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The Indus ( ) is a
transboundary river A transboundary river is a river that crosses at least one political border, either a border within a nation or an international boundary. Bangladesh has the highest number of these rivers, including two of the world's largest rivers, the Ganges and ...
of Asia and a trans-
Himalaya The Himalayas, or Himalaya (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; , , ) is a of that belongs to the branch of the . It arose in South Asia after its predecessor languages had there from the northwest in the late . Sanskrit is t ...

Himalaya
n river of
South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Germa ...

South
and
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in which stretches from the in the west to and in the east, and from and in the south to in the north, including the former of , , , , and . It is also colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries all ...

Central Asia
. The river rises in Western Tibet, flows northwest through the
Ladakh Ladakh () is a region administered by as a , and constitutes a part of the larger region, which has been the subject of dispute between India, , and since 1947. (subscription required) Quote: "Jammu and Kashmir, state of India, located in ...

Ladakh
and
Gilgit-Baltistan Gilgit-Baltistan (; , : རྒྱལ་སྐྱིད་ སྦལྟི་ཡུལ།), formerly known as the Northern Areas, is a region administered by as an administrative territory, and constitutes the northern portion of the larger ...

Gilgit-Baltistan
regions of
Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr () is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley The Kashmir Valley, also known as the ''Vale o ...

Kashmir
, bends sharply to the left after the
Nanga Parbat Nanga Parbat (), known locally as Diamer (), is the ninth-highest mountain in the world at above sea level. Located in the Diamer District of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English language, English as ...

Nanga Parbat
massif In geology, a massif ( or ) is a section of a planet's Crust (geology), crust that is demarcated by geologic fault, faults or Lithospheric flexure, flexures. In the Plate tectonics, movement of the crust, a massif tends to retain its internal st ...
, and flows south-by-southwest through
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...

Pakistan
, before it empties into the
Arabian Sea The Arabian Sea ( ar, بحر العرب ''Bahr al-Arab'') is a region of the northern Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water Water is an Inorganic co ...
near the port city of
Karachi Karachi (; ur, ; ; : , , ) is the and the in the world. It is the capital of the Pakistani province of . Ranked as a , it is 's premier industrial and financial centre, with an estimated GDP of $164 billion () . Karachi is Pakistan's most ...

Karachi
. The river has a total drainage area exceeding . Its estimated annual flow is around , making it one of the 50 largest rivers in the world in terms of average annual flow. Its left-bank
tributary A tributary, or affluent, is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage ba ...
in Ladakh is the
Zanskar River The Zanskar River is the first major tributary of the Indus River The Indus ( ) is a transboundary river A transboundary river is a river that crosses at least one political border, either a border within a nation or an international bou ...

Zanskar River
, and its left-bank tributary in the
plain In geography, a plain is a flat expanse of land that generally does not change much in elevation. Plains occur as lowlands along valleys or on the doorsteps of mountains, as coastal plains, and as plateaus or uplands. In a valley, a plain i ...

plain
s is the
Panjnad River Panjnad River (Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The reg ...
which itself has five major tributaries, namely the
Chenab
Chenab
,
Jhelum Jhelum ( ur, , ) is a city on the right bank of the Jhelum River , name_other = Hydaspes, Bidaspes, Vitastā, Bihat, Wihat, Bihatab, Biyatta, Jailam , image = Jhelum River-Pakistan.jpg , image_size = , im ...

Jhelum
,
Ravi
Ravi
,
Beas Beas is a riverfront town in the Amritsar district of the Indian States and union territories of India, state of Punjab, India, Punjab. Beas lies on the banks of the Beas River. Beas town is mostly located in revenue boundary of Budha Theh wit ...

Beas
, and
Sutlej The Satluj River (alternatively spelled as ''Sutlej'' River; ) is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is ...

Sutlej
rivers. Its principal right-bank tributaries are the
Shyok The Shyok River () a tributary of the Indus River The Indus ( ) is a transboundary river A transboundary river is a river that crosses at least one political border, either a border within a nation or an international boundary. Bangl ...
,
Gilgit Gilgit (; : ; ur, ) is the capital city of , . The city is located in a broad near the confluence of the and , and is a major , serving as a hub for and expeditions in the mountain range. Gilgit was once a major centre for ; it was an ...

Gilgit
,
Kabul Kabul (; ps, , translit=Kābəl, ; prs, , translit=Kābol, ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capital ...

Kabul
,
Kurram
Kurram
, and Gomal rivers. Beginning in a mountain spring and fed with
glacier A glacier (; ) is a persistent body of dense that is constantly moving under its own weight. A glacier forms where the accumulation of exceeds its over many years, often . Glaciers slowly deform and flow under stresses induced by their wei ...

glacier
s and rivers in the
Himalayan
Himalayan
,
Karakoram The Karakoram is a mountain range spanning the borders of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and ...

Karakoram
, and
Hindu Kush The Hindu Kush ( Dari, Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language of the Indo-European family. It is known in Persian literature as Afghani (, ). The language is natively spoken ...
ranges, the river supports the
ecosystem An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the syste ...

ecosystem
s of
temperate forest A temperate forest is a forest found between the tropical The tropics are the region of Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at N and the Tropic of Capricorn in ...
s, plains, and
arid A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development Development or developing may refer to: Arts *Development hell, when a project is stuck in d ...

arid
countryside. The northern part of the Indus Valley, with its tributaries, forms the
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...

Punjab
region of South Asia, while the lower course of the river ends in
a large delta
a large delta
in the southern
Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ; historically romanized as Sind) is one of the four of . Located in the of the country, Sindh is the third-largest province of Pakistan by total area and the second-largest province by population after . It ...

Sindh
province of Pakistan. The river has historically been important to many cultures of the region. The
3rd millennium BC The 3rd millennium BC spanned the years 3000 through 2001 BC. This period of time corresponds to the Early to Middle Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas ...
saw the rise of
Indus Valley Civilisation , c. 2500 BCE. Terracotta Terracotta, terra cotta, or terra-cotta (; Italian language, Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin ''terra cocta''), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based ceramic glaze, unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the ...
, a major urban civilization of the Bronze Age. During the
2nd millennium BC The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC. In the Ancient Near East The ancient Near East was the home of early civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban de ...
, the Punjab region was mentioned in the
Rigveda The ''Rigveda'' or ''Rig Veda'' ( ', from ' "praise" and ' "knowledge") is an of s (''suktas''). It is one of the four sacred canonical (') known as the . The ''Rigveda'' is the oldest known text. Its early layers are one of the oldes ...
hymns as ''Sapta Sindhu'' and in the
Avesta The Avesta () is the primary collection of s of , composed in language. The Avesta texts fall into several different categories, arranged either by , or by usage. The principal text in the group is the ', which takes its name from the Yasn ...

Avesta
religious texts as S''aptha Hindu'' (both terms meaning " seven rivers"). Early historical kingdoms that arose in the Indus Valley include
Gandhāra
Gandhāra
, and the Ror dynasty of Sauvīra. The Indus River came into the knowledge of the
Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various s, s and , depending on the context, most often consisting of the majority of , , and .
Western world
early in the
classical periodClassical period may refer to: *Classical Greece, specifically of the 5th and 4th centuries BC *Classical antiquity, in the Greco-Roman world *Classical India, an historic period of India (c. 322 BC - c. 550 CE) *Classical period (music), in music ...
, when
King Darius
King Darius
of
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in . It is bordered to the northwest by and , to the north by the , to the northeast by , to the east by , to the southeast by , t ...

Persia
sent his Greek subject
Scylax of Caryanda Scylax of Caryanda ( el, Σκύλαξ ο Καρυανδεύς) was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southea ...
to explore the river, c. 515 BC.


Etymology and names

This river was known to the ancient Indians in
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; , , ) is a of that belongs to the branch of the . It arose in South Asia after its predecessor languages had there from the northwest in the late . Sanskrit is the of , the language of classical , and of h ...

Sanskrit
as ''Sindhu'' and the Persians as ''Hindu'' which was regarded by both of them as "the border river". The variation between the two names is explained by the Old Iranian sound change ''*s'' > ''h'', which occurred between 850 and 600 BCE according to
Asko Parpola Asko Parpola (born 12 July 1941 in Forssa Forssa is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in di ...

Asko Parpola
. From the Persian
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, , translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient based in founded by . Ranging at its greatest extent from the and proper in the west to the in the east, it ...

Achaemenid Empire
, the name passed to the
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an and native to the and the regions, namely , , , , , and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the . They also form a significant , with Greek communities esta ...

Greeks
as ''Indós'' (Ἰνδός). It was adopted by the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
as ''Indus''. The name India is derived from Indus.


Description

The Indus River provides key water resources for Pakistan's economy – especially the ''breadbasket'' of
Punjab province
Punjab province
, which accounts for most of the nation's agricultural production, and Sindh. The word Punjab means "land of five rivers" and the five rivers are
Jhelum Jhelum ( ur, , ) is a city on the right bank of the Jhelum River , name_other = Hydaspes, Bidaspes, Vitastā, Bihat, Wihat, Bihatab, Biyatta, Jailam , image = Jhelum River-Pakistan.jpg , image_size = , im ...

Jhelum
,
Chenab
Chenab
,
Ravi
Ravi
,
Beas Beas is a riverfront town in the Amritsar district of the Indian States and union territories of India, state of Punjab, India, Punjab. Beas lies on the banks of the Beas River. Beas town is mostly located in revenue boundary of Budha Theh wit ...

Beas
and
Sutlej The Satluj River (alternatively spelled as ''Sutlej'' River; ) is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is ...
, all of which finally flow into the Indus. The Indus also supports many heavy industries and provides the main supply of
potable water Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main ...

potable water
in Pakistan. The ultimate source of the Indus is in
Tibet Tibet (; ; ) is a region in covering much of the spanning about . It is the traditional homeland of the as well as some other ethnic groups such as , , , and s and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of and . Tibet is the ...

Tibet
; the river begins at the confluence of the Sengge Zangbo and Gar Tsangpo rivers that drain the Nganglong Kangri and Gangdise Shan (Gang Rinpoche, Mt. Kailash) mountain ranges. The Indus then flows northwest through
Ladakh Ladakh () is a region administered by as a , and constitutes a part of the larger region, which has been the subject of dispute between India, , and since 1947. (subscription required) Quote: "Jammu and Kashmir, state of India, located in ...

Ladakh
, India, and
Baltistan Baltistan ( ur, , bft, སྦལ་ཏི་སྟཱན, script=Tibt), also known as Baltiyul or Little Tibet ( bft, སྦལ་ཏི་ཡུལ་།, script=Tibt), is a mountainous region in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan-administered Kashmi ...

Baltistan
into
Gilgit Gilgit (; : ; ur, ) is the capital city of , . The city is located in a broad near the confluence of the and , and is a major , serving as a hub for and expeditions in the mountain range. Gilgit was once a major centre for ; it was an ...

Gilgit
, just south of the
Karakoram The Karakoram is a mountain range spanning the borders of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and ...

Karakoram
range. The
Shyok The Shyok River () a tributary of the Indus River The Indus ( ) is a transboundary river A transboundary river is a river that crosses at least one political border, either a border within a nation or an international boundary. Bangl ...
,
Shigar Shigar () is the headquarter of its namesake district and tehsil in the Baltistan Baltistan ( ur, , bft, སྦལ་ཏི་སྟཱན, script=Tibt), also known as Baltiyul or Little Tibet ( bft, སྦལ་ཏི་ཡུལ་།, s ...

Shigar
and
Gilgit Gilgit (; : ; ur, ) is the capital city of , . The city is located in a broad near the confluence of the and , and is a major , serving as a hub for and expeditions in the mountain range. Gilgit was once a major centre for ; it was an ...

Gilgit
rivers carry glacial waters into the main river. It gradually bends to the south and descends into the Punjab plains at
Kalabagh Kalabagh ( ur, ), a town and union council of Mianwali District in the Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia Sou ...

Kalabagh
, Pakistan. The Indus passes gigantic gorges deep near the
Nanga Parbat Nanga Parbat (), known locally as Diamer (), is the ninth-highest mountain in the world at above sea level. Located in the Diamer District of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English language, English as ...

Nanga Parbat
massif In geology, a massif ( or ) is a section of a planet's Crust (geology), crust that is demarcated by geologic fault, faults or Lithospheric flexure, flexures. In the Plate tectonics, movement of the crust, a massif tends to retain its internal st ...
. It flows swiftly across Hazara and is dammed at the
Tarbela Reservoir
Tarbela Reservoir
. The
Kabul River The Kabul River ( ps, ; fa, ), the classical Cophen , is a river that emerges in Maidan Wardak Province in the Sanglakh Range of the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan, and is separated from the watershed of the Helmand River by the Unai Pas ...

Kabul River
joins it near
Attock Attock (Punjabi language, Punjabi, Urdu: ), formerly known as Campbellpur (), is a city located in the north of Pakistan's Punjab (Pakistan), Punjab Province, not far from the country's capital Islamabad. It is the headquarters of Attock District a ...

Attock
. The remainder of its route to the sea is in the plains of the Punjab and Sindh, where the flow of the river becomes slow and highly braided. It is joined by the Panjnad at
Mithankot Mithankot ( ur, ) natively known as Kotmithan, is a city in South Punjab, Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English language, English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is ...
. Beyond this confluence, the river, at one time, was named the ''Satnad River'' (''sat'' = "seven", ''nadī'' = "river"), as the river now carried the waters of the
Kabul River The Kabul River ( ps, ; fa, ), the classical Cophen , is a river that emerges in Maidan Wardak Province in the Sanglakh Range of the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan, and is separated from the watershed of the Helmand River by the Unai Pas ...

Kabul River
, the Indus River and the five Punjab rivers. Passing by
Jamshoro Jamshoro ( sd, ڄام شورو, ur, ), is a city, and the capital of Jamshoro District, located in Sindh, Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English language, English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, ...
, it ends in a large delta to the South of
Thatta Thatta ( sd, ٺٽو; ) is a city in the Pakistani province of Sindh. Thatta was the medieval capital of Sindh, and served as the seat of power for three successive dynasties. Thatta's historic significance has yielded several monuments in and ...

Thatta
in the
Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ; historically romanized as Sind) is one of the four of . Located in the of the country, Sindh is the third-largest province of Pakistan by total area and the second-largest province by population after . It ...

Sindh
province of Pakistan The Indus is one of the few rivers in the world to exhibit a
tidal bore Tidal is the adjectival form of tide (U.S.), low tide occurs roughly at moonrise and high tide with a high Moon, corresponding to the simple gravity model of two tidal bulges; at most places however, the Moon and tides have a phase shift. Tid ...

tidal bore
. The Indus system is largely fed by the snows and glaciers of the
Himalayas The Himalayas, or Himalaya (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Ind ...

Himalayas
, Karakoram and the
Hindu Kush The Hindu Kush ( Dari, Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language of the Indo-European family. It is known in Persian literature as Afghani (, ). The language is natively spoken ...
ranges of Tibet,
Ladakh Ladakh () is a region administered by as a , and constitutes a part of the larger region, which has been the subject of dispute between India, , and since 1947. (subscription required) Quote: "Jammu and Kashmir, state of India, located in ...

Ladakh
, the disputed region of
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
of India and the disputed
Gilgit-Baltistan Gilgit-Baltistan (; , : རྒྱལ་སྐྱིད་ སྦལྟི་ཡུལ།), formerly known as the Northern Areas, is a region administered by as an administrative territory, and constitutes the northern portion of the larger ...

Gilgit-Baltistan
region of Pakistan. The flow of the river is also determined by the seasons – it diminishes greatly in the winter, while flooding its banks in the
monsoon A monsoon () is traditionally a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric ph ...

monsoon
months from July to September. There is also evidence of a steady shift in the course of the river since prehistoric times – it deviated westwards from flowing into the
Rann of Kutch The Rann of Kutch ( Gujarati: કચ્છનું રણ) is a large area of salt marsh A salt marsh or saltmarsh, also known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh, is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coast The coast, also known as ...

Rann of Kutch
and adjoining
Banni grasslands Banni Grasslands Reserve or Banni grasslands form a belt of arid grassland ecosystem on the outer southern edge of the desert of the marshy Salt pan (geology), salt flats of Rann of Kutch in Kutch District, Gujarat State, India. They are known for ...
after the 1816
earthquake An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth resulting from a sudden release of energy in the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known t ...

earthquake
. Presently, Indus water flows in to the
Rann of Kutch The Rann of Kutch ( Gujarati: કચ્છનું રણ) is a large area of salt marsh A salt marsh or saltmarsh, also known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh, is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coast The coast, also known as ...

Rann of Kutch
during its floods breaching flood banks. The traditional source of the river is the ''Sênggê Kanbab'' (a.k.a. Sênggê Zangbo, Senge Khabab) or "Lion's Mouth", a perennial spring, not far from the sacred
Mount Kailash Mount Kailash (also Kailasa; ''Kangrinboqê'' or ''Gang Rinpoche''; Tibetan: གངས་རིན་པོ་ཆེ; ; sa, कैलास, ), is a high peak in the Kailash Range (Gangdisê Mountains), which forms part of the Transhim ...

Mount Kailash
marked by a long low line of Tibetan
chortens A stūpa (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. ...
. There are several other tributaries nearby, which may possibly form a longer stream than Sênggê Kanbab, but unlike the Sênggê Kanbab, are all dependent on
snowmelt In hydrology Hydrology (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxim ...
. The
Zanskar River The Zanskar River is the first major tributary of the Indus River The Indus ( ) is a transboundary river A transboundary river is a river that crosses at least one political border, either a border within a nation or an international bou ...

Zanskar River
, which flows into the Indus in Ladakh, has a greater volume of water than the Indus itself before that point.Albinia (2008), p. 307.


History

The major cities of the
Indus Valley Civilisation , c. 2500 BCE. Terracotta Terracotta, terra cotta, or terra-cotta (; Italian language, Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin ''terra cocta''), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based ceramic glaze, unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the ...
, such as
Harappa Harappa (; Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The regi ...

Harappa
and
Mohenjo-daro Mohenjo-daro (; sd, موئن جو دڙو'', ''meaning 'Mound of the Dead Men';
, date back to around 3300 BC, and represent some of the largest human habitations of the ancient world. The Indus Valley Civilisation extended from across northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India, with an upward reach from east of
Jhelum River The Jhelum River ( ur, ) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its co ...

Jhelum River
to
Ropar Rupnagar (; formerly known as Ropar) is a city and a municipal council in Rupnagar district in the Indian States and territories of India, state of Punjab (India), Punjab. Rupnagar is a newly created fifth Divisional Headquarters of Punjab com ...
on the upper Sutlej. The coastal settlements extended from Sutkagan Dor at the Pakistan,
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
border to Kutch in modern
Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

Gujarat
, India. There is an Indus site on the
Amu Darya The Amu Darya, tk, Amyderýa/ uz, Amudaryo// tg, Амударё, Amudaryo ps, , tr, Ceyhun / Amu Derya grc, Ὦξος, Ôxos (also called the Amu, Amo River, or Jay-hoon, and historically known by its Latin language, Latin name or Greek ) i ...
at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan, and the Indus site
Alamgirpur Alamgirpur is an archaeological site of the Indus Valley Civilization , c. 2500 BCE. Terracotta figurines indicate the yoking of zebu oxen for pulling a cart and the presence of the chicken, a domesticated jungle fowl. The Indus Valle ...
at the
Hindon River Hindon River, a tributary of Yamuna river The Yamuna ( Hindustani: ) is the second-largest tributary A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake. A tributary does ...
is located only from Delhi. To date, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries. Among the settlements were the major urban centres of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal, Dholavira, Ganeriwala, and Rakhigarhi. Only 40 Indus Valley sites have been discovered on the Indus and its tributaries. However, it is notable that majority of the Indus script, Indus script seals and inscribed objects discovered were found at sites along the Indus river. Most scholars believe that settlements of Gandhara grave culture of the early Indo-Aryans flourished in Gandhara from 1700 BC to 600 BC, when
Mohenjo-daro Mohenjo-daro (; sd, موئن جو دڙو'', ''meaning 'Mound of the Dead Men';
and Harappa had already been abandoned. The
Rigveda The ''Rigveda'' or ''Rig Veda'' ( ', from ' "praise" and ' "knowledge") is an of s (''suktas''). It is one of the four sacred canonical (') known as the . The ''Rigveda'' is the oldest known text. Its early layers are one of the oldes ...
describes Rigvedic rivers, several rivers, including one named "Sindhu". The Rigvedic "Sindhu" is thought to be the present-day Indus river. It is attested 176 times in its text, 94 times in the plural, and most often used in the generic sense of "river". In the Rigveda, notably in the later hymns, the meaning of the word is narrowed to refer to the Indus river in particular, e.g. in the list of rivers mentioned in the hymn of ''Nadistuti sukta''. The Rigvedic hymns apply a feminine gender to all the rivers mentioned therein, except for the Brahmaputra. The word Etymology of India, "India" is derived from the Indus River. In ancient times, "India" initially referred to those regions immediately along the east bank of the Indus, but by 300 BC, Greek writers including Herodotus and Megasthenes were applying the term to the entire subcontinent that extends much farther eastward. The lower basin of the Indus forms a natural boundary between the Iranian Plateau and the Indian subcontinent; this region embraces all or parts of the Pakistani provinces Balochistan (Pakistan), Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab region, Punjab and
Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ; historically romanized as Sind) is one of the four of . Located in the of the country, Sindh is the third-largest province of Pakistan by total area and the second-largest province by population after . It ...

Sindh
and the countries Afghanistan and India. The first West Eurasian empire to annex the Indus Valley was the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire, during the reign of Darius the Great. During his reign, the Greek explorer
Scylax of Caryanda Scylax of Caryanda ( el, Σκύλαξ ο Καρυανδεύς) was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southea ...
was commissioned to explore the course of the Indus. It was crossed by the invading armies of Alexander the Great, Alexander, but after his Macedonians conquered the west bank—joining it to the Ancient Greece, Hellenic world, they elected to retreat along the southern course of the river, ending Alexander's Asian campaign. Alexander's admiral Nearchus set out from the Indus Delta to explore the Persian Gulf, until reaching the Tigris River. The Indus Valley were later dominated by the Maurya Empire, Mauryan and Kushan Empires, Indo-Greek Kingdoms, Indo-Scythians and Huna people, Hepthalites. Over several centuries Muslim armies of Muhammad bin Qasim, Mahmud of Ghazni, Mohammed Ghori, Tamerlane and Babur crossed the river to invade Sindh and
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...

Punjab
, providing a gateway to the Indian subcontinent.


Geography


Tributaries

*Beas River *Chenab River *Gar Tsangpo, Gar River *Gilgit River *Gomal River *Hunza River *
Jhelum River The Jhelum River ( ur, ) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its co ...

Jhelum River
*
Kabul River The Kabul River ( ps, ; fa, ), the classical Cophen , is a river that emerges in Maidan Wardak Province in the Sanglakh Range of the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan, and is separated from the watershed of the Helmand River by the Unai Pas ...

Kabul River
*Kunar River *Kurram River *
Panjnad River Panjnad River (Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The reg ...
*Ravi River *Shyok River *Soan River *Suru River (Indus), Suru River *Satluj River *Swat River *
Zanskar River The Zanskar River is the first major tributary of the Indus River The Indus ( ) is a transboundary river A transboundary river is a river that crosses at least one political border, either a border within a nation or an international bou ...

Zanskar River
*Zhob River


Geology

The Indus river feeds the Indus submarine fan, which is the second largest sediment body on the Earth. It consists of around 5 million cubic kilometres of material eroded from the mountains. Studies of the sediment in the modern river indicate that the Karakoram, Karakoram Mountains in northern Pakistan and India are the single most important source of material, with the Himalayas providing the next largest contribution, mostly via the large rivers of the Punjab (Jhelum, Ravi, Chenab, Beas and Sutlej). Analysis of sediments from the Arabian Sea has demonstrated that prior to five million years ago the Indus was not connected to these Punjab region, Punjab rivers which instead flowed east into the Ganges, Ganga and were captured after that time. Earlier work showed that sand and silt from western Tibet was reaching the Arabian Sea by 45 million years ago, implying the existence of an ancient Indus River by that time. The delta of this proto-Indus river has subsequently been found in the Katawaz Basin, on the Afghan-Pakistan border. In the
Nanga Parbat Nanga Parbat (), known locally as Diamer (), is the ninth-highest mountain in the world at above sea level. Located in the Diamer District of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English language, English as ...

Nanga Parbat
region, the massive amounts of erosion due to the Indus river following the capture and rerouting through that area is thought to bring middle and lower crustal rocks to the surface. In November 2011, satellite images showed that the Indus river had re-entered India, feeding Great Rann of Kutch, Little Rann of Kutch and a lake near Ahmedabad known as Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Nal Sarovar. Heavy rains had left the river basin along with the Lake Manchar, Lake Hemal and Keenjhar Lake, Kalri Lake (all in modern-day Pakistan) inundated. This happened two centuries after the Indus river shifted its course westwards following the 1819 Rann of Kutch earthquake. The Induan Age at start of the Triassic Period of geological time is named for the Indus region.


Wildlife

Accounts of the Indus valley from the times of Alexander's campaign indicate a healthy forest cover in the region. The Mughal Emperor Babur writes of encountering rhinoceroses along its bank in his memoirs (the Baburnama). Extensive deforestation and human interference in the ecology of the Shivalik Hills has led to a marked deterioration in vegetation and growing conditions. The Indus valley regions are arid with poor vegetation. Agriculture is sustained largely due to irrigation works. The Indus river and its watershed has a rich biodiversity. It is home to around 25 amphibian species.


Mammals

The Indus river dolphin (''Platanista indicus minor'') is found only in the Indus River. It is subspecies of the South Asian river dolphin. The Indus river dolphin formerly also occurred in the tributaries of the Indus river. According to the World Wildlife Fund it is one of the most threatened cetaceans with only about 1,000 still existing. There are two otter species in the Indus River basin: the Eurasian otter in the northeastern highland sections and the smooth-coated otter elsewhere in the river basin. The smooth-coated otters in the Indus River represent a subspecies found nowhere else, the Sindh otter (''Lutrogale perspicillata sindica'').


Fish

The Indus River basin has a high diversity, being the home of more than 180 freshwater fish species, including 22 which are found nowhere else. Fish also played a major role in earlier cultures of the region, including the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation where depictions of fish were frequent. The Indus script has a commonly used fish sign, which in its various forms may simply have meant "fish", or referred to stars or gods. In the uppermost, highest part of the Indus River basin there are relatively few genera and species: ''Diptychus'', ''Ptychobarbus'', ''Schizopyge'', ''Schizopygopsis'' and ''Schizothorax'' snowtrout, ''Triplophysa'' loaches, and the catfish ''Glyptosternon reticulatum''. Going downstream these are soon joined by the golden mahseer ''Tor putitora'' (alternatively ''T. macrolepis'', although it often is regarded as a synonym of ''T. putitora'') and ''Schistura'' loaches. Downriver from around Thakot, Tarbela, the
Kabul Kabul (; ps, , translit=Kābəl, ; prs, , translit=Kābol, ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capital ...

Kabul
–Indus river confluence, Attock Khurd and Peshawar the diversity rises strongly, including many cyprinids (''Amblypharyngodon'', ''Aspidoparia'', ''Barilius'', ''Chela (fish), Chela'', ''Cirrhinus'', ''Crossocheilus'', ''Cyprinion'', ''Danio'', ''Devario'', ''Esomus'', ''Garra'', ''Labeo'', ''Naziritor'', ''Osteobrama'', ''Pethia'', ''Puntius'', ''Rasbora'', ''Salmophasia'', ''Securicula'' and ''Systomus''), true loaches (''Botia'' and ''Lepidocephalus''), stone loaches (''Acanthocobitis'' and ''Nemacheilus''), ailiid catfish (''Clupisoma''), bagridae catfish (''Batasio'', ''Mystus'', ''Rita (fish), Rita'' and ''Sperata''), airsac catfish (''Heteropneustes''), schilbid catfish (''Eutropiichthys''), silurid catfish (''Ompok'' and ''Wallago''), sisorid catfish (''Bagarius'', ''Gagata'', ''Glyptothorax'' and ''Sisor''), gouramis (''Trichogaster''), nandid leaffish (''Nandus''), snakeheads (''Channa''), spiny eel (''Macrognathus'' and ''Mastacembelus''), knifefish (''Notopterus''), glassfish (''Elongate glassy perchlet, Chanda'' and ''Parambassis''), clupeids (''Gudusia''), needlefish (''Xenentodon'') and gobies (''Glossogobius''), as well as a few introduced species. As the altitude further declines the Indus basin becomes overall quite slow-flowing as it passes through the Punjab Plain. Major carp become common, and chameleonfish (''Badis (fish), Badis''), mullet (''Sicamugil'') and swamp eel (''Monopterus'') appear. In some upland lakes and tributaries of the Punjab region snowtrout and mahseer are still common, but once the Indus basin reaches its lower plain the former group is entirely absent and the latter are rare. Many of the species of the middle sections of the Indus basin are also present in the lower. Notable examples of genera that are present in the lower plain but generally not elsewhere in the Indus River basin are the ''Aphanius'' pupfish, ''Aplocheilus'' killifish, Tenualosa ilisha, palla fish (''Tenualosa ilisha''), catla (''Labeo catla''), rohu (''Labeo rohita'') and ''Cirrhinus mrigala''. The lowermost part of the river and its delta are home to freshwater fish, but also a number of brackish and marine species. This includes pomfret and prawns. The large delta has been recognized by conservationists as an important ecological region. Here, the river turns into many marshes, streams and creeks and meets the sea at shallow levels. Palla fish (''Tenualosa ilisha'') of the river is a delicacy for people living along the river. The population of fish in the river is moderately high, with Sukkur,
Thatta Thatta ( sd, ٺٽو; ) is a city in the Pakistani province of Sindh. Thatta was the medieval capital of Sindh, and served as the seat of power for three successive dynasties. Thatta's historic significance has yielded several monuments in and ...

Thatta
, and Kotri being the major fishing centres – all in the lower Sindh course. As a result, damming and irrigation has made fish farming an important economic activity.


Economy

The Indus is the most important supplier of water resources to the
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...

Punjab
and Sindh plains – it forms the backbone of agriculture and food production in Pakistan. The river is especially critical since rainfall is meagre in the lower Indus valley. Irrigation canals were first built by the people of the
Indus Valley Civilisation , c. 2500 BCE. Terracotta Terracotta, terra cotta, or terra-cotta (; Italian language, Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin ''terra cocta''), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based ceramic glaze, unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the ...
, and later by the engineers of the Kushan Empire and the Mughal Empire. Modern irrigation was introduced by the British East India Company in 1850 – the construction of modern canals accompanied with the restoration of old canals. The British supervised the construction of one of the most complex irrigation networks in the world. The Guddu Barrage is long – irrigating Sukkur, Jacobabad, Larkana and Kalat District, Kalat. The Sukkur Barrage serves over . After Pakistan came into existence, a Indus Waters Treaty, water control treaty signed between India and Pakistan in 1960 guaranteed that Pakistan would receive water from the Indus River and its two tributaries the
Jhelum River The Jhelum River ( ur, ) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its co ...

Jhelum River
& the Chenab River independently of upstream control by India. The Indus Basin Project consisted primarily of the construction of two main dams, the Mangla Dam built on the Jhelum River and the Tarbela Dam constructed on the Indus River, together with their subsidiary dams. The Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority undertook the construction of the Chashma-Jhelum link canal – linking the waters of the Indus and Jhelum rivers – extending water supplies to the regions of Bahawalpur and Multan. Pakistan constructed the Tarbela Dam near Rawalpindi – standing long and high, with an long reservoir. It supports the Chashma Barrage near Dera Ismail Khan for irrigation use and flood control and the Taunsa Barrage near Dera Ghazi Khan which also produces 100,000 kilowatts of electricity. The Kotri Barrage near Hyderabad, Sindh, Hyderabad is long and provides additional water supplies for Karachi. The extensive linking of tributaries with the Indus has helped spread water resources to the valley of Peshawar, in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The extensive irrigation and dam projects provide the basis for Pakistan's large production of crops such as cotton, sugarcane and wheat. The dams also generate electricity for heavy industries and urban centers.


People

Indus river is sacred to Hindus. Sindhu Darshan Festival is held on every Guru Purnima on the banks of Indus. The ethnicities of the Indus Valley (Pakistan and Northwest India) have a greater amount of ANI (or West Eurasian) admixture than other South Asians, including inputs from Western Steppe Herders, with evidence of more sustained and multi-layered migrations from the west.


Modern issues


Indus delta

Originally, the delta used to receive almost all of the water from the Indus river, which has an annual flow of approximately , and is accompanied by of silt. Since the 1940s, dams, barrages and irrigation works have been constructed on the river. The Indus Basin Irrigation System is the "largest contiguous irrigation system developed over the past 140 years" anywhere in the world. This has reduced the flow of water and by 2018, the average annual flow of water below the Kotri barrage was , and annual amount of silt discharged was estimated at . As a result, the 2010 Pakistan floods were considered "good news" for the ecosystem and population of the river delta as they brought much needed fresh water. Any further utilization of the river basin water is not economically feasible. Vegetation and wildlife of the Indus delta are threatened by the reduced inflow of fresh water, along with extensive deforestation, industrial pollution and global warming. Damming has also isolated the delta population of Indus river dolphins from those further upstream. Large-scale diversion of the river's water for irrigation has raised far-reaching issues. Sediment clogging from poor maintenance of canals has affected agricultural production and vegetation on numerous occasions. Irrigation itself is increasing soil salinization, reducing crop yields and in some cases rendering farmland useless for cultivation.


Effects of climate change on the river

The Tibetan Plateau contains the world's third-largest store of ice. Qin Dahe, the former head of the China Meteorological Administration, said the recent fast pace of melting and warmer temperatures will be good for agriculture and tourism in the short term, but issued a strong warning: ::"Temperatures are rising four times faster than elsewhere in China, and the Tibetan glaciers are retreating at a higher speed than in any other part of the world... In the short term, this will cause lakes to expand and bring floods and mudflows.. In the long run, the glaciers are vital lifelines of the Indus River. Once they vanish, water supplies in Pakistan will be in peril." "There is insufficient data to say what will happen to the Indus," says David Grey, the World Bank's senior water advisor in South Asia. "But we all have very nasty fears that the flows of the Indus could be severely, severely affected by glacier melt as a consequence of climate change," and reduced by perhaps as much as 50 percent. "Now what does that mean to a population that lives in a desert [where], without the river, there would be no life? I don't know the answer to that question," he says. "But we need to be concerned about that. Deeply, deeply concerned." U.S. diplomat Richard Holbrooke said, shortly before his death in 2010, that he believed that falling water levels in the Indus River "could very well precipitate World War III."


Pollution

Over the years factories on the banks of the Indus River have increased levels of water pollution in the river and the atmosphere around it. High levels of pollutants in the river have led to the deaths of endangered Indus river dolphin. The Sindh Environmental Protection Agency has ordered polluting factories around the river to shut down under the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997. Death of the Indus river dolphin has also been attributed to fishermen using poison to kill fish and scooping them up. As a result, the government banned fishing from Guddu Barrage to Sukkur. The Indus is second among a group of ten rivers responsible for about 90% of all the plastic pollution, plastic that reaches the oceans. The Yangtze is the only river contributing more plastic.


2010 floods

Frequently, Indus river is prone to moderate to severe flooding. In July 2010, following abnormally heavy
monsoon A monsoon () is traditionally a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric ph ...

monsoon
rains, the Indus River rose above its banks and started flooding. The rain continued for the next two months, devastating large areas of Pakistan. In
Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ; historically romanized as Sind) is one of the four of . Located in the of the country, Sindh is the third-largest province of Pakistan by total area and the second-largest province by population after . It ...

Sindh
, the Indus burst its banks near Sukkur on 8 August, submerging the village of Mor Khan Jatoi. In early August, the heaviest flooding moved southward along the Indus River from severely affected northern regions toward western Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab, where at least of cropland was destroyed, and the southern province of Sindh. , over two thousand people had died and over a million homes had been destroyed since the flooding began.


2011 floods

The 2011
Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ; historically romanized as Sind) is one of the four of . Located in the of the country, Sindh is the third-largest province of Pakistan by total area and the second-largest province by population after . It ...

Sindh
floods began during the Pakistani monsoon season in mid-August 2011, resulting from heavy monsoon rains in Sindh, eastern Balochistan, and southern Punjab. The floods caused considerable damage; an estimated 434 civilians were killed, with 5.3 million people and 1,524,773 homes affected. Sindh is a fertile region and often called the "breadbasket" of the country; the damage and toll of the floods on the local agrarian economy was said to be extensive. At least of arable land were inundated. The flooding followed the previous year's floods, which devastated a large part of the country. Unprecedented torrential monsoon rains caused severe flooding in 16 districts of Sindh.Government of Pakistan Pakmet.com.pk Retrieved on 19 September 2011


Barrages, bridges, levees and dams

In Pakistan currently there are six barrage (dam), barrages on the Indus: Guddu Barrage, Sukkur Barrage, Kotri Barrage (also called Ghulam Muhammad barrage), Taunsa Barrage, Chashma Barrage and Jinnah Barrage. Another new barrage called "Sindh Barrage" is planned as a terminal barrage on the Indus River. There are some bridges on river Indus, such as, Dadu Moro Bridge, Larkana Khairpur Indus River Bridge, Thatta-Sujawal bridge, Jhirk-Mula Katiar bridge and recently planned Kandhkot-Ghotki bridge. The entire left bank of Indus river in Sind province is protected from river flooding by constructing around 600 km long levees. The right bank side is also leveed from Guddu barrage to Lake Manchar. In response to the levees construction, the river has been Aggradation, aggrading rapidly over the last 20 years leading to breaches upstream of barrages and inundation of large areas. Tarbela Dam in Pakistan is constructed on the Indus River, while the controversial Kalabagh Dam, Kalabagh dam is also being constructed on Indus river. Pakistan is also building Munda Dam.


Gallery

File:River Indus at Kotri Barrage Jamshoro.webm, Video of River Indus at Kotri Barrage, Sindh, Pakistan. File:Rohri.jpg, Lansdowne Bridge and Ayub Bridge connecting the cities of Rohri and Sukkur in Sindh, Pakistan. File:Frozen Indus, Near Nyoma.jpg, Frozen Indus, Near Nyoma File:Indus at Skardu (1).jpg, Indus at Skardu File:Indus River Dera Ismail Khan.jpg, Indus near Dera Ismail Khan


See also

*Baglihar Dam - disputed hydroelectric project *Ghaggar-Hakra River *Geology of the Himalaya *HMS Indus *Indus River Delta *
Indus Valley Civilisation , c. 2500 BCE. Terracotta Terracotta, terra cotta, or terra-cotta (; Italian language, Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin ''terra cocta''), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based ceramic glaze, unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the ...
*Indus Waters Treaty *Rivers of Jammu and Kashmir *Sarasvati River *Sindh Sagar Doab *Sindhology *Sindhu Darshan Festival *Sindhu Pushkaram *Rigvedic rivers


Notes


References


Bibliography

* Albinia, Alice. (2008) ''Empires of the Indus: The Story of a River''. First American Edition (20101) W. W. Norton & Company, New York. . * Alexander Burnes, ''A voyage on the Indus'', London, 1973 * Philippe Fabry, ''Wandering with the Indus'', Yusuf Shahid (text) Lahore, 1995 * Jean Fairley, ''The Lion River: The Indus'', London, 1975 * * D. Murphy, ''Where the Indus is Young'', London, 1977 * Samina Quraeshi, ''Legacy of the Indus'', New York, 1974 * Schomberg, ''Between Oxus and Indus'', London, 1935 * Francine Tissot, ''Les Arts anciens du Pakistan et de l'Afghanistan'', Paris, 1987 * Sir M. Wheeler, ''Civilisations of the Indus Valley and Beyond'', London, 1966 * World Atlas, Millennium Edition, p. 265.


External links

*The origins of Indus: ** **
Northern Areas Development Gateway
* - covered parts of the Indus River
Indus River watershed map (World Resources Institute)
* * {{Authority control Indus River, History of Sindh Indus basin, Indus Valley Civilisation International rivers of Asia Rigvedic rivers Rivers of China Rivers of Gilgit-Baltistan Rivers of India Rivers of Jammu and Kashmir Rivers of Pakistan Rivers of Sindh Rivers of Tibet Sacred rivers Sarasvati River Rivers in Buddhism Rivers of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Rivers of Punjab (Pakistan) Induan,