Convention may refer to: * Convention (norm), a custom or tradition, a standard of presentation or conduct ** Treaty, an agreement in international law * C ...
, names of taxa below species rank are formed somewhat differently, using a
trinomen In zoological nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted Convention (norm), convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific name, scientific naming of organisms treated as animals. It is ...
or 'trinomial name'. No connecting term is required as there is only one rank below species, the
subspecies In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interacti ...
.


Cultivated plants

The ''ICN'' does not regulate the names of cultivated plants, of
cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
s, i.e. plants specifically created for use in agriculture or horticulture. Such names are regulated by the ''
International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants The ''International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants'' (ICNCP), also known as the Cultivated Plant Code, is a guide to the rules and regulations for naming cultigen A cultigen (from the Latin ''cultus'' – cultivated, and ''gens'' – ...
'' (ICNCP). Although logically below the rank of species (and hence "infraspecific"), a
cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
name may be attached to any scientific name at the genus level or below. The minimum requirement is to specify a genus name. For example, ''Achillea'' 'Cerise Queen' is a cultivar; ''Pinus nigra'' 'Arnold Sentinel' is a cultivar of the species ''P. nigra'' (which is propagated vegetatively, by
cloning Cloning is the process of producing individual organisms with identical or virtually identical DNA, either by natural or artificial means. In nature, some organisms produce clones through asexual reproduction Asexual reproduction is a type ...

cloning
).


See also

*''
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention Convention may refer to: * Convention (norm), a custom or tradition, a standard of presentation or conduct ** Treaty, an agreement in international law * C ...
'' *''
International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants The ''International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants'' (ICNCP), also known as the Cultivated Plant Code, is a guide to the rules and regulations for naming cultigen A cultigen (from the Latin ''cultus'' – cultivated, and ''gens'' – ...
'' *
Cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
*''
Forma specialis ''Forma specialis'' (plural: ''formae speciales''), abbreviated f. sp. (plural ff. spp.) without italics, is an informal taxonomic Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles t ...
'', an informal naming system for parasites that is included in the botanical code of nomenclature *
Pathovar A pathovar is a bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one Cell (biology), biological cell. They constitute a large domain (biology), domain of prok ...
, a system for naming parasitic bacteria


References


Bibliography

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Infraspecific Name Botanical nomenclature 1rank26 Biology terminology Biological classification