HOME

TheInfoList




Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are south of China, south-east of the Indian sub ...

Southeast Asia
and
Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a Region, geographic region that includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Spanning the eastern hemisphere, Eastern and Western Hemispheres, Oceania has a land area of and a population of over 41 million. Wh ...

Oceania
between the
Indian Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South Asia * Indian people, people of Indian nationality, or people who come ...

Indian
and
Pacific The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. T ...

Pacific
oceans. It consists of over 17,000 islands, including
Sumatra Sumatra is one of the Sunda Islands of western Indonesia. It is the largest island that is fully within Indonesian territory, as well as the list of islands by area, sixth-largest island in the world at 473,481 km2 (182,812 mi.2), not ...

Sumatra
,
Sulawesi Sulawesi , also known as Celebes (), is one of the four Greater Sunda Islands. It is governed by Indonesia. The List of islands by area, world's eleventh-largest island, it is situated east of Borneo, west of the Maluku Islands, and south of M ...

Sulawesi
,
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands The Greater Sunda Islands are four tropical islands situated within Southeast Asia, in the Pacific Ocean. The islands, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi and Sumatra, are internat ...

Java
, and parts of
Borneo Borneo (; id, ) is the third- and the largest in . At the geographic centre of , in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of , west of , and east of . The among three countries: and in the north, and to the south. It ...

Borneo
and
New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu Hiri Motu, also known as Police Motu, Pidgin Motu, or just Hiri, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign ...

New Guinea
. Indonesia is the world's largest
island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an indepe ...
and the 14th-largest country by area, at . With about 270 million people, Indonesia is the world's fourth-most populous country and the most populous
Muslim-majority country
Muslim-majority country
. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population. Indonesia is a
presidential President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...
,
constitutional republic A republic ( la, res publica, links=yes, meaning "public affair") is a List of forms of government, form of government in which "power is held by the people and their elected representatives". In republics, the country is considered a "public m ...

constitutional republic
with an elected
legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with the Executive (government), executive and Judiciary, ...
. It has 34 provinces, of which five have special status. The country's capital,
Jakarta Jakarta (; ), officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta ( id, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta), is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letter ...

Jakarta
, is the world's second-most populous urban area. Indonesia shares
land borders This is a list of countries and territories by land borders. The number of distinct land borders of each country or territory is indicated as well the names of its neighbouring countries and territories. The length of each land border is included, ...
with
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( tpi, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini; ho, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niu Gini), is a country in Oceania tha ...

Papua New Guinea
,
East Timor East Timor () or Timor-Leste (; tet, Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste ( pt, República Democrática de Timor-Leste, tet, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is an island country in Southeast Asia. It co ...

East Timor
, and the eastern part of
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are geographically south of C ...

Malaysia
, as well as
maritime border A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continent A continent is ...
s with
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bord ...

Singapore
,
Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates = , largest_city = Ho Chi Minh City , languages_type = National language , languages ...

Vietnam
,
Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern A ...

Thailand
, the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
,
Palau Palau (), officially the Republic of Palau ( pau, Beluu er a Belau) and historically ''Belau'', ''Palaos'' or ''Pelew'', is an island country in the western Pacific Ocean, Pacific. The nation has approximately 340 islands and connects the w ...

Palau
, and
India India, officially the Republic of India (: ), is a country in . It is the by area, the country, and the most populous in the world. Bounded by the on the south, the on the southwest, and the on the southeast, it shares land borders wit ...

India
(
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Andaman and Nicobar Islands is a union territory of India consisting of 572 islands, of which 38 are inhabited, at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. The territory is about north of Aceh in Indonesia and separated from Thai ...

Andaman and Nicobar Islands
). Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support one of the
world's highest levels of biodiversity
world's highest levels of biodiversity
. The Indonesian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since at least the 7th century when
Srivijaya Srivijaya (, ; , ) was a Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay langua ...
and later
Majapahit The Majapahit () was a Javanese Hindu Hindus () are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion and ''dharma'', or way of life. It i ...

Majapahit
traded with entities from
mainland China Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, China mainland, or the Mainland Area of the Republic of China is the geopolitics, geopolitical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC) since Proclamation of ...

mainland China
and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign influences from the early centuries, and
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism. Jeffery D. Long (2007), A Vision for Hinduism, IB Tauris, , pages 35–37 Historically, the term has also been used as ...
and
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the Major religious groups#Largest religions, world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and ...
kingdoms flourished.
Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part o ...
traders and
Sufi Sufism ( ar, ٱلصُّوفِيَّة), also known as Tasawwuf (), is mysticism in Islam, "characterized ... y particularvalues, ritual practices, doctrines and institutions". It is variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, ...

Sufi
scholars brought
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling o ...
) is an religion teaching that is a of .Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , edited by J. L. Esposito. Oxford: . . (See alsoquick reference) " e Muslims' und ...
, while
Christianity Christianity is an , based on the and of . It is the , with about 2.5 billion followers. Its adherents, known as , make up a majority of the population in , and believe that is the , whose coming as the was in the (called the in Christ ...
was brought mostly through European explorers. Although sometimes interrupted by the
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...
, French and British, the
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...

Dutch
were the foremost
colonial power Colonialism is a practice or policy of control by one people or power over other people or areas, often by establishing colonies In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign c ...
for much of their 350-year presence in the archipelago. The concept of "Indonesia" as a nation-state emerged in the early 20th century, culminating later in the
proclamation of Indonesian Independence The Proclamation of Indonesian Independence ( id, Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia, or simply ''Proklamasi'') was read at 10:00 am on Friday, 17 August 1945. The declaration marked the start of the diplomatic and armed resistance of the Indones ...

proclamation of Indonesian Independence
in 1945. However, it was not until 1949 that the Dutch recognised Indonesia's sovereignty following an armed and diplomatic conflict between the two. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native
ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Those attributes can include common sets of traditions, ancest ...
and
linguistic Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing ...
groups, with Javanese being the largest. A shared identity has developed with the motto ''"
Bhinneka Tunggal Ika ''Bhinneka Tunggal Ika'' is the official of . The phrase is translated as "" (''Out of many, one'').Santoso, Soewito ''Sutasoma, a Study in Old Javanese Wajrayana'' 1975:578. : International Academy of Culture It is inscribed in the Indonesia ...

Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
"'' ("Unity in Diversity" ''literally'', "many, yet one"), defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. The
economy of Indonesia The economy of Indonesia is the largest in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are geographically so ...
is the world's 16th-largest by nominal GDP and the 7th-largest by PPP. It is a
regional power In international relations since the late 20th century, a regional power is a term used for a state that has power Power typically refers to: * Power (physics) In physics, power is the amount of energy transferred or converted per unit ti ...
and is considered a
middle power In international relations The field of international relations dates from the time of the Ancient Greece, Greek historian Thucydides. International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scienti ...
in global affairs. The country is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for har ...

United Nations
,
World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates and facilitates international trade between nations. Governments use the organization to establish, revise, and enforce the rules that govern international ...
,
G20 The G20 or Group of Twenty is an intergovernmental forum comprising 19 countries and the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located ...

G20
, and a founding member of the
Non-Aligned Movement The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a forum of 120 developing world Image:Imf-advanced-un-least-developed-2008.svg, 450px, Example of Older Classifications by the International Monetary Fund, IMF and the United Nations, UN from 2008 A devel ...
,
Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN; ( , ) officially the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is an economic union comprising 10 member states in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southe ...

Association of Southeast Asian Nations
,
East Asia Summit The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a regional forum held annually by leaders of, initially, 16 countries in the East Asian, Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeas ...

East Asia Summit
, and the
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; ar, منظمة التعاون الإسلامي, Munaẓẓama at-Taʿāwun al-ʾIslāmiyy; french: Organisation de la coopération islamique), formerly the Organisation of the Islamic Conference ...
.


Etymology

The name ''Indonesia'' derives from
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
words of () and (), meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850,
George Windsor Earl George Windsor Earl (1813–1865) was an English navigator and author of works on the Indian Archipelago. He coined the term 'Indu-nesian', later adopted as the name for Indonesia. Biography Earl was born in London around 1813. He travelled to I ...
, an English
ethnologist Ethnology (from the grc-gre, ἔθνος, meaning 'nation') is an academic field that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples A people is a plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that ...
, proposed the terms ''Indunesians''—and, his preference, ''Malayunesians''—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or
Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago ( ceb, Kapupud-ang Malay, ms, Kepulauan Melayu, tgl, Kapuluang Malay, jv, Nusantara) is the archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of ...

Malay Archipelago
". In the same publication, one of his students,
James Richardson Logan James Richardson Logan (b 10 April 1819 Berwickshire, Scotland, d 20 October 1869 Penang Penang is a Malaysian state located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, by the Malacca Strait. It has two parts: Penang Island, where the c ...
, used ''Indonesia'' as a synonym for ''Indian Archipelago''. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use ''Indonesia''; they preferred ''Malay Archipelago'' ( nl, Maleische Archipel); the ''
Netherlands East Indies The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; nl, Nederlands(ch)-Indië; ) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a coun ...
'' (), popularly ; ''the East'' (); and . After 1900, ''Indonesia'' became more common in academic circles outside the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
, and native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression.
Adolf Bastian Adolf Philipp Wilhelm Bastian (26 June 18262 February 1905) was a 19th-century polymath best remembered for his contributions to the development of ethnography Ethnography (from Greek language, Greek ''ethnos'' "folk, people, nation" and '' ...

Adolf Bastian
of the University of Berlin popularized the name through his book . The first native scholar to use the name was when in 1913, he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, .


History


Early history

Fossilised remains of ''
Homo erectus ''Homo erectus'' (meaning "upright Body relative directions (also known as egocentric coordinates) are geometrical orientations relative to a body such as a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread spec ...

Homo erectus
'', popularly known as the "
Java Man Java Man (''Homo erectus erectus'', formerly also ''Anthropopithecus erectus'', ''Pithecanthropus erectus'') is an early human fossil discovered in 1891 and 1892 on the island of Java (Dutch East Indies, now part of Indonesia). Estimated to be be ...

Java Man
", suggest the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited two million to 500,000 years ago. ''
Homo sapiens Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread of , characterized by and large, complex brains. This has enabled the development of advanced , , and . Humans are highly social and tend to live in complex s composed of many ...

Homo sapiens
'' reached the region around 43,000 BCE.
Austronesian people The Austronesian peoples, also sometimes referred to as the Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of various peoples in Taiwan (collectively known as Taiwanese indigenous peoples), Maritime Southeast Asia, Oceania and Madagascar that ...
s, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan. They arrived in the archipelago around 2,000 BCE and confined the native to the far eastern regions as they spread east. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of as early as the eighth century BCE allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE. The archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, from several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the seventh century CE, the
Srivijaya Srivijaya (, ; , ) was a Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay langua ...
naval kingdom flourished due to trade and the influences of
Hinduism Hinduism () is an and ', or way of life. It is the , with over 1.2 billion followers, or 15–16% of the global population, known as . The word ' is an , and while Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, many practitione ...

Hinduism
and
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
. Between the eighth and tenth centuries CE, the agricultural Buddhist
Sailendra The Shailendra dynasty (, derived from Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch o ...
and Hindu dynasties thrived and declined in inland Java, leaving grand religious monuments such as Sailendra's
Borobudur Borobudur, also transcribed Barabudur ( id, Candi Borobudur, jv, ꦕꦤ꧀ꦝꦶꦧꦫꦧꦸꦝꦸꦂ, Candhi Barabudhur) is a 7th-century Mahayana Mahāyāna (; "Great Vehicle") is a term for a broad group of Buddhist traditions, texts, phil ...

Borobudur
and Mataram's
Prambanan Prambanan or Rara Jonggrang ( jv, ꦫꦫꦗꦺꦴꦁꦒꦿꦁ, Rara Jonggrang) is an 8th-century Hindu temple A Hindu temple or mandir or Devasthana is a symbolic house, seat and body of divinity for Hindus. It is a structure designed to bri ...

Prambanan
. The Hindu
Majapahit The Majapahit () was a Javanese Hindu Hindus () are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion and ''dharma'', or way of life. It i ...

Majapahit
kingdom was founded in eastern Java in the late 13th century, and under
Gajah Mada Gajah Mada (ꦒꦗꦃꦩꦢ) (c. 1290 – c. 1364) was, according to Old Javanese Kawi or Old Javanese is the oldest attested phase of the Javanese language. It was spoken in the eastern part of what is now Central Java and the whole of ...
, its influence stretched over much of present-day Indonesia. This period is often referred to as a "Golden Age" in Indonesian history. The earliest evidence of Islamized populations in the archipelago dates to the 13th century in northern
Sumatra Sumatra is one of the Sunda Islands of western Indonesia. It is the largest island that is fully within Indonesian territory, as well as the list of islands by area, sixth-largest island in the world at 473,481 km2 (182,812 mi.2), not ...

Sumatra
. Other parts of the archipelago gradually adopted Islam, and it was the dominant religion in
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands The Greater Sunda Islands are four tropical islands situated within Southeast Asia, in the Pacific Ocean. The islands, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi and Sumatra, are internat ...

Java
and Sumatra by the end of the 16th century. For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences, which shaped the predominant form of Islam in Indonesia, particularly in Java.


Colonial era

The first Europeans arrived in the archipelago in 1512, when Portuguese traders, led by , sought to monopolise the sources of
nutmeg Nutmeg is the seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was release ...

nutmeg
,
cloves Cloves are the aromatic flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological function of ...
, and cubeb pepper in the
Maluku Islands The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piec ...

Maluku Islands
. Dutch and British traders followed. In 1602, the Dutch established the
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
(VOC) and became the dominant European power for almost 200 years. The VOC was dissolved in 1800 following bankruptcy, and the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...
established the
Dutch East Indies The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; nl, Nederlands(ch)-Indië; ) was a Dutch colony The Dutch colonial empire ( nl, Nederlandse koloniale rijk) comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administer ...
as a nationalised colony. For most of the
colonial periodColonial period (a period in a country's history where it was subject to management by a Colonialism, colonial power) may refer to: * Spanish conquest of Guatemala * Viceroyalty of Peru * Colonial history of the United States * British Raj, British ...
, Dutch control over the archipelago was tenuous. Dutch forces were engaged continuously in quelling rebellions both on and off Java. The influence of local leaders such as Prince Diponegoro in central Java, in central Sumatra,
Pattimura Thomas Matulessy (8 June 178316 December 1817), also known as Kapitan Pattimura or simply Pattimura, was an Ambonese The Ambonese, also known as South Moluccans, are an Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Re ...

Pattimura
in , and the bloody 30-year war in Aceh weakened the Dutch and tied up the colonial military forces. Only in the early 20th century did Dutch dominance extend to what was to become Indonesia's current boundaries. The Dutch East Indies campaign, Japanese invasion and Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, subsequent occupation during World War II ended Dutch rule and encouraged the previously suppressed independence movement. Two days after the surrender of Japan in August 1945, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, influential nationalist leaders, Proclamation of Indonesian Independence, proclaimed Indonesian independence and were appointed president and vice-president, respectively. The Netherlands attempted to re-establish their rule, and Indonesian National Revolution, a bitter armed and diplomatic struggle ended in December 1949 when the Dutch formally recognised Indonesian independence in the face of international pressure. Despite extraordinary political, social and sectarian divisions, Indonesians, on the whole, found unity in their fight for independence.


Post-World War II

As president, Sukarno moved Indonesia from democracy towards authoritarianism and maintained power by balancing the opposing forces of Indonesian National Armed Forces, the military, political Islam, and the increasingly powerful Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI). Tensions between the military and the PKI culminated in 30 September Movement, an attempted coup in 1965. The army, led by Major General Suharto, countered by instigating a Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66, violent anti-communist purge that killed between 500,000 and one million people. The PKI was blamed for the coup and effectively destroyed. Suharto capitalised on Sukarno's weakened position, and following a Transition to the New Order, drawn-out power play with Sukarno, Suharto was appointed president in March 1968. His New Order (Indonesia), "New Order" administration, supported by the United States, encouraged foreign direct investment, which was a crucial factor in the subsequent three decades of substantial economic growth. Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. It brought out May 1998 riots of Indonesia#Background, popular discontent with the New Order's corruption and suppression of political opposition and ultimately ended Suharto's presidency. In 1999, East Timor seceded from Indonesia, following its Indonesian invasion of East Timor, 1975 invasion by Indonesia and a Indonesian occupation of East Timor, 25-year occupation marked by international condemnation of East Timor genocide, human rights abuses. Since 1998, democratic processes have been strengthened by enhancing regional autonomy and instituting the country's 2004 Indonesian presidential election, first direct presidential election in 2004. Political, economic and social instability, corruption, and instances of Terrorism in Indonesia, terrorism (the deadliest being the 2002 Bali bombings) remained problems in the 2000s; however, the economy has performed strongly in the last 15 years. Although relations among the diverse population are mostly harmonious, acute sectarian discontent and violence remain a problem in some areas. A political settlement to an armed separatist conflict in Aceh was achieved in 2005 following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that killed 130,000 Indonesians.


Geography

Indonesia lies between latitudes 11th parallel south, 11°S and 6th parallel north, 6°N, and longitudes 95th meridian east, 95°E and 141st meridian east, 141°E. It is the world's largest Archipelagic state, archipelagic country, extending from east to west and from north to south. The country's Coordinating Ministry for Maritime and Investments Affairs (Indonesia), Coordinating Ministry for Maritime and Investments Affairs says Indonesia has 17,504 islands (with 16,056 registered at the UN) scattered over both sides of the equator, around 6,000 of which are inhabited. The largest are
Sumatra Sumatra is one of the Sunda Islands of western Indonesia. It is the largest island that is fully within Indonesian territory, as well as the list of islands by area, sixth-largest island in the world at 473,481 km2 (182,812 mi.2), not ...

Sumatra
,
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands The Greater Sunda Islands are four tropical islands situated within Southeast Asia, in the Pacific Ocean. The islands, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi and Sumatra, are internat ...

Java
,
Borneo Borneo (; id, ) is the third- and the largest in . At the geographic centre of , in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of , west of , and east of . The among three countries: and in the north, and to the south. It ...

Borneo
(shared with Brunei and Malaysia),
Sulawesi Sulawesi , also known as Celebes (), is one of the four Greater Sunda Islands. It is governed by Indonesia. The List of islands by area, world's eleventh-largest island, it is situated east of Borneo, west of the Maluku Islands, and south of M ...

Sulawesi
, and
New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu Hiri Motu, also known as Police Motu, Pidgin Motu, or just Hiri, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign ...

New Guinea
(shared with Papua New Guinea). Indonesia shares land borders with Indonesia–Malaysia border, Malaysia on Borneo and Sebatik Island, Sebatik, Indonesia–Papua New Guinea border, Papua New Guinea on the island of New Guinea, and East Timor–Indonesia border, East Timor on the island of Timor, and maritime borders with
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bord ...

Singapore
, Malaysia,
Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates = , largest_city = Ho Chi Minh City , languages_type = National language , languages ...

Vietnam
, the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
,
Palau Palau (), officially the Republic of Palau ( pau, Beluu er a Belau) and historically ''Belau'', ''Palaos'' or ''Pelew'', is an island country in the western Pacific Ocean, Pacific. The nation has approximately 340 islands and connects the w ...

Palau
, and
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
. At , Puncak Jaya is Indonesia's highest peak, and Lake Toba in Sumatra is the largest lake, with an area of 1,145 km2 (442 sq mi). List of rivers of Indonesia, Indonesia's largest rivers are in Kalimantan and
New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu Hiri Motu, also known as Police Motu, Pidgin Motu, or just Hiri, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign ...

New Guinea
and include Kapuas River, Kapuas, Barito River, Barito, Mamberamo River, Mamberamo, Sepik River, Sepik and Mahakam River, Mahakam. They serve as communication and transport links between the island's river settlements.


Climate

Indonesia lies along the equator, and its climate tends to be relatively even year-round. Indonesia has two seasons—a wet season and a dry season—with no extremes of summer or winter. For most of Indonesia, the dry season falls between May and October, with the wet season between November and April. Indonesia's climate is almost entirely Tropical climate, tropical, dominated by the tropical rainforest climate found in every large island of Indonesia. More cooling climate types do exist in mountainous regions that are above sea level. The oceanic climate (Köppen ''Cfb'') prevails in highland areas adjacent to rainforest climates, with reasonably uniform precipitation year-round. In highland areas near the tropical monsoon and tropical savanna climates, the subtropical highland climate (Köppen ''Cwb'') is prevalent with a more pronounced dry season. Some regions, such as Kalimantan and
Sumatra Sumatra is one of the Sunda Islands of western Indonesia. It is the largest island that is fully within Indonesian territory, as well as the list of islands by area, sixth-largest island in the world at 473,481 km2 (182,812 mi.2), not ...

Sumatra
, experience only slight differences in rainfall and temperature between the seasons, whereas others, such as Nusa Tenggara, experience far more pronounced differences with droughts in the dry season and floods in the wet. Rainfall varies across regions, with more in western Sumatra, Java, and the interiors of Kalimantan and Papua, and less in areas closer to Australia, such as Nusa Tenggara, which tend to be dry. The almost uniformly warm waters that constitute 81% of Indonesia's area ensure that land temperatures remain relatively constant. Humidity is quite high, at between 70 and 90%. Winds are moderate and generally predictable, with monsoons usually blowing in from the south and east in June through October and from the northwest in November through March. Typhoons and large-scale storms pose little hazard to mariners; significant dangers come from swift currents in channels, such as the Lombok Strait, Lombok and Sape Strait, Sape straits. Several studies consider Indonesia to be at severe risk from the Climate change in Indonesia, projected effects of climate change. These include unreduced emissions resulting in an average temperature rise of around by mid-century, raising the frequency of drought and food shortages (with an impact on precipitation and the patterns of wet and dry seasons, and thus Indonesia's agriculture system) as well as numerous diseases and wildfires. Sea level rise, Rising sea levels would also threaten the majority of Indonesia's population who lives in low-lying coastal areas. Impoverished communities would likely be affected the most by climate change.


Geology

Tectonics, Tectonically, most of Indonesia's area is highly unstable, making it a site of numerous volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. It lies on the Pacific Ring of Fire where the Indo-Australian Plate and the Pacific Plate are pushed under the Eurasian plate, where they melt at about deep. A string of volcanoes runs through Sumatra,
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands The Greater Sunda Islands are four tropical islands situated within Southeast Asia, in the Pacific Ocean. The islands, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi and Sumatra, are internat ...

Java
, Bali and Nusa Tenggara, and then to the Banda Islands of to northeastern
Sulawesi Sulawesi , also known as Celebes (), is one of the four Greater Sunda Islands. It is governed by Indonesia. The List of islands by area, world's eleventh-largest island, it is situated east of Borneo, west of the Maluku Islands, and south of M ...

Sulawesi
. Of the 400 volcanoes, around 130 are active. Between 1972 and 1991, there were 29 volcanic eruptions, mostly on Java. Volcanic ash has made agricultural conditions unpredictable in some areas. However, it has also resulted in fertile soils, a factor in historically sustaining high population densities of Java and Bali. A Toba catastrophe theory, massive supervolcano erupted at present-day Lake Toba around 70,000 BCE. It is believed to have caused a global volcanic winter and cooling of the climate and subsequently led to a genetic bottleneck in human evolution, though this is still in debate. The 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora and the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa were among the largest in recorded history. The former caused 92,000 deaths and created an umbrella of volcanic ash that spread and blanketed parts of the archipelago and made much of the Northern Hemisphere Year Without a Summer, without summer in 1816. The latter produced the loudest sound in recorded history and caused 36,000 deaths due to the eruption itself and the resulting tsunamis, with significant additional effects around the world years after the event. Recent catastrophic disasters due to seismic activity include the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake.


Biodiversity and conservation

Indonesia's size, tropical climate, and archipelagic geography support one of the world's highest levels of biodiversity and is among the 17 megadiverse countries identified by Conservation International. Its flora and fauna is a mixture of Asian and Australasian realm, Australasian species. The Sunda Shelf islands (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Bali) were once linked to mainland Asia and have a wealth of Asian fauna. Large species such as the Sumatran tiger, rhinoceros, orangutan, Asian elephant, and leopard were once abundant as far east as Bali, but numbers and distribution have dwindled drastically. Having been long separated from the continental landmasses, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku have developed their unique flora and fauna. Papua was part of the Australian landmass and is home to a Fauna of New Guinea, unique fauna and flora closely related to that of Australia, including over 600 bird species. Indonesia is second only to Australia in terms of total endemic species, with 36% of its 1,531 species of bird and 39% of its 515 species of mammal being endemic. Tropical seas surround Indonesia's of coastline. The country has a range of sea and coastal ecosystems, including list of beaches in Indonesia, beaches, dunes, estuaries, mangroves, coral reefs, seagrass beds, coastal mudflats, tidal flats, algal beds, and small island ecosystems. Indonesia is one of Coral Triangle countries with the world's most enormous diversity of coral reef fish, with more than 1,650 species in eastern Indonesia only. British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace described a dividing line (Wallace Line) between the distribution of Indonesia's Asian and Australasian species. It runs roughly north–south along the edge of the Sunda Shelf, between Kalimantan and Sulawesi, and along the deep Lombok Strait, between Lombok and Bali. Flora and fauna on the west of the line are generally Asian, while east from Lombok, they are increasingly Australian until the tipping point at the Weber Line. In his 1869 book, ''The Malay Archipelago'', Wallace described numerous species unique to the area. The region of islands between his line and New Guinea is now termed Wallacea. Indonesia's large and growing population and rapid industrialisation present serious Environmental issues in Indonesia, environmental issues. They are often given a lower priority due to high poverty levels and weak, under-resourced governance. Problems include the destruction of peatlands, Deforestation in Indonesia, large-scale illegal deforestation (causing Southeast Asian haze, extensive haze across parts of Southeast Asia), over-exploitation of marine resources, air pollution, garbage management, and reliable Water supply and sanitation in Indonesia, water and wastewater services. These issues contribute to Indonesia's low ranking (number 116 out of 180 countries) in the 2020 Environmental Performance Index. The report also indicates that Indonesia's performance is generally below average in both regional and global context. In 2018, forests cover approximately 49.7% of the country's land area, down from 87% in 1950. Starting in 1970s, and continuing up to the present day, log production, various plantations and agriculture have been responsible for much of the deforestation in Indonesia. Most recently, it has been driven by the palm oil industry. Though it can generate wealth for local communities, it may degrade ecosystems and cause social problems. This situation makes Indonesia the world's largest forest-based emitter of greenhouse gases. It also threatens the survival of indigenous and endemic species. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) identified 140 species of mammals as threatened species, threatened and 15 as critically endangered, including the Bali myna, Sumatran orangutan, and Javan rhinoceros.


Government and politics

Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system. Following the Fall of Suharto, fall of the New Order in 1998, political and governmental structures have undergone sweeping reforms, with Constitution of Indonesia#Constitutional amendments, four constitutional amendments revamping the executive, legislative and judicial branches. Chief among them is the delegation of power and authority to various regional entities while remaining a unitary state. The President of Indonesia is the head of state and head of government, commander-in-chief of the Indonesian National Armed Forces (''Tentara Nasional Indonesia'', TNI), and the director of domestic governance, policy-making, and foreign affairs. The president may serve a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms. The highest representative body at the national level is the People's Consultative Assembly (''Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat'', MPR). Its main functions are supporting and amending the constitution, inaugurating and impeaching the president, and formalising broad outlines of state policy. The MPR comprises two houses; the People's Representative Council (''Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat'', DPR), with 575 members, and the Regional Representative Council (''Dewan Perwakilan Daerah'', DPD), with 136. The DPR passes legislation and monitors the executive branch. Reforms since 1998 have markedly increased its role in national governance, while the DPD is a new chamber for matters of regional management. Most civil disputes appear before the State Court (''Pengadilan Negeri''); appeals are heard before the High Court (''Pengadilan Tinggi''). The Supreme Court of Indonesia (''Mahkamah Agung'') is the highest level of the judicial branch and hears final cessation appeals and conducts case reviews. Other courts include the Constitutional Court of Indonesia, Constitutional Court (''Mahkamah Konstitusi'') that listens to constitutional and political matters, and the Religious Court (''Pengadilan Agama'') that deals with codified Islamic Law (''sharia'') cases. Additionally, the Judicial Commission of Indonesia, Judicial Commission (''Komisi Yudisial'') monitors the performance of judges.


Parties and elections

Since 1999, Indonesia has had a multi-party system. In all Elections in Indonesia, legislative elections since the fall of the New Order (Indonesia), New Order, no political party has managed to win an overall majority of seats. The Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P), which secured the most votes in the 2019 Indonesian general election, 2019 elections, is the party of the incumbent president, Joko Widodo. Other notable parties include the Golkar, Party of the Functional Groups (''Golkar''), the Great Indonesia Movement Party (''Gerindra''), the Democratic Party (Indonesia), Democratic Party, and the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS). The first general election was held in 1955 to elect members of the DPR and the Constitutional Assembly of Indonesia, Constitutional Assembly (''Konstituante''). The most recent elections in 2019 resulted in nine political parties in the DPR, with a Election threshold, parliamentary threshold of 4% of the national vote. At the national level, Indonesians did not elect a president until 2004. Since then, the president is elected for a five-year term, as are the party-aligned members of the DPR and the non-partisan DPD. Beginning with the 2015 Indonesian local elections, 2015 local elections, elections for governors and mayors have occurred on the same date. In 2014, the Constitutional Court ruled that legislative and presidential elections would be held simultaneously, starting in 2019.


Administrative divisions

Indonesia has several levels of subdivisions. The first level is that of the provinces, with five out of a total of 34 having a special status. Each has a legislature (''Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah'', DPRD) and an elected governor. This number has evolved, with the most recent change being the split of North Kalimantan from East Kalimantan in 2012. The second level is that of the regencies (''List of regencies and cities of Indonesia, kabupaten'') and cities (''List of regencies and cities of Indonesia, kota''), led by regents (''bupati'') and mayors (''walikota'') respectively and a legislature (''DPRD Kabupaten/Kota''). The third level is that of the Districts of Indonesia, districts (''kecamatan'', ''distrik'' in Western New Guinea, Papua, or ''kapanewon'' and ''kemantren'' in Special Region of Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta), and the fourth is of the Villages of Indonesia, villages (either ''desa'', ''kelurahan'', ''kampung'', ''nagari'' in West Sumatra, or ''gampong'' in Aceh). The village is the lowest level of government administration. It is divided into several community groups (''rukun warga'', RW), which are further divided into neighbourhood groups (''rukun tetangga'', RT). In Java, the village (''desa'') is divided into smaller units called ''dusun'' or ''dukuh'' (hamlets), which are the same as RW. Following the implementation of regional autonomy measures in 2001, regencies and cities have become chief administrative units responsible for providing most government services. The village administration level is the most influential on a citizen's daily life and handles village or neighbourhood matters through an elected village head (''lurah'' or ''kepala desa''). Aceh, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Papua (province), Papua, and West Papua (province), West Papua have greater legislative privileges and a higher degree of autonomy from the central government than the other provinces. A conservative Islamic territory, Aceh has the right to create some aspects of an independent legal system implementing ''sharia''. Yogyakarta is the only List of Indonesian monarchies, pre-colonial monarchy legally recognised in Indonesia, with the positions of governor and vice governor being prioritised for descendants of the Sultan of Yogyakarta and Pakualaman, Paku Alam, respectively. Papua and West Papua are the only provinces where the Indigenous people of New Guinea, indigenous people have privileges in their local government. Jakarta is the only city granted a provincial government due to its position as the capital of Indonesia.


Foreign relations

Indonesia maintains 132 diplomatic missions abroad, including 95 embassies. The country adheres to what it calls a "free and active" foreign policy, seeking a role in regional affairs in proportion to its size and location but avoiding involvement in conflicts among other countries. Indonesia was a significant battleground during the Cold War. Numerous attempts by the United States and the Soviet Union, and the People's Republic of China to some degree, culminated in the 1965 coup attempt and subsequent upheaval that led to a reorientation of foreign policy. Quiet alignment with the Western world while maintaining a non-aligned stance has characterised Indonesia's foreign policy since then. Today, it maintains close relations with its neighbours and is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the
East Asia Summit The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a regional forum held annually by leaders of, initially, 16 countries in the East Asian, Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeas ...

East Asia Summit
. In common with most of the Muslim world, Indonesia does not have diplomatic relations with Israel and has actively supported State of Palestine, Palestine. However, observers have pointed out that Indonesia has ties with Israel, albeit discreetly. Indonesia has been Indonesia and the United Nations, a member of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for har ...

United Nations
since 1950 and was a founding member of the
Non-Aligned Movement The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a forum of 120 developing world Image:Imf-advanced-un-least-developed-2008.svg, 450px, Example of Older Classifications by the International Monetary Fund, IMF and the United Nations, UN from 2008 A devel ...
(NAM) and the
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; ar, منظمة التعاون الإسلامي, Munaẓẓama at-Taʿāwun al-ʾIslāmiyy; french: Organisation de la coopération islamique), formerly the Organisation of the Islamic Conference ...
(OIC). Indonesia is a signatory to the ASEAN Free Trade Area agreement, the Cairns Group, the
World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates and facilitates international trade between nations. Governments use the organization to establish, revise, and enforce the rules that govern international ...
(WTO), and an occasional OPEC member. During the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation, Indonesia withdrew from the UN due to the latter's election to the United Nations Security Council, although it returned 18 months later. It marked the first time in UN history that a member state had attempted a withdrawal. Indonesia has been a humanitarian and development aid recipient since 1966, and recently, the country established its first overseas aid program in late 2019.


Military

Indonesia's Armed Forces (TNI) include the Indonesian Army, Army (TNI–AD), Indonesian Navy, Navy (TNI–AL, which includes Indonesian Marine Corps, Marine Corps), and Indonesian Air Force, Air Force (TNI–AU). The army has about 400,000 active-duty personnel. Defence spending in the national budget was 0.7% of GDP in 2018, with controversial involvement of military-owned commercial interests and foundations. The Armed Forces were formed during the Indonesian National Revolution when it undertook guerrilla warfare along with informal militia. Since then, territorial lines have formed the basis of all TNI branches' structure, aimed at maintaining domestic stability and deterring foreign threats. The military has possessed a strong political influence since its founding, which Dwifungsi, peaked during the New Order. Political reforms in 1998 included the removal of the TNI's formal representation from the legislature. Nevertheless, its political influence remains, albeit at a reduced level. Since independence, the country has struggled to maintain unity against local insurgencies and separatist movements. Some, notably in Insurgency in Aceh, Aceh and Papua conflict, Papua, have led to an armed conflict and subsequent allegations of human rights abuses and brutality from all sides. The former was resolved peacefully in 2005, while the latter continues, amid a significant, albeit imperfect, implementation of regional autonomy laws and a reported decline in the levels of violence and Human rights in Indonesia#West Papua issues, human rights abuses since 2004. Other engagements of the army include the campaign against the Netherlands New Guinea to incorporate the territory into Indonesia, the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation, ''Konfrontasi'' to oppose the creation of Malaysia, the Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66, mass killings of PKI, and the Indonesian invasion of East Timor, invasion of East Timor, which remains Indonesia's most massive military operation.


Economy

Indonesia has a mixed economy in which both the private sector and government play vital roles. As the only
G20 The G20 or Group of Twenty is an intergovernmental forum comprising 19 countries and the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located ...

G20
member state in Southeast Asia, the country has the largest economy in the region and is classified as a newly industrialised country. Per a 2021 estimate, it is the world's List of countries by GDP (nominal), 16th largest economy by nominal GDP and List of countries by GDP (PPP), 7th in terms of GDP at PPP, estimated to be US$1.159 trillion and US$3.507 trillion, respectively. Per capita GDP in PPP is US$12,882, while nominal gross domestic product, per capita GDP is US$4,256. The debt ratio to GDP is 29.2%. The services are the economy's largest sector and account for 43.4% of GDP (2018), followed by industry (39.7%) and agriculture (12.8%). Since 2009, it has employed more people than other sectors, accounting for 47.7% of the total labour force, followed by agriculture (30.2%) and industry (21.9%). Over time, the structure of the economy has changed considerably. Historically, it has been weighted heavily towards agriculture, reflecting both its stage of economic development and government policies in the 1950s and 1960s to promote agricultural self-sufficiency. A gradual process of industrialisation and urbanisation began in the late 1960s and accelerated in the 1980s as falling oil prices saw the government focus on diversifying away from oil exports and towards manufactured exports. This development continued throughout the 1980s and into the next decade despite the 1990 oil price shock, during which the GDP rose at an average rate of 7.1%. As a result, the official poverty rate fell from 60% to 15%. Trade barriers reduction from the mid-1980s made the economy more globally integrated. The growth ended with the 1997 Asian financial crisis that severely impacted the economy, including a 13.1% real GDP contraction in 1998 and a 78% inflation. The economy reached its low point in mid-1999 with only 0.8% real GDP growth. Relatively steady inflation and an increase in GDP deflator and the Consumer Price Index have contributed to strong economic growth in recent years. From 2007 to 2019, annual growth has accelerated to between 4% and 6% as a result of improvement in the banking sector and domestic consumption, helping Indonesia weather the 2008–2009 Great Recession, and regain in 2011 the investment grade rating it had lost in 1997. , 9.41% of the population lived below the poverty line, and the official open unemployment rate was 5.28%. However, in late 2020, Indonesia fell into its first recession in 22 years due to the effects of the global COVID-19 pandemic. Indonesia has abundant natural resources like petroleum, oil and natural gas, coal, tin, copper, gold, and nickel, while Agriculture in Indonesia, agriculture produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao bean, cacao, medicinal plants, spices, and Natural rubber, rubber. These commodities make up a large portion of the country's exports, with palm oil and coal briquettes as the leading export commodities. In addition to refined and crude petroleum as the primary imports, telephones, vehicle parts and wheat cover the majority of additional imports. China, the United States, Japan, Singapore, India, Malaysia, South Korea and Thailand are Indonesia's principal export markets and import partners.


Transport

Indonesia's transport system has been shaped over time by the economic resource base of an archipelago, and the distribution of its 250 million people highly concentrated on
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands The Greater Sunda Islands are four tropical islands situated within Southeast Asia, in the Pacific Ocean. The islands, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi and Sumatra, are internat ...

Java
. All transport modes play a role in the country's transport system and are generally complementary rather than competitive. In 2016, the transport sector generated about 5.2% of GDP. The road transport system is predominant, with a total length of . Jakarta has the TransJakarta, most extended bus rapid transit system globally, boasting in 13 corridors and ten cross-corridor routes. Rickshaws such as ''bajaj'' and ''becak'' and share taxis such as ''Angkot'' and ''Metromini'' are a regular sight in the country. Most Rail transport in Indonesia, railways are in Java, used for freight and passenger transport, such as local commuter rail services (mainly in KRL Commuterline, Jakarta and KRL Commuterline Yogyakarta–Solo, Yogyakarta–Solo) complementing the Rail transport in Indonesia, inter-city rail network in several cities. In the late 2010s, Jakarta and Palembang were the first cities in Indonesia to have rapid transit systems, with more planned for other cities in the future. In 2015, the government announced a plan to build a High-speed rail in Indonesia, high-speed rail, which would be a first in Southeast Asia. Indonesia's largest airport, Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, is among the busiest in the Southern Hemisphere, List of busiest airports by passenger traffic, serving 54 million passengers in 2019. Ngurah Rai International Airport and Juanda International Airport are the country's second-and third-busiest airport, respectively. Garuda Indonesia, the country's flag carrier since 1949, is one of the world's leading airlines and a member of the global airline alliance SkyTeam. Port of Tanjung Priok is the busiest and most advanced Indonesian port, handling more than 50% of Indonesia's trans-shipment cargo traffic.


Energy

In 2017, Indonesia was the world's 9th largest energy producer with , and the 15th largest energy consumer, with . The country has substantial energy resources, including of conventional oil and gas reserves (of which about 4 billion barrels are recoverable), 8 billion barrels of oil-equivalent of coal-based methane (CBM) resources, and 28 billion tonnes of recoverable coal. While reliance on domestic coal and imported oil has increased, Indonesia has seen progress in renewable energy, with hydropower being the most abundant source. Furthermore, the country has the potential for geothermal, solar, wind, biomass and ocean energy. , Indonesia's total national installed power generation capacity stands at 69,678.85 MW. The country's largest dam, Jatiluhur Dam, Jatiluhur, has several purposes, including the provision of hydroelectric power generation, water supply, flood control, irrigation and aquaculture. The earth-fill dam is high and withholds a reservoir of . It helps to supply water to Jakarta and to irrigate of rice fields and has an installed capacity of 186.5 MW which feeds into the Java grid managed by the State Electricity Company (''Perusahaan Listrik Negara'', PLN).


Science and technology

Government expenditure on research and development is relatively low (0.3% of GDP in 2019) and Indonesia only ranked 87th (out of 132 economies) on the 2021 Global Innovation Index report. Historical examples of scientific and technological developments include the paddy cultivation technique Terrace (agriculture), ''terasering'', which is common in Southeast Asia, and the pinisi boats by the Bugis and Makassar people. In the 1980s, Indonesian engineer Tjokorda Raka Sukawati invented a road construction technique named Sosrobahu that allows the construction of long stretches of flyovers above existing main roads with minimum traffic disruption. It later became widely used in several countries. The country is also an active producer of passenger trains and freight wagons with its state-owned company, the Industri Kereta Api, Indonesian Railway Industry (INKA), and has exported trains abroad. Indonesia has a long history of developing military and small commuter aircraft as the only country in Southeast Asia to build and produce aircraft. With its state-owned company, the Indonesian Aerospace (''PT. Dirgantara Indonesia''), Indonesia has provided components for Boeing and Airbus. The company also collaborated with EADS CASA of Spain to develop the CASA/IPTN CN-235, CN-235 that has seen use by several countries. Former President B. J. Habibie played a vital role in this achievement. Indonesia has also joined the South Korean programme to manufacture the fifth-generation jet fighter KAI KF-X. Indonesia has a space programme and space agency, the National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (''Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional'', LAPAN). In the 1970s, Indonesia became the first developing country to operate a satellite system called Palapa, a series of communication satellites owned by Indosat Ooredoo. The first satellite, PALAPA A1, was launched on 8 July 1976 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, United States. , Indonesia has launched 18 satellites for various purposes, and LAPAN has expressed a desire to put satellites in orbit with native launch vehicles by 2040.


Tourism

Tourism in Indonesia, Tourism contributed around US$19.7 billion to GDP in 2019. In 2018, Indonesia received 15.8 million visitors, a growth of 12.5% from last year, and received an average receipt of US$967. China, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, and Japan are the top five sources of visitors to Indonesia. Since 2011, ''Wonderful Indonesia'' has been the slogan of the country's international marketing campaign to promote tourism. Nature and culture are prime attractions of Indonesian tourism. The former can boast a unique combination of a tropical climate, a vast archipelago, and a long stretch of beaches, and the latter complement those with a rich cultural heritage reflecting Indonesia's dynamic history and ethnic diversity. Indonesia has a well-preserved natural ecosystem with rain forests that stretch over about 57% of Indonesia's land (225 million acres). Forests on Sumatra and Kalimantan are examples of popular destinations, such as the Orangutan wildlife reserve. Moreover, Indonesia has one of the world's longest coastlines, measuring . The ancient
Borobudur Borobudur, also transcribed Barabudur ( id, Candi Borobudur, jv, ꦕꦤ꧀ꦝꦶꦧꦫꦧꦸꦝꦸꦂ, Candhi Barabudhur) is a 7th-century Mahayana Mahāyāna (; "Great Vehicle") is a term for a broad group of Buddhist traditions, texts, phil ...

Borobudur
and
Prambanan Prambanan or Rara Jonggrang ( jv, ꦫꦫꦗꦺꦴꦁꦒꦿꦁ, Rara Jonggrang) is an 8th-century Hindu temple A Hindu temple or mandir or Devasthana is a symbolic house, seat and body of divinity for Hindus. It is a structure designed to bri ...

Prambanan
temples, as well as Toraja and Bali with their traditional festivities, are some of the popular destinations for cultural tourism. Indonesia has List of World Heritage Sites in Indonesia, nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the Komodo National Park and the Ombilin Coal Mine, Sawahlunto Coal Mine; and a further 19 in a tentative list that includes Bunaken National Park and Raja Ampat Islands. Other attractions include the specific points in Indonesian history, such as the colonial heritage of the Dutch East Indies in the old towns of Kota Tua Jakarta, Jakarta and Dutch architecture in Semarang, Semarang and the List of palaces in Indonesia, royal palaces of Pagaruyung Palace, Pagaruyung, Ubud Palace, Ubud, and Kraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat, Yogyakarta.


Demographics

The 2020 Indonesian census, 2020 census recorded Demographics of Indonesia, Indonesia's population as 270.2 million, the List of countries and dependencies by population, fourth largest in the world, with a moderately high population growth rate of 1.25%.
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands The Greater Sunda Islands are four tropical islands situated within Southeast Asia, in the Pacific Ocean. The islands, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi and Sumatra, are internat ...

Java
is the world's most populous island, where 56% of the country's population lives. The population density is 141 people per km2 (365 per sq mi), ranking 88th in the world, although Java has a population density of 1,067 people per km2 (2,435 per sq mi). In 1961, the first post-colonial census recorded a total of 97 million people. It is expected to grow to around 295 million by 2030 and 321 million by 2050. The country currently possesses a relatively young population, with a median age of 30.2 years (2017 estimate). The spread of the population is uneven throughout the archipelago, with a varying habitat and level of List of Indonesian provinces by Human Development Index, development, ranging from the megacity of Jakarta to Uncontacted peoples, uncontacted tribes in Papua. As of 2017, about 54.7% of the population lives in urban areas. Jakarta is the country's primate city and the List of largest cities, second-most populous urban area globally, with over 34 million residents. About 8 million Overseas Indonesians, Indonesians live overseas; most settled in Malaysia, the Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Hong Kong, Singapore, the United States, and Australia.


Ethnic groups and languages

Indonesia is an ethnically diverse country, with around 1,300 distinct native ethnic groups. Most Indonesians are descended from Austronesian peoples whose languages had origins in Proto-Austronesian language, Proto-Austronesian, which possibly originated in what is now Taiwan. Another major grouping is the Melanesians, who inhabit eastern Indonesia (the
Maluku Islands The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piec ...

Maluku Islands
and Western New Guinea). The Javanese are the largest ethnic group, constituting 40.2% of the population, and are politically dominant. They are predominantly located in the central to eastern parts of Java and also sizeable numbers in most provinces. The Sundanese people, Sundanese are the next largest group (15.4%), followed by Batak people, Batak, Madurese people, Madurese, Betawi people, Betawi, Minangkabau people, Minangkabau, Bugis people, Buginese and Malay Indonesians, Malay people. A sense of Indonesian nationhood exists alongside strong regional identities. The country's official language is Indonesian language, Indonesian, a variant of Malay language, Malay based on its Prestige (sociolinguistics), prestige dialect, which had been the archipelago's ''lingua franca'' for centuries. It was Youth Pledge, promoted by nationalists in the 1920s and achieved official status in 1945 under the name ''Bahasa Indonesia''. As a result of centuries-long contact with other languages, it is rich in local and foreign influences, including Javanese, Sundanese, Minangkabau, Makassarese, Hindustani, Sanskrit, Tamil, Chinese, Arabic, Dutch, Portuguese and English. Nearly every Indonesian speaks the language due to its widespread use in education, academics, communications, business, politics, and mass media. Most Indonesians also speak at least one of more than 700 local languages, often as their first language. Most belong to the Austronesian languages, Austronesian language family, while over 270 Papuan languages are spoken in eastern Indonesia. Of these, Javanese language, Javanese is the most widely spoken and has co-official status in the Special Region of Yogyakarta. In 1930, Dutch people, Dutch and other Europeans (''Totok''), Eurasian (mixed ancestry), Eurasians, and derivative people like the Indo people, Indos, numbered 240,000 or 0.4% of the total population. Historically, they constituted only a tiny fraction of the native population and remain so today. Also, the Dutch language never had a substantial number of speakers or official status despite the Dutch presence for almost 350 years. The small minorities that can speak it or Dutch-based creole languages fluently are the aforementioned ethnic groups and descendants of Dutch colonisers. This reflected the Dutch colonial empire's primary purpose, which was commercial exchange as opposed to sovereignty over homogeneous landmasses. Today, there is some degree of fluency by either educated members of the oldest generation or legal professionals, as specific law codes are still only available in Dutch.


Religion

Despite guaranteeing religious freedom in the constitution, the government officially recognises only Religion in Indonesia, six religions:
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling o ...
) is an religion teaching that is a of .Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , edited by J. L. Esposito. Oxford: . . (See alsoquick reference) " e Muslims' und ...
, Protestantism in Indonesia, Protestantism, Roman Catholicism in Indonesia, Roman Catholicism, Hinduism in Indonesia, Hinduism, Buddhism in Indonesia, Buddhism, and Supreme Council for the Confucian Religion in Indonesia, Confucianism; with indigenous religions only partly acknowledged. With 231 million adherents (86.7%) in 2018, Indonesia is the world's most populous Muslim-majority country, with Sunni Islam, Sunnis being the majority (99%). The Shia Islam in Indonesia, Shias and Ahmadiyya in Indonesia, Ahmadis, respectively, constitute 1% (1–3 million) and 0.2% (200,000–400,000) of Muslims. Almost 11% of Indonesians are Christians, while the rest are Hindus, Buddhists, and others. Most Hindus are Balinese people, Balinese, and most Buddhism, Buddhists are Chinese Indonesians. The natives of the Indonesian archipelago originally practised indigenous animism and dynamism (metaphysics), dynamism, beliefs that are common to
Austronesian people The Austronesian peoples, also sometimes referred to as the Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of various peoples in Taiwan (collectively known as Taiwanese indigenous peoples), Maritime Southeast Asia, Oceania and Madagascar that ...
. They worshipped and revered ancestral spirit and believed that supernatural spirits (''hyang'') might inhabit certain places such as large trees, stones, forests, mountains, or sacred sites. Examples of Indonesian native belief systems include the Sundanese people, Sundanese Sunda Wiwitan, Dayak people, Dayak's Kaharingan, and the Javanese Kejawèn. They have had a significant impact on how other faiths are practised, evidenced by a large proportion of people—such as the Javanese abangan, Balinese Hinduism, Balinese Hindus, and Dayak Christians—practising a less orthodoxy, orthodox, syncretism, syncretic form of their religion.
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism. Jeffery D. Long (2007), A Vision for Hinduism, IB Tauris, , pages 35–37 Historically, the term has also been used as ...
influences reached the archipelago as early as the first century CE. The Sundanese people, Sundanese Kingdoms of Sunda, Kingdom of Salakanagara in western Java around 130 was the first historically recorded Greater India, Indianised kingdom in the archipelago. Buddhism in Indonesia, Buddhism arrived around the 6th century, and its history in Indonesia is closely related to that of Hinduism, as some empires based on Buddhism had their roots around the same period. The archipelago has witnessed the rise and fall of powerful and influential Hindu and Buddhist empires such as
Majapahit The Majapahit () was a Javanese Hindu Hindus () are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion and ''dharma'', or way of life. It i ...

Majapahit
, Shailendra dynasty, Sailendra,
Srivijaya Srivijaya (, ; , ) was a Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay langua ...
, and Mataram. Though no longer a majority, Hinduism and Buddhism remain to have a substantial influence on Indonesian culture.
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling o ...
) is an religion teaching that is a of .Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , edited by J. L. Esposito. Oxford: . . (See alsoquick reference) " e Muslims' und ...
was introduced by
Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part o ...
traders of the Shafi'i Madhhab, school as well as
Sufi Sufism ( ar, ٱلصُّوفِيَّة), also known as Tasawwuf (), is mysticism in Islam, "characterized ... y particularvalues, ritual practices, doctrines and institutions". It is variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, ...

Sufi
traders from the Indian subcontinent and South Arabia, southern Arabia as early as the 8th century CE. For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences that resulted in a distinct form of Islam (''pesantren''). Trade, Islamic missionary activity such as by the Wali Sanga and Chinese explorer Zheng He, and military campaigns by Sultan#Southeast and East Asia, several sultanates helped accelerate the Spread of Islam in Indonesia, spread of Islam. By the end of the 16th century, it had supplanted Hinduism and Buddhism as the dominant religion of Java#Religion, Java and Sumatra#Religion, Sumatra. Catholic Church in Indonesia, Catholicism was brought by Portuguese traders and missionaries such as Society of Jesus, Jesuit Francis Xavier, who visited and baptised several thousand locals. Its spread faced difficulty due to the Dutch East India Company policy of banning the religion and the Dutch hostility due to the Eighty Years' War against Catholic Spain's rule. Protestantism in Indonesia, Protestantism is mostly a result of Calvinism, Calvinist and Lutheranism, Lutheran missionary efforts during the Dutch colonial era. Although they are the most common branch, there is a multitude of other denominations elsewhere in the country. There was a History of the Jews in Indonesia, sizeable Jewish presence in the archipelago until 1945, mostly Dutch and some Baghdadi Jews. Since most left after Indonesia proclaimed independence, Judaism was never accorded official status, and only a tiny number of Jews remain today, mostly in Jakarta and Surabaya. At the national and local level, Indonesia's political leadership and civil society groups have played a crucial role in interfaith relations, both positively and negatively. The invocation of the first principle of Indonesia's philosophical foundation, Pancasila (the belief in the one and only God), often serves as a reminder of religious tolerance, though instances of intolerance have occurred. An overwhelming majority of Indonesians consider religion to be essential and an integral part of life.


Education and health

Education is compulsory for 12 years. Parents can choose between state-run, non-sectarian schools or private or semi-private religious (usually Islamic) schools, supervised by the ministries of Education and Religion, respectively. Private international schools that do not follow the Education in Indonesia#2013 curriculum, national curriculum are also available. The enrolment rate is 93% for primary education, 79% for secondary education, and 36% for tertiary education (2018). The literacy rate is 96% (2018), and the government spends about 3.6% of GDP (2015) on education. In 2018, there were 4,670 higher educational institutions in Indonesia, with most of them (74%) being located in Sumatra and Java. According to the QS World University Rankings, Indonesia's top universities are the University of Indonesia, Gadjah Mada University and the Bandung Institute of Technology. Government expenditure on healthcare is about 3.3% of GDP in 2016. As part of an attempt to achieve universal health care, the government launched the National Health Insurance (''Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional'', JKN) in 2014. It includes coverage for a range of services from the public and also private firms that have opted to join the scheme. Despite remarkable improvements in recent decades such as rising life expectancy (from 62.3 years in 1990 to 71.7 years in 2019) and declining child mortality (from 84 deaths per 1,000 births in 1990 to 23.9 deaths in 2019), challenges remain, including maternal and child health, low air quality, malnutrition, high rate of smoking, and infectious diseases.


Issues

In the economic sphere, there is a gap in wealth, unemployment rate, and health between densely populated islands and economic centres (such as
Sumatra Sumatra is one of the Sunda Islands of western Indonesia. It is the largest island that is fully within Indonesian territory, as well as the list of islands by area, sixth-largest island in the world at 473,481 km2 (182,812 mi.2), not ...

Sumatra
and
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands The Greater Sunda Islands are four tropical islands situated within Southeast Asia, in the Pacific Ocean. The islands, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi and Sumatra, are internat ...

Java
) and sparsely populated, disadvantaged areas (such as and Western New Guinea, Papua). This is created by a situation in which nearly 80% of Indonesia's population lives in the western parts of the archipelago, and yet growing at a slower pace than the rest of the country. In the social arena, numerous cases of racism and discrimination, especially Discrimination against Chinese Indonesians, against Chinese Indonesians and Indigenous people of New Guinea, Papuans, have been well documented throughout Indonesia's history. Such cases have sometimes led to violent conflicts, most notably the May 1998 riots of Indonesia, May 1998 riots and the Papua conflict, which has continued since 1962. LGBT people also regularly face challenges. Although LGBT rights in Indonesia, LGBT issues have been relatively obscure, the 2010s (especially after 2016) has seen a rapid surge of anti-LGBT rhetoric, putting LGBT Indonesians into a frequent subject of intimidation, discrimination, and even violence. In addition, Indonesia has been reported to have sizeable numbers of child labor, child and forced labours, with the former being prevalent in the palm oil and tobacco industries, while the latter in the fishing industry.


Culture

The cultural history of the Indonesian archipelago spans more than two millennia. Influences from the Indian subcontinent,
mainland China Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, China mainland, or the Mainland Area of the Republic of China is the geopolitics, geopolitical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC) since Proclamation of ...

mainland China
, the Middle East, Europe, and the Austronesian peoples have historically shaped the cultural, linguistic and religious makeup of the archipelago. As a result, modern-day Indonesia has a multicultural, multilingual and multi-ethnic society, with a complex cultural mixture that differs significantly from the original indigenous cultures. Indonesia currently holds UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists, eleven items of UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage, including a wayang puppet theatre, kris, batik, pencak silat, angklung, and the three genres of traditional Balinese dance.


Art and architecture

Indonesian arts include both age-old art forms developed through centuries and recently developed contemporary art. Despite often displaying local ingenuity, Indonesian arts have absorbed foreign influences—most notably from
India India, officially the Republic of India (: ), is a country in . It is the by area, the country, and the most populous in the world. Bounded by the on the south, the on the southwest, and the on the southeast, it shares land borders wit ...

India
, the Arab world, China and Europe, due to contacts and interactions facilitated, and often motivated, by trade. Painting is an Balinese art, established and developed art in Bali, where its people are famed for their artistry. Their painting tradition started as classical Kamasan or Wayang style visual narrative, derived from visual art discovered on ''Candi of Indonesia, candi'' bas reliefs in eastern Java. There have been numerous discoveries of Megalithic art, megalithic sculptures in Indonesia. Subsequently, tribal art has flourished within the culture of Nias people, Nias, Batak people, Batak, Asmat people, Asmat, Dayak people, Dayak and Toraja. Wood and stone are common materials used as the media for sculpting among these tribes. Between the 8th and 15th centuries, the Javanese civilisation has developed a refined stone sculpting art and architecture influenced by Hindu-Buddhist Dharma, Dharmic civilisation. The temples of
Borobudur Borobudur, also transcribed Barabudur ( id, Candi Borobudur, jv, ꦕꦤ꧀ꦝꦶꦧꦫꦧꦸꦝꦸꦂ, Candhi Barabudhur) is a 7th-century Mahayana Mahāyāna (; "Great Vehicle") is a term for a broad group of Buddhist traditions, texts, phil ...

Borobudur
and
Prambanan Prambanan or Rara Jonggrang ( jv, ꦫꦫꦗꦺꦴꦁꦒꦿꦁ, Rara Jonggrang) is an 8th-century Hindu temple A Hindu temple or mandir or Devasthana is a symbolic house, seat and body of divinity for Hindus. It is a structure designed to bri ...

Prambanan
are among the most famous examples of the practice. As with the arts, Indonesian architecture has absorbed foreign influences that have brought cultural changes and profound effect on building styles and techniques. The most dominant has traditionally been Architecture of India, Indian; however, Chinese, Arab, and European influences have also been significant. Traditional carpentry, masonry, stone and woodwork techniques and decorations have thrived in vernacular architecture, with numbers of traditional houses' (''rumah adat'') styles that have been developed. The traditional houses and settlements vary by ethnic groups, and each has a specific custom and history. Examples include Toraja's Tongkonan, Minangkabau people, Minangkabau's Rumah Gadang and Rangkiang, Javanese style Pendopo pavilion with Joglo style roof, Dayak people, Dayak's longhouses, various Rumah Melayu, Malay houses, Balinese architecture, Balinese houses and Balinese temple, temples, and also different forms of rice barns (''lumbung'').


Music, dance and clothing

The music of Indonesia predates historical records. Various indigenous tribes incorporate chants and songs accompanied by musical instruments in their rituals. Angklung, kacapi suling, gong, gamelan, talempong, kulintang, and sasando are examples of traditional Indonesian instruments. The diverse world of Indonesian music genres results from the musical creativity of its people and subsequent cultural encounters with foreign influences. These include Qanbūs, gambus and qasida from the Middle East, keroncong from Portugal, and dangdut—one of Indonesia's most popular music genres—with notable Hindi influence as well as Malay orchestras. Today, the Indonesian music industry enjoys both nationwide and regional popularity in Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei, due to common culture and intelligible languages between Indonesian language, Indonesian and Malay language, Malay. Indonesian dances have a diverse history, with more than 3,000 original dances. Scholars believe that they had their beginning in rituals and religious worship. Examples include war dances, a dance of witch doctors, and dance to call for rain or any agricultural rituals such as Hudoq. Indonesian dances derive their influences from the archipelago's prehistoric and tribal, Hindu-Buddhist, and Islamic periods. Recently, modern dances and urban teen dances have gained popularity due to the influence of Western culture and those of Japan and South Korea to some extent. However, various traditional dances, including those of Java, Bali and Dayak, continue to be a living and dynamic tradition. Indonesia has various styles of clothing as a result of its long and rich cultural history. The national costume has its origins in the indigenous culture of the country and traditional textile traditions. The Javanese Batik and Kebaya are arguably Indonesia's most recognised national costume, though they have Sundanese people, Sundanese and Balinese people, Balinese origins as well.Jill Forshee, ''Culture and customs of Indonesia'', Greenwood Publishing Group: 2006: . 237 pp. Each province has a representation of traditional attire and dress, such as Ulos of Batak from North Sumatra; Songket of Malays (ethnic group), Malay and Minangkabau people, Minangkabau from Sumatra; and Ikat of Sasak people, Sasak from Lombok. People wear national and regional costumes during traditional weddings, formal ceremonies, music performances, government and official occasions, and they vary from traditional to modern attire.


Theatre and cinema

Wayang, the Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese shadow puppet theatre display several mythological legends such as Ramayana and Mahabharata. Other forms of local drama include the Javanese Ludruk and Ketoprak, the Sundanese Sandiwara, Betawi Lenong, and various Balinese dance drama. They incorporate humour and jest and often involve audiences in their performances. Some theatre traditions also include music, dancing and Pencak Silat, silat martial art, such as Randai from Minangkabau people of West Sumatra. It is usually performed for traditional ceremonies and festivals, and based on semi-historical Minangkabau legends and love story. Modern performing art also developed in Indonesia with its distinct style of drama. Notable theatre, dance, and drama troupe such as ''Teater Koma'' are famous as it often portrays social and political satire of Indonesian society. The first film produced in the archipelago was ''Loetoeng Kasaroeng'', a silent film by Dutch director L. Heuveldorp. The film industry expanded after independence, with six films made in 1949 rising to 58 in 1955. Usmar Ismail, who made significant imprints in the 1950s and 1960s, is generally considered the pioneer of Indonesian films. The Guided Democracy in Indonesia, latter part of the Sukarno era saw the use of cinema for nationalistic, anti-Western purposes, and foreign films were subsequently banned, while the New Order utilised a censorship code that aimed to maintain social order. Production of films peaked during the 1980s, although it declined significantly in the next decade. Notable films in this period include ''Satan's Slave (1980 film), Pengabdi Setan'' (1980), ''Nagabonar'' (1987), ''Tjoet Nja' Dhien'' (1988), ''Catatan Si Boy'' (1989), and Warkop's comedy films. Independent filmmaking was a rebirth of the film industry since 1998, where films started addressing previously banned topics, such as religion, race, and love. Between 2000 and 2005, the number of films released each year steadily increased. Riri Riza and Mira Lesmana were among the new generation of filmmakers who co-directed ''Kuldesak'' (1999), ''Petualangan Sherina'' (2000), ''Ada Apa dengan Cinta?'' (2002), and ''Laskar Pelangi'' (2008). In 2016, ''Warkop DKI Reborn: Jangkrik Boss Part 1'' smashed box office records, becoming the most-watched Indonesian film with 6.8 million tickets sold. Indonesia has held annual film festivals and awards, including the Indonesian Film Festival (''Festival Film Indonesia'') held intermittently since 1955. It hands out the Citra Award, the film industry's most prestigious award. From 1973 to 1992, the festival was held annually and then discontinued until its revival in 2004.


Mass media and literature

Media of Indonesia, Media freedom increased considerably after the fall of the New Order, during which the Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media and restricted foreign media. The television market includes several national commercial networks and provincial networks that compete with public TVRI, which held a monopoly on TV broadcasting from 1962 to 1989. By the early 21st century, the improved communications system had brought television signals to every village, and people can choose from up to 11 channels.
Via Google Books
}
Private radio stations carry news bulletins while foreign broadcasters supply programmes. The number of printed publications has increased significantly since 1998. Like other developing countries, Indonesia began developing Internet in the early 1990s. Its first commercial Internet service provider, PT. Indo Internet began operation in Jakarta in 1994. The country had 171 million Internet users in 2018, with a penetration rate that keeps increasing annually. Most are between the ages of 15 and 19 and depend primarily on mobile phones for access, outnumbering laptops and computers. The oldest evidence of writing in the Indonesian archipelago is a series of Sanskrit inscriptions dated to the 5th century. Many of Indonesia's peoples have firmly rooted oral traditions, which help define and preserve their cultural identities. In written poetry and prose, several traditional forms dominate, mainly syair, pantun, gurindam, List of Hikayat, hikayat and Javanese historical texts, babad. Examples of these forms include ''Syair Abdul Muluk'', ''Hikayat Hang Tuah'', ''Malay Annals, Sulalatus Salatin'', and ''Babad Tanah Jawi''. Early modern Indonesian literature originates in the Sumatran tradition. Literature and poetry flourished during the decades leading up to and after independence. Balai Pustaka, the government bureau for popular literature, was instituted in 1917 to promote the development of indigenous literature. Many scholars consider the 1950s and 1960s to be the Golden Age of Indonesian Literature. The style and characteristics of modern Indonesian literature vary according to the dynamics of the country's political and social landscape, most notably the war of independence in the second half of the 1940s and the anti-communist mass killings in the mid-1960s. Notable literary figures of the modern era include Multatuli, Chairil Anwar, Mohammad Yamin, Merari Siregar, Marah Roesli, Pramoedya Ananta Toer, and Ayu Utami.


Cuisine

Indonesian cuisine is one of the world's most diverse, vibrant, and colourful, full of intense flavour. Many regional cuisines exist, often based upon indigenous culture and foreign influences such as Chinese, European, Middle Eastern, and Indian precedents. Rice is the leading staple food and is served with side dishes of meat and vegetables. Spices (notably chilli), coconut milk, fish and chicken are fundamental ingredients. Some popular dishes such as ''nasi goreng'', ''gado-gado'', ''Satay, sate'', and ''Soto (food), soto'' are ubiquitous and considered national dishes. The Ministry of Tourism, however, chose ''tumpeng'' as the official national dish in 2014, describing it as binding the diversity of various culinary traditions. Other popular dishes include ''rendang'', one of the many Padang cuisines along with ''dendeng'' and ''gulai''. Another fermented food is ''oncom'', similar in some ways to ''tempeh'' but uses a variety of bases (not only soy), created by different fungi, and is prevalent in West Java.


Sports

Sports are generally male-oriented, and spectators are often associated with illegal gambling. Badminton and association football, football are the most popular sports. Indonesia is among the only five countries that have won the Thomas Cup, Thomas and Uber Cup, the world team championship of men's and women's badminton. Along with Olympic weightlifting, weightlifting, it is the sport that contributes the most to Indonesia at the Olympics, Indonesia's Olympic medal tally. Liga 1 (Indonesia), Liga 1 is the country's premier football club league. On the international stage, Indonesia national football team, Indonesia was the first Asian team to participate in the FIFA World Cup in 1938 FIFA World Cup, 1938 as the Dutch East Indies. On a regional level, Indonesia won a bronze medal at the 1958 Asian Games as well as two gold medals at the 1987 Southeast Asian Games, 1987 and 1991 Southeast Asian Games (SEA Games). Indonesia's first appearance at the AFC Asian Cup was in 1996 AFC Asian Cup, 1996 and successfully qualified for the next three tournaments, although they never make the knockout phase. Other popular sports include boxing and basketball, which has a long history in Indonesia and was part of the first National Sports Week (Indonesia), National Games (''Pekan Olahraga Nasional'', PON) in 1948. ''Sepak takraw'' and ''karapan sapi'' (bull racing) in Madura Island, Madura are some examples of Indonesia's traditional sports. In areas with a history of tribal warfare, mock fighting contests are held, such as ''caci'' in Flores and ''pasola'' in Sumba. ''Pencak Silat'' is an Indonesian martial art and, in 1987, became one of the sporting events in the SEA Games, with Indonesia appearing as one of the leading competitors. In Southeast Asia, Indonesia is one of the top sports powerhouses by topping the SEA Games medal table ten times since 1977, most recently in 2011 Southeast Asian Games, 2011.


See also

* List of Indonesia-related topics * Index of Indonesia-related articles * Outline of Indonesia


Notes


References


Citations


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Winters, Jeffrey A. "Oligarchy and democracy in Indonesia." in ''Beyond Oligarchy'' (Cornell UP, 2014) pp. 11–34
online
*


External links


Indonesia
''The World Factbook''. Central Intelligence Agency.
Indonesia
from the BBC News
Key Development Forecasts for Indonesia
from International Futures
Importers Data of Indonesia


Government


Minister of The State Secretary

Statistics Indonesia



General



''UCB Libraries GovPubs'' *
Indonesia
''Encyclopædia Britannica'' * *
Official Site of Indonesian Tourism
{{Authority control Indonesia, 1945 establishments in Indonesia 1945 establishments in Asia 1945 establishments in Southeast Asia Countries in Melanesia Countries in Asia Developing 8 Countries member states E7 nations G15 nations G20 nations Former OPEC member states Island countries Member states of ASEAN Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Member states of the United Nations Newly industrializing countries Republics Southeast Asian countries States and territories established in 1945 Transcontinental countries Malay-speaking countries and territories