ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task w ...
international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic disciplines * Norm (geology), an estimate of the idealised mineral content of a rock * Norm (philoso ...
ISO 9 establishes a system for the
transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * Script (styles of h ...

Latin characters Latin script, also known as Roman script, is a set of graphic signs (Writing system#General properties, script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet. This is derived from a form of the Cumae alphabet, Cumaean Greek version of the ...

Latin characters
Cyrillic characters , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs , fam2 = Proto-Sinaitic , fam3=Phoenician alphabet, Phoenician , fam4=Greek script augmented ...
constituting the alphabets of many
and non-Slavic languages. Published on February 23, 1995, the major advantage ISO 9 has over other competing systems is its univocal system of one character for one character equivalents (by the use of diacritics), which faithfully represents the original spelling and allows for reverse transliteration, even if the language is unknown. Earlier versions of the standard, ISO/R 9:1954, ISO/R 9:1968 and ISO 9:1986, were more closely based on the international scholarly system for linguistics (
scientific transliteration Scientific transliteration, variously called ''academic'', ''linguistic'', ''international'', or ''scholarly transliteration'', is an international system for transliteration of text from the Cyrillic script to the Latin script (romanization). This ...
), but have diverged in favour of unambiguous transliteration over phonemic representation. The edition of 1995 supersedes the edition of 1986.

ISO 9:1995

The standard features three mapping tables: the first covers contemporary Slavic languages, the second older Slavic orthographies (excluding letters from the first), and the third non-Slavic languages (including most letters from the first). Several Cyrillic characters included in ISO 9 are not available as pre-composed characters in
Unicode Unicode, formally the Unicode Standard, is an information technology Technical standard, standard for the consistent character encoding, encoding, representation, and handling of Character (computing), text expressed in most of the world's wri ...

, neither are some of the transliterations;
combining diacritical marks#REDIRECT Combining Diacritical Marks Combining Diacritical Marks is a Unicode blockA Unicode block is one of several contiguous ranges of numeric character codes ( code points) of the Unicode Unicode is an information technology Technical sta ...
have to be used in these cases. Unicode, on the other hand, includes some historic characters that are not dealt with in ISO 9.

Transliteration table

The following combined table shows characters for various ,
Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subreg ...
Romance Romance (from Vulgar Latin , "in the Roman language", i.e., "Latin") may refer to: Common meanings * Romance (love) Romance or Romantic love is an emotional feeling of love for, or a strong attraction towards another person, and the Court ...

Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...

Uralic The Uralic languages (; sometimes called Uralian languages ) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia. The Uralic languages with the most native speakers are Hungarian lang ...

, ,
Caucasian Caucasian may refer to: Anthropology *Anything from the Caucasus region **Peoples of the Caucasus, humans from the Caucasus region **Languages of the Caucasus, languages spoken in the Caucasus region ** ''Caucasian Exarchate'' (1917–1920), an ...
, Tungusic,
Paleosiberian Paleosiberian (or Paleo-Siberian) languages or Paleoasian (Paleo-Asiatic) (from Greek παλαιός ''palaios'', "ancient") are several Language isolate, linguistic isolates and small Language family, families of languages spoken in parts of n ...
and other languages of the former USSR which are written in Cyrillic.

National adoptions

Sample text

The text is the chorus of the hymn of the Russian Federation:


ISO Recommendation No. 9, published 1954 and revised 1968, is an older version of the standard, with different transliteration for different
Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages spoken primarily by the Slavs, Slavic peoples or their descendants. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic language, Proto- ...

Slavic languages
, reflecting their
phonemic In phonology Phonology is a branch of linguistics that studies how languages or dialects systematically organize their sounds (or constituent parts of signs, in sign languages). The term also refers to the sound or sign system of any partic ...
differences. It is closer to the original international system of Slavist
scientific transliteration Scientific transliteration, variously called ''academic'', ''linguistic'', ''international'', or ''scholarly transliteration'', is an international system for transliteration of text from the Cyrillic script to the Latin script (romanization). This ...
. A German adaptation of this standard was published by the
Deutsches Institut für Normung ' (DIN; in English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the Wor ...
as DIN 1460 (1982) for Slavic languages and supplemented by DIN 1460-2 (2010) for non-Slavic languages. The languages covered are Bulgarian, Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian. For comparison, ISO 9:1995 is shown in the table below. Alternative schemes: ISO/R 9:1968 permits some deviations from the main standard. In the table below, they are listed in the columns ''alternative 1'' and ''alternative'' ''2''. #The first sub-standard defines some language-dependent transliterations for Belarusian (BE), Bulgarian (BG), Russian (RU), and Ukrainian (UK). #The second sub-standard permits, in countries where tradition favours it, a set of alternative transliterations, but only as a group. It is identical to the
British Standard British Standards (BS) are the standards produced by the BSI Group which is incorporated under a royal charter (and which is formally designated as the Standards organization#National standards bodies, national standards body (NSB) for the UK). Th ...
2979:1958 for Cyrillic romanization.

See also

Romanization of Russian Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt:littera#L ...
List of ISO transliterations List of ISO standard The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Alimentarius in food ...
* GOST standards


- authentic Russian version of ISO 9 .The "informative" Annex A of ISO 9:1995 uses ISO 5426 0x52 ''hook to left'' which can be mapped to Unicode's ''comma below'' U+0326 (while the ISO 5426 also has 0x50 ''cedilla'' which can be mapped to Unicode's ''cedilla'' U+0327), it also uses ISO 5426 0x53 ''hook to right'' which can be mapped to Unicode's ''ogonek'' U+0328. See for exampl
Evertype.com's ISO 5426
mapping to Unicode o
Joan M. Aliprand's ''Finalized Mapping between Characters of ISO 5426 and ISO/IEC 10646-1''
Evertype.com: ISO 5426 mapping to UnicodeJoan M. Aliprand: ''Finalized Mapping between Characters of ISO 5426 and ISO/IEC 10646-1''The Unicode Standard: Spacing Modifier Letters

External links

Transliteration of Non-Roman Scripts
– A collection of writing systems and transliteration tables, by Thomas T. Pedersen. PDF reference charts include ISO 9.

Bi-directional online transliteration of Russian for ALA-LC (diacritics), scientific, ISO/R 9, ISO 9, GOST 7.79B and others. Supports Old Slavonic characters
Perl module A Perl module is a discrete component of software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, hardware, from which the system is built and ...

Perl module
covering a variety of writing systems. Transliteration according to several standards including ISO 9 and DIN 1460 for Cyrillic.
ISO 9 transliteration
* IDS (Informationsverbund Deutschschweiz, 2001) ''Katalogisierungsregeln IDS (KIDS), Anhänge,
IDS G.4: Transliteration der slavischen kyrillischen Alphabete
''. Universität Zürich. URL accessed on 29-02-2012 (PDF format, in German)—ISO/R 9 1968 standardization of scientific transliteration.
— 1:1 (univocal) transliteration map for learners of Russian, links to free auto-translit/IME tools for chrome/Firefox. {{DEFAULTSORT:Iso 9 * #00009 #00009