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Hungarian () is a Uralic language spoken in Hungary and parts of several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary, it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in present-day Slovakia, western Ukraine (Subcarpathia), central and western Romania (Transylvania), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, northeastern Slovenia (Mur region) and eastern Austria. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States and Canada) and Israel. With 13 million speakers, it is the Uralic family's largest member by number of speakers.

Classification

Hungarian is a member of the Uralic language family. Linguistic connections between Hungarian and other Uralic languages were noticed in the 1670s, and the family itself (then called Finno-Ugric) was established in 1717. Hungarian has traditionally been assigned to the Ugric branch within the Finno-Ugric group, along with the Mansi and Khanty languages of western Siberia (Khanty–Mansia region), but it is no longer clear that it is a valid group. When the Samoyed languages were determined to be part of the family, it was thought at first that Finnic and Ugric (Finno-Ugric) were closer to each other than to the Samoyed branch of the family, but that is now frequently questioned. The name of Hungary could be a result of regular sound changes of ''Ungrian/Ugrian'', and the fact that the Eastern Slavs referred to Hungarians as ''Ǫgry/Ǫgrove'' (sg. ''Ǫgrinŭ'') seemed to confirm that. Current literature favors the hypothesis that it comes from the name of the Turkic tribe Onoğur (which means "ten arrows" or "ten tribes"). There are numerous regular sound correspondences between Hungarian and the other Ugric languages. For example, Hungarian corresponds to Khanty in certain positions, and Hungarian corresponds to Khanty , while Hungarian final corresponds to Khanty final . For example, Hungarian ''ház'' "house" vs. Khanty ''xot'' "house", and Hungarian ''száz'' "hundred" vs. Khanty ''sot'' "hundred". The distance between the Ugric and Finnic languages is greater, but the correspondences are also regular.

History



Prehistory



Scholarly consensus

The traditional view holds that the Hungarian language diverged from its Ugric relatives in the first half of the 1st millennium BC, in western Siberia east of the southern Urals. The Hungarians gradually changed their lifestyle from being settled hunters to being nomadic pastoralists, probably as a result of early contacts with Iranian (Scythians and Sarmatians) or Turkic nomads. In Hungarian, Iranian loanwords date back to the time immediately following the breakup of Ugric and probably span well over a millennium. Among these include ''tehén'' ‘cow’ (cf. Avestan ''daénu''); ''tíz'' ‘ten’ (cf. Avestan ''dasa''); ''tej'' ‘milk’ (cf. Persian ''dáje'' ‘wet nurse’); and ''nád'' ‘reed’ (from late Middle Iranian; cf. Middle Persian ''nāy''). Archaeological evidence from present day southern Bashkortostan confirms the existence of Hungarian settlements between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains. The Onoğurs (and Bulgars) later had a great influence on the language, especially between the 5th and 9th centuries. This layer of Turkic loans is large and varied (e.g. ''szó'' "word", from Turkic; and ''daru'' "crane", from the related Permic languages), and includes words borrowed from Oghur Turkic; e.g. ''borjú'' "calf" (cf. Chuvash ''păru'', ''părăv'' vs. Turkish ''buzağı''); ''dél'' ‘noon; south’ (cf. Chuvash ''tĕl'' vs. Turkish dial. ''düš''). Many words related to agriculture, state administration and even family relationships show evidence of such backgrounds. Hungarian syntax and grammar were not influenced in a similarly dramatic way over these three centuries. After the arrival of the Hungarians in the Carpathian Basin, the language came into contact with a variety of speech communities, among them Slavic, Turkic, and German. Turkic loans from this period come mainly from the Pechenegs and Cumanians, who settled in Hungary during the 12th and 13th centuries: e.g. ''koboz'' "cobza" (cf. Turkish ''kopuz'' ‘lute’); ''komondor'' "mop dog" (< *''kumandur'' < ''Cuman''). Hungarian borrowed many words from neighbouring Slavic languages: e.g. ''tégla'' ‘brick’; ''mák'' ‘poppy seed’; ''karácsony'' ‘Christmas’). These languages in turn borrowed words from Hungarian: e.g. Serbo-Croatian ''ašov'' from Hungarian ''ásó'' ‘spade’. About 1.6 percent of the Romanian lexicon is of Hungarian origin. In the 21st century, studies support an origin of the Uralic languages, including early Hungarian, in eastern or central Siberia, somewhere between the Ob and Yenisei river or near the Sayan mountains in the Russian–Mongolian border region. A 2019 study based on genetics, archaeology and linguistics, found that early Uralic speakers arrived in Europe from the east, specifically from eastern Siberia.

Alternative views

Hungarian historian and archaeologist Gyula László claims that geological data from pollen analysis seems to contradict the placing of the ancient Hungarian homeland near the Urals. There have been attempts to show that Hungarian is related to other languages, such as Hebrew, Hunnic, Sumerian, Egyptian, Etruscan, Basque, Persian, Pelasgian, Greek, Chinese, Sanskrit, English, Tibetan, Magar, Quechua, Armenian, Japanese, and at least 40 other languages. Mainstream linguists dismiss these attempts as pseudoscientific comparisons with no merit.

Historical controversy over origins

Today, the consensus among linguists is that Hungarian is a member of the Uralic family of languages. The classification of Hungarian as a Uralic/Finno-Ugric rather than a Turkic language continued to be a matter of impassioned political controversy throughout the 18th and into the 19th centuries. During the latter half of the 19th century, a competing hypothesis proposed a Turkic affinity of Hungarian, or, alternatively, that both the Uralic and the Turkic families formed part of a superfamily of Ural–Altaic languages. Following an academic debate known as ''Az ugor-török háború'' ("the Ugric-Turkic war"), the Finno-Ugric hypothesis was concluded the sounder of the two, mainly based on work by the German linguist . Hungarians did, in fact, absorb some Turkic influences during several centuries of cohabitation. For example, the Hungarians appear to have learned animal husbandry techniques from the Turkic Chuvash people, as a high proportion of words specific to agriculture and livestock are of Chuvash origin. A strong Chuvash influence was also apparent in Hungarian burial customs.

Old Hungarian

The first written accounts of Hungarian date to the 10th century, such as mostly Hungarian personal names and place names in ''De Administrando Imperio'', written in Greek by Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VII. No significant texts written in Old Hungarian script have survived, as wood, the medium of writing in use at the time, was perishable. The Kingdom of Hungary was founded in 1000 by Stephen I. The country became a Western-styled Christian (Roman Catholic) state, with Latin script replacing Hungarian runes. The earliest remaining fragments of the language are found in the establishing charter of the abbey of Tihany from 1055, intermingled with Latin text. The first extant text fully written in Hungarian is the Funeral Sermon and Prayer, which dates to the 1190s. Although the orthography of these early texts differed considerably from that used today, contemporary Hungarians can still understand a great deal of the reconstructed spoken language, despite changes in grammar and vocabulary. A more extensive body of Hungarian literature arose after 1300. The earliest known example of Hungarian religious poetry is the 14th-century ''Lamentations of Mary''. The first Bible translation was the Hussite Bible in the 1430s. The standard language lost its diphthongs, and several postpositions transformed into suffixes, including ''reá'' "onto" (the phrase ''utu rea'' "onto the way" found in the 1055 text would later become ''útra''). There were also changes in the system of vowel harmony. At one time, Hungarian used six verb tenses, while today only two or three are used.The future is formed with an auxiliary verb and so is sometimes not counted as a separate tense. (See also: periphrasis.)

Modern Hungarian

In 1533, Kraków printer Benedek Komjáti published (modern orthography: ), the first Hungarian-language book set in movable type. By the 17th century, the language already closely resembled its present-day form, although two of the past tenses remained in use. German, Italian and French loans also began to appear. Further Turkish words were borrowed during the period of Ottoman rule (1541 to 1699). In the 19th, century a group of writers, most notably Ferenc Kazinczy, spearheaded a process of ''nyelvújítás'' (language revitalization). Some words were shortened (''győzedelem'' > ''győzelem'', 'triumph' or 'victory'); a number of dialectal words spread nationally (''e.g.'', ''cselleng'' 'dawdle'); extinct words were reintroduced (''dísz'', 'décor'); a wide range of expressions were coined using the various derivative suffixes; and some other, less frequently used methods of expanding the language were utilized. This movement produced more than ten thousand words, most of which are used actively today. The 19th and 20th centuries saw further standardization of the language, and differences between mutually comprehensible dialects gradually diminished. In 1920, Hungary signed the Treaty of Trianon, losing 71 percent of its territory and one-third of the ethnic Hungarian population along with it. Today, the language holds official status nationally in Hungary and regionally in Romania, Slovakia, Serbia, Austria and Slovenia.

Geographic distribution

:''Source: National censuses, Ethnologue'' Hungarian has about 13 million native speakers, of whom more than 9.8 million live in Hungary. According to the 2011 Hungarian census, 9,896,333 people (99.6% of the total population) speak Hungarian, of whom 9,827,875 people (98.9%) speak it as a first language, while 68,458 people (0.7%) speak it as a second language. About 2.2 million speakers live in other areas that were part of the Kingdom of Hungary before the Treaty of Trianon (1920). Of these, the largest group lives in Transylvania, the western half of present-day Romania, where there are approximately 1.25 million Hungarians. There are large Hungarian communities also in Slovakia, Serbia and Ukraine, and Hungarians can also be found in Austria, Croatia, and Slovenia, as well as about a million additional people scattered in other parts of the world. For example, there are more than one hundred thousand Hungarian speakers in the Hungarian American community and 1.5 million with Hungarian ancestry in the United States.

Official status

Hungarian is the official language of Hungary, and thus an official language of the European Union. Hungarian is also one of the official languages of Vojvodina and an official language of three municipalities in Slovenia: Hodoš, Dobrovnik and Lendava, along with Slovene. Hungarian is officially recognized as a minority or regional language in Austria, Croatia, Romania, Zakarpattia in Ukraine, and Slovakia. In Romania it is a recognized minority language used at local level in communes, towns and municipalities with an ethnic Hungarian population of over 20%.

Dialects

The dialects of Hungarian identified by Ethnologue are: Alföld, West Danube, Danube-Tisza, King's Pass Hungarian, Northeast Hungarian, Northwest Hungarian, Székely and West Hungarian. These dialects are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. The Hungarian Csángó dialect, which is mentioned but not listed separately by Ethnologue, is spoken primarily in Bacău County in eastern Romania. The Csángó Hungarian group has been largely isolated from other Hungarian people, and they therefore preserved features that closely resemble earlier forms of Hungarian.

Phonology

Hungarian has 14 vowel phonemes and 25 consonant phonemes. The vowel phonemes can be grouped as pairs of short and long vowels such as ''o'' and ''ó''. Most of the pairs have an almost similar pronunciation and vary significantly only in their duration. However, pairs ''a''/''á'' and ''e''/''é'' differ both in closedness and length. Consonant length is also distinctive in Hungarian. Most consonant phonemes can occur as geminates. The sound voiced palatal plosive , written , sounds similar to 'd' in British English 'duty'. It occurs in the name of the country, "Magyarország" (Hungary), pronounced . It is one of three palatal consonants, the others being and . Historically a fourth palatalized consonant existed, still written . A single 'r' is pronounced as an alveolar tap (''akkora'' 'of that size'), but a double 'r' is pronounced as an alveolar trill (''akkorra'' 'by that time'), like in Spanish.

Prosody

Primary stress is always on the first syllable of a word, as in Finnish and the neighbouring Slovak and Czech. There is a secondary stress on other syllables in compounds: ''viszontlátásra'' ("goodbye") is pronounced . Elongated vowels in non-initial syllables may seem to be stressed to an English-speaker, as length and stress correlate in English.

Grammar

Hungarian is an agglutinative language. It uses various affixes, mainly suffixes but also some prefixes and a circumfix, to change a word's meaning and its grammatical function.

Vowel harmony

Hungarian uses vowel harmony to attach suffixes to words. That means that most suffixes have two or three different forms, and the choice between them depends on the vowels of the head word. There are some minor and unpredictable exceptions to the rule.

Nouns

Nouns have 18 cases, which are formed regularly with suffixes. The nominative case is unmarked (''az alma'' 'the apple') and, for example, the accusative is marked with the suffix ''–t'' (''az almát'' ' eatthe apple'). Half of the cases express a combination of the source-location-target and surface-inside-proximity ternary distinctions (three times three cases); there is a separate case ending –''ból''/''–ből'' meaning a combination of source and insideness: 'from inside of'. Possession is expressed by a possessive suffix on the possessed object, rather than the possessor as in English (Peter's apple becomes ''Péter almája'', literally 'Peter apple-his'). Noun plurals are formed with''–k'' (''az almák'' ‘the apples’), but after a numeral, the singular is used (''két alma'' ‘two apples’, literally ‘two apple’; not ''*két almák''). Unlike English, Hungarian uses case suffixes and nearly always postpositions instead of prepositions. There are two types of articles in Hungarian, definite and indefinite, which roughly correspond to the equivalents in English.

Adjectives

Adjectives precede nouns (''a piros alma'' 'the red apple') and have three degrees: positive (''piros'' 'red'), comparative (''pirosabb'' 'redder') and superlative (''a legpirosabb'' 'the reddest'). If the noun takes the plural or a case, an attributive adjective is invariable: ''a piros almák'' 'the red apples'. However, a predicative adjective agrees with the noun: ''az almák pirosak'' 'the apples are red'. Adjectives by themselves can behave as nouns (and so can take case suffixes): ''Melyik almát kéred? – A pirosat.'' 'Which apple would you like? – The red one'.

Verbs



Word order

The neutral word order is subject–verb–object (SVO). However, Hungarian is a topic-prominent language, and so has a word order that depends not only on syntax but also on the topic–comment structure of the sentence (for example, what aspect is assumed to be known and what is emphasized). A Hungarian sentence generally has the following order: topic, comment (or focus), verb and the rest. The topic shows that the proposition is only for that particular thing or aspect, and it implies that the proposition is not true for some others. For example, in "''Az almát János látja".'' ('It is John who sees the apple'. Literally 'The apple John sees.'), the apple is in the topic, implying that other objects may be seen by not him but other people (the pear may be seen by Peter). The topic part may be empty. The focus shows the new information for the listeners that may not have been known or that their knowledge must be corrected. For example, "Én vagyok az apád". ('I am your father'. Literally, 'It is I who am your father'.), from the movie ''The Empire Strikes Back'', the pronoun I (''én'') is in the focus and implies that it is new information, and the listener thought that someone else is his father. Although Hungarian is sometimes described as having free word order, different word orders are generally not interchangeable, and the neutral order is not always correct to use. Also, the intonation is also different with different topic-comment structures. The topic usually has a rising intonation, the focus having a falling intonation. In the following examples, the topic is marked with italics, and the focus (comment) is marked with boldface. *János látja az almát. - 'John sees the apple'. Neutral sentence. *''János'' látja az almát. - 'John sees the apple'. (Peter may not see the apple.) *János látja az ''almát''. - 'It is John who sees the apple'. (The listener may have thought that it is Peter.) *Látja János az ''almát''. - 'John does see the apple'. (The listener may have thought that John does not see the apple.) *''János'' az almát látja. - 'What John sees is the apple'. (It is the apple, not the pear, that John specifically sees. However, Peter may see the pear.) *''Az almát'' látja János. - 'It is the apple that is seen by John'. (The pear may not be seen by John, but it may be smelled, for example.) *''Az almát'' János látja. - 'It is by John that the apple is seen'. (It is not seen by Peter, but the pear may be seen by Peter, for example.)

Politeness

Hungarian has a four-tiered system for expressing levels of politeness. From highest to lowest: *''Ön'' (''önözés''): Use of this form in speech shows respect towards the person addressed, but it is also the common way of speaking in official texts and business communications. Here "you", the second person, is grammatically addressed in the third person. *''Maga'' (''magázás'', ''magázódás''): Use of this form serves to show that the speakers wish to distance themselves from the person they address. A boss could also address a subordinate as ''maga''. Aside from the different pronoun it is grammatically the same as "''önözés''". *''Néni/bácsi'' (''tetszikezés''): This is a somewhat affectionate way of expressing politeness and is grammatically the same as "''önözés''" or "''magázódás''", but adds a certain verb in auxiliary role "''tetszik''" ("like") to support the main verb of the sentence. For example, children are supposed to address adults who are not parents, close friends or close relatives by using "''tetszik''" ("you like"): "''Hogy vagy?''" ("How are you?") here becomes "''Hogy tetszik lenni?''" ("How do you like to be?"). The elderly, especially women, are generally addressed this way, even by adults. *''Te'' (''tegezés'', ''tegeződés'' or ''pertu'', per tu from Latin): Used generally, i.e. with persons with whom none of the above forms of politeness is required, and, in religious contexts, to address God. The highest rank, the king, was traditionally addressed "per tu" by all, peasants and noblemen alike, though with Hungary not having had any crowned king since 1918, this practice survives only in folk tales and children's stories. Use of "''tegezés''" in the media and advertisements has become more frequent since the early 1990s. It is informal and is normally used in families, among friends, colleagues, among young people, and by adults speaking to children; it can be compared to addressing somebody by their first name in English. Perhaps prompted by the widespread use of English (a language without T–V distinction in most contemporary dialects) on the Internet, "''tegezés''" is also becoming the standard way to address people over the Internet, regardless of politeness. The four-tiered system has somewhat been eroded due to the recent expansion of "''tegeződés''" and "''önözés''". Some anomalies emerged with the arrival of multinational companies who have addressed their customers in the ''te'' (least polite) form right from the beginning of their presence in Hungary. A typical example is the Swedish furniture shop IKEA, whose web site and other publications address the customers in ''te'' form. When a news site asked IKEA—using the ''te'' form—why they address their customers this way, IKEA's PR Manager explained in his answer—using the ''ön'' form—that their way of communication reflects IKEA's open-mindedness and the Swedish culture. However IKEA in France uses the polite (''vous'') form. Another example is the communication of Telenor (a mobile network operator) towards its customers. Telenor chose to communicate towards business customers in the polite ''ön'' form while all other customers are addressed in the less polite ''te'' form.

Vocabulary

During the first early phase of Hungarian language reforms (late 18th and early 19th centuries) more than ten thousand words were coined, several thousand of which are still actively used today (see also Ferenc Kazinczy, the leading figure of the Hungarian language reforms.) Kazinczy's chief goal was to replace existing words of German and Latin origins with newly created Hungarian words. As a result, Kazinczy and his later followers (the reformers) significantly reduced the formerly high ratio of words of Latin and German origins in the Hungarian language, which were related to social sciences, natural sciences, politics and economics, institutional names, fashion etc. Giving an accurate estimate for the total word count is difficult, since it is hard to define a "word" in agglutinating languages, due to the existence of affixed words and compound words. To obtain a meaningful definition of compound words, it is necessary to exclude compounds whose meaning is the mere sum of its elements. The largest dictionaries giving translations from Hungarian to another language contain 120,000 words and phrases''A nyelv és a nyelvek'' ("Language and languages"), edited by István Kenesei. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 2004, , p. 77) (but this may include redundant phrases as well, because of translation issues). The new desk lexicon of the Hungarian language contains 75,000 words and the Comprehensive Dictionary of Hungarian Language (to be published in 18 volumes in the next twenty years) is planned to contain 110,000 words. The default Hungarian lexicon is usually estimated to comprise 60,000 to 100,000 words."Hungarian is not difficult"
(interview with Ádám Nádasdy)
(Independently of specific languages, speakers actively use at most 10,000 to 20,000 words,''A nyelv és a nyelvek'' ("Language and languages"), edited by István Kenesei. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 2004, , p. 86) with an average intellectual using 25,000 to 30,000 words.) However, all the Hungarian lexemes collected from technical texts, dialects etc. would total up to 1,000,000 words.''A nyelv és a nyelvek'' ("Language and languages"), edited by István Kenesei. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 2004, , pp. 76 and 86) Parts of the lexicon can be organized using word-bushes. (See an example on the right.) The words in these bushes share a common root, are related through inflection, derivation and compounding, and are usually broadly related in meaning. The basic vocabulary shares several hundred word roots with other Uralic languages like Finnish, Estonian, Mansi and Khanty. Examples are the verb ''él'' "live" (Finnish ''elää''), the numbers ''kettő'' (2), ''három'' (3), ''négy'' (4) (cf. Mansi китыг kitig, хурум khurum, нила ''nila'', Finnish ''kaksi, kolme, neljä'', Estonian ''kaks, kolm, neli'', ), as well as ''víz'' 'water', ''kéz'' 'hand', ''vér'' 'blood', ''fej'' 'head' (cf. Finnish and Estonian ''vesi, käsi, veri'', Finnish ''pää'', Estonian ''pea'' or ''pää''). Words for elementary kinship and nature are more Ugric, less r-Turkic and less Slavic. Agricultural words are about 50% r-Turkic and 50% Slavic; pastoral terms are more r-Turkic, less Ugric and less Slavic. Finally, Christian and state terminology is more Slavic and less r-Turkic. The Slavic is most probably proto-Slovakian and/or -Slovenian. This is easily understood in the Uralic paradigm, proto-Magyars were first similar to Ob-Ugors who were mainly hunters, fishers and gatherers, but with some horses, too. Then they accultured to Bulgarian r-Turks, so the older layer of agriculture words (wine, beer, wheat, barley &c.) are purely r-Turkic, and many terms of statesmanship and religion were, too. Except for a few Latin and Greek loan-words, these differences are unnoticed even by native speakers; the words have been entirely adopted into the Hungarian lexicon. There are an increasing number of English loan-words, especially in technical fields. Another source''The Structure and Development of the Finnish Language'', The Uralic and Altaic Series: 1960–1993 V.1-150, By Denis Sinor, John R. Krueger, Lauri Hakulinen, Gustav Bayerle, Translated by John R. Krueger, Compiled by Gustav Bayerle, Contributor Denis Sinor, Published by Routledge, 1997 , , 383 pages. p. 307 differs in that loanwords in Hungarian are held to constitute about 45% of bases in the language. Although the lexical percentage of native words in Hungarian is 55%, their use accounts for 88.4% of all words used (the percentage of loanwords used being just 11.6%). Therefore, the history of Hungarian has come, especially since the 19th century, to favor neologisms from original bases, whilst still having developed as many terms from neighboring languages in the lexicon.

Word formation

Words can be compounds or derived. Most derivation is with suffixes, but there is a small set of derivational prefixes as well.

Compounds

Compounds have been present in the language since the Proto-Uralic era. Numerous ancient compounds transformed to base words during the centuries. Today, compounds play an important role in vocabulary. A good example is the word ''arc'': :: ''orr'' (nose) + ''száj'' (mouth) → ''orca'' (face) (colloquial until the end of the 19th century and still in use in some dialects) > ''arc'' (face) Compounds are made up of two base words: the first is the prefix, the latter is the suffix. A compound can be ''subordinative'': the prefix is in logical connection with the suffix. If the prefix is the subject of the suffix, the compound is generally classified as a subjective one. There are objective, determinative, and adjunctive compounds as well. Some examples are given below: : Subjective: :: ''menny'' (heaven) + ''dörgés'' (rumbling) → ''mennydörgés'' (thundering) :: ''Nap'' (Sun) + ''sütötte'' (lit by) → ''napsütötte'' (sunlit) : Objective: :: ''fa'' (tree, wood) + ''vágó'' (cutter) → ''favágó'' (lumberjack, literally "woodcutter") : Determinative: :: ''új'' (new) + ''já'' (modification of ''-vá, -vé'' a suffix meaning "making it to something") + ''építés'' (construction) → ''újjáépítés'' (reconstruction, literally "making something to be new by construction") : Adjunctive: :: ''sárga'' (yellow) + ''réz'' (copper) → ''sárgaréz'' (brass) According to current orthographic rules, a subordinative compound word has to be written as a single word, without spaces; however, if the length of a compound of three or more words (not counting one-syllable verbal prefixes) is seven or more syllables long (not counting case suffixes), a hyphen must be inserted at the appropriate boundary to ease the determination of word boundaries for the reader. Other compound words are ''coordinatives'': there is no concrete relation between the prefix and the suffix. Subcategories include reduplication (to emphasise the meaning; ''olykor-olykor'' 'really occasionally'), twin words (where a base word and a distorted form of it makes up a compound: , where the suffix 'gaz' means 'weed' and the prefix is the distorted form; the compound itself means 'inconsiderable weed'), and such compounds which have meanings, but neither their prefixes, nor their suffixes make sense (for example, 'complex, obsolete procedures'). A compound also can be made up by multiple (i.e., more than two) base words: in this case, at least one word element, or even both the prefix and the suffix is a compound. Some examples: : ''elme'' ind; standalone base+ (''gyógy'' edical+ ''intézet'' nstitute → ''elmegyógyintézet'' (asylum) : (''hadi'' ilitarian+ ''fogoly'' risoner + (''munka'' ork+ ''tábor'' amp → ''hadifogoly-munkatábor'' (work camp of prisoners of war)

Noteworthy lexical items



Points of the compass

Hungarian words for the points of the compass are directly derived from the position of the Sun during the day in the Northern Hemisphere. *North = észak (from "éj(szaka)", 'night'), as the Sun never shines from the North *South = dél ('noon'), as the Sun shines from the South at noon *East = kelet ('rise'), as the Sun rises in the East *West = nyugat ('set'), as the Sun sets in the West

Two words for "red"

There are two basic words for "red" in Hungarian: "piros" and "vörös" (variant: "veres"; compare with Estonian "verev" or Finnish "punainen"). (They are basic in the sense that one is not a sub-type of the other, as the English "scarlet" is of "red".) The word "vörös" is related to "vér", meaning "blood" (Finnish and Estonian "veri"). When they refer to an actual difference in colour (as on a colour chart), "vörös" usually refers to the deeper (darker and/or more red and less orange) hue of red. In English similar differences exist between "scarlet" and "red". While many languages have multiple names for this colour, often Hungarian scholars assume this is unique in recognizing two shades of red as separate and distinct "folk colours".Berlin, B and Kay, P (1969). ''Basic Color Terms''. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press However, the two words are also used independently of the above in collocations. "Piros" is learned by children first, as it is generally used to describe inanimate, artificial things, or things seen as cheerful or neutral, while "vörös" typically refers to animate or natural things (biological, geological, physical and astronomical objects), as well as serious or emotionally charged subjects. When the rules outlined above are in contradiction, typical collocations usually prevail. In some cases where a typical collocation does not exist, the use of either of the two words may be equally adequate. Examples: *Expressions where "red" typically translates to "piros": a red road sign, red traffic lights, the red line of Budapest Metro, red (now called express) bus lines in Budapest, a holiday shown in red in the calendar, ruddy complexion, the red nose of a clown, some red flowers (those of a neutral nature, e.g. tulips), red peppers and paprika, red card suits (hearts and diamonds), red stripes on a flag (but the red flag and its variants translate to "vörös"), etc. *Expressions where "red" typically translates to "vörös": a red railway signal (unlike traffic lights, see above), Red Sea, Red Square, Red Army, Red Baron, Erik the Red, red wine, red carpet (for receiving important guests), red hair or beard, red lion (the mythical animal), the Red Cross, the novel ''The Red and the Black'', redshift, red giant, red blood cells, red oak, some red flowers (those with passionate connotations, e.g. roses), red fox, names of ferric and other red minerals, red copper, rust, red phosphorus, the colour of blushing with anger or shame, the red nose of an alcoholic (in contrast with that of a clown, see above), the red posterior of a baboon, red meat, regular onion (not the red onion, which is "lila"), litmus paper (in acid), cities, countries, or other political entities associated with leftist movements (e.g. Red Vienna, Red Russia), etc.

Kinship terms

The Hungarian words for brothers and sisters are differentiated based upon relative age. There is also a general word for "sibling": ''testvér'', from ''test'' "body" and ''vér'' "blood"; ''i.e.'', originating from the same body and blood. (There used to be a separate word for "elder sister", ''néne'', but it has become obsolete xcept to mean "aunt" in some dialectsand has been replaced by the generic word for "sister".) In addition, there are separate prefixes for several ancestors and descendants: The words for "boy" and "girl" are applied with possessive suffixes. Nevertheless, the terms are differentiated with different declension or lexemes: ''Fia'' is only used in this, irregular possessive form; it has no nominative on its own (see inalienable possession). However, the word ''fiú'' can also take the regular suffix, in which case the resulting word ''(fiúja)'' will refer to a lover or partner (boyfriend), rather than a male offspring. The word ''fiú'' (boy) is also often noted as an extreme example of the ability of the language to add suffixes to a word, by forming ''fiaiéi'', adding vowel-form suffixes only, where the result is quite a frequently used word:

Extremely long words

*''megszentségteleníthetetlenségeskedéseitekért'' : Partition to root and suffixes with explanations: : Translation: "for your luralrepeated pretending to be indesecrable" The above word is often considered to be the longest word in Hungarian, although there are longer words like: * ''legeslegmegszentségteleníttethetetlenebbjeitekként'' :''leges-leg-meg-''szent''-ség-telen-ít-tet-het-etlen-ebb-je-i-tek-ként'' :"like those of you that are the very least possible to get desecrated" Words of such length are not used in practice, and are difficult to understand even for natives. They were invented to show, in a somewhat facetious way, the ability of the language to form long words (see agglutinative language). They are not compound words—they are formed by adding a series of one and two-syllable suffixes (and a few prefixes) to a simple root ("szent", saint or holy). There is virtually no limit for the length of words, but when too many suffixes are added, the meaning of the word becomes less clear, and the word becomes hard to understand, and will work like a riddle even for native speakers.

Hungarian words in English

The English word best known as being of Hungarian origin is probably ''paprika'', from Serbo-Croatian ''papar'' "pepper" and the Hungarian diminutive ''-ka''. The most common however is ''coach'', from ''kocsi'', originally ''kocsi szekér'' "car from/in the style of Kocs". Others are: * shako, from ''csákó'', from ''csákósüveg'' "peaked cap" * sabre, from ''szablya'' * heyduck, from ''hajdúk'', plural of ''hajdú'' "brigand" * tolpatch, from ''talpas'' "foot-soldier", apparently derived from ''talp'' "sole".

Writing system

Medieval Hungarian book (a copy of the Hussite Bible), 1466 The Hungarian language was originally written in right-to-left Old Hungarian runes, superficially similar in appearance to the better-known futhark runes but unrelated. After Stephen I of Hungary established the Kingdom of Hungary in the year 1000, the old system was gradually discarded in favour of the Latin alphabet and left-to-right order. Although now not used at all in everyday life, the old script is still known and practised by some enthusiasts. Modern Hungarian is written using an expanded Latin alphabet, and has a phonemic orthography, i.e. pronunciation can generally be predicted from the written language. In addition to the standard letters of the Latin alphabet, Hungarian uses several modified Latin characters to represent the additional vowel sounds of the language. These include letters with acute accents ''(á, é, í, ó, ú)'' to represent long vowels, and umlauts (''ö'' and ''ü'') and their long counterparts ''ő'' and ''ű'' to represent front vowels. Sometimes (usually as a result of a technical glitch on a computer) or is used for , and for . This is often due to the limitations of the Latin-1 / ISO-8859-1 code page. These letters are not part of the Hungarian language, and are considered misprints. Hungarian can be properly represented with the Latin-2 / ISO-8859-2 code page, but this code page is not always available. (Hungarian is the only language using both and .) Unicode includes them, and so they can be used on the Internet. Additionally, the letter pairs , , and represent the palatal consonants , , and (roughly analogous to the "d+y" sounds in British "''du''ke" or American "woul''d y''ou")—produced using a similar mechanism as the letter "d" when pronounced with the tongue pointing to the palate. Hungarian uses for and for , which is the reverse of Polish usage. The letter is and is . These digraphs are considered single letters in the alphabet. The letter is also a "single letter digraph", but is pronounced like (English ), and appears mostly in old words. The letters and are exotic remnants and are hard to find even in longer texts. Some examples still in common use are ''madzag'' ("string"), ''edzeni'' ("to train (athletically)") and ''dzsungel'' ("jungle"). Sometimes additional information is required for partitioning words with digraphs: házszám ("street number") = ''ház'' ("house") + ''szám'' ("number"), not an unintelligible ''házs'' + ''zám''. Hungarian distinguishes between long and short vowels, with long vowels written with acutes. It also distinguishes between long and short consonants, with long consonants being doubled. For example, ''lenni'' ("to be"), ''hozzászólás'' ("comment"). The digraphs, when doubled, become trigraphs: + = , e.g. ''művésszel'' ("with an artist"). But when the digraph occurs at the end of a line, all of the letters are written out. For example, ("with a bus"): :... ''busz-'' :''szal''... When the first lexeme of a compound ends in a digraph and the second lexeme starts with the same digraph, both digraphs are written out: + = ("engagement/wedding ring", means "sign", "mark". The term means "to be engaged"; means "ring"). Usually a trigraph is a double digraph, but there are a few exceptions: ("eighteen") is a concatenation of ''tizen'' + ''nyolc''. There are doubling minimal pairs: ''tol'' ("push") vs. ''toll'' ("feather" or "pen"). While to English speakers they may seem unusual at first, once the new orthography and pronunciation are learned, written Hungarian is almost completely phonemic (except for etymological spellings and "ly, j" representing ).

Word order

The word order is basically from general to specific. This is a typical analytical approach and is used generally in Hungarian.

Name order

The Hungarian language uses the so-called eastern name order, in which the surname (general, deriving from the family) comes first and the given name comes last. If a second given name is used, this follows the first given name.

Hungarian names in foreign languages

For clarity, in foreign languages Hungarian names are usually represented in the western name order. Sometimes, however, especially in the neighbouring countries of Hungary – where there is a significant Hungarian population – the Hungarian name order is retained, as it causes less confusion there. For an example of foreign use, the birth name of the Hungarian-born physicist called the "father of the hydrogen bomb" was ''Teller Ede'', but he immigrated to the United States in the 1930s and thus became known as ''Edward Teller''. Prior to the mid-20th century, given names were usually translated along with the name order; this is no longer as common. For example, the pianist uses ''András Schiff'' when abroad, not ''Andrew Schiff'' (in Hungarian ''Schiff András''). If a second given name is present, it becomes a middle name and is usually written out in full, rather than truncated to an initial.

Foreign names in Hungarian

In modern usage, foreign names retain their order when used in Hungarian. Therefore: *Amikor ''Kiss János'' Los Angelesben volt, látta ''John Travoltát.'' (means: When János Kiss was in Los Angeles he saw John Travolta.) :The Hungarian name ''Kiss János'' is in the Hungarian name order (''János'' is equivalent to ''John''), but the foreign name ''John Travolta'' remains in the western name order. Before the 20th century, not only was it common to reverse the order of foreign personalities, they were also "Hungarianised": ''Goethe János Farkas'' (originally Johann Wolfgang Goethe). This usage sounds odd today, when only a few well-known personalities are referred to using their Hungarianised names, including ''Verne Gyula'' (Jules Verne), ''Marx Károly'' (Karl Marx), ''Kolumbusz Kristóf'' (Christopher Columbus; note that the last of these is also translated in English from the original Italian or possibly Ligurian). Some native speakers disapprove of this usage; the names of certain historical religious personalities (including popes), however, are always Hungarianised by practically all speakers, such as ''Luther Márton'' (Martin Luther), ''Husz János'' (Jan Hus), ''Kálvin János'' (John Calvin); just like the names of monarchs, for example the king of Spain, Juan Carlos I is referred to as ''I. János Károly'' or the queen of the UK, Elizabeth II is referred to as ''II. Erzsébet''. Japanese names, which are usually written in western order in the rest of Europe, retain their original order in Hungarian, e. g. ''Kuroszava Akira'' instead of Akira Kurosawa.

Date and time

The Hungarian convention for date and time is to go from the generic to the specific: 1. year, 2. month, 3. day, 4. hour, 5. minute, (6. second) The year and day are always written in Arabic numerals, followed by a full stop. The month can be written by its full name or can be abbreviated, or even denoted by Roman or Arabic numerals. Except for the first case (month written by its full name), the month is followed by a full stop. Usually, when the month is written in letters, there is no leading zero before the day. On the other hand, when the month is written in Arabic numerals, a leading zero is common, but not obligatory. Except at the beginning of a sentence, the name of the month always begins with a lower-case letter. Hours, minutes, and seconds are separated by a colon (H:m:s). Fractions of a second are separated by a full stop from the rest of the time. Hungary generally uses the 24-hour clock format, but in verbal (and written) communication 12-hour clock format can also be used. See below for usage examples. Date and time may be separated by a comma or simply written one after the other. *2020. február 9. 16:23:42 ''or'' 2020. február 9., 16:23:42 *2020. febr. 9. *2020. 02. 09. ''or'' 2020. 2. 9. (rarely) *2020. II. 9. Date separated by hyphen is also spreading, especially on datestamps. Here – just like the version separated by full stops – leading zeros are in use. *2020-02-09 When only hours and minutes are written in a sentence (so not only "displaying" time), these parts can be separated by a full stop (e.g. "Találkozzunk 10.35-kor." – "Let's meet at 10.35."), or it is also regular to write hours in normal size, and minutes put in superscript (and not necessarily) underlined (e.g. "A találkozó 1035-kor kezdődik." ''or'' "A találkozó 1035-kor kezdődik." – "The meeting begins at 10.35."). Also, in verbal and written communication it is common to use "délelőtt" (literally "before noon") and "délután" (lit. "after noon") abbreviated as "de." and "du." respectively. Délelőtt and délután is said or written before the time, e.g. "Délután 4 óra van." – "It's 4 p.m.". However e.g. "délelőtt 5 óra" (should mean "5 a.m.") or "délután 10 óra" (should mean "10 p.m.") are never used, because at these times the sun is not up, instead "hajnal" ("dawn"), "reggel" ("morning"), "este" ("evening") and "éjjel" ("night") is used, however there are no exact rules for the use of these, as everybody uses them according to their habits (e.g. somebody may have woken up at 5 a.m. so he/she says "Reggel 6-kor ettem." – "I had food at ''*morning'' 6.", and somebody woke up at 11 a.m. so he/she says "Hajnali 6-kor még aludtam." – "I was still sleeping at ''*dawn'' 6."). Roughly, these expressions mean these times: * * "Dél" and "éjfél" mean these exact times, so using time after them is incorrect. So there is no "Éjfél 0-kor még buliztunk" ("We were still partying at ''*midnight 0''.") or "Dél 12-kor süt a nap." ("The sun shines at ''*noon 12''."). Instead "Éjfélkor még buliztunk." and "Délben süt a nap." is correct. (More confusingly, one can say "Déli 12-kor süt a nap.", meaning "The sun shines at 12 of noon.", i.e. "The sun shines at 12, which is the 12 of daytime.") "Délen süt a nap" on the other hand means "The sun shines in the south", as Dél means both noon and south.


Addresses


Although address formatting is increasingly being influenced by standard European conventions, the traditional Hungarian style is: Budapest, Deák Ferenc tér 1. 1052 So the order is: 1) settlement (most general), 2) street/square/etc. (more specific), 3) house number (most specific) 4)(HU-)postcode. The house number may be followed by the storey and door numbers. The HU- part before the postcode is only for incoming postal traffic from foreign countries. Addresses on envelopes and postal parcels should be formatted and placed on the right side as follows: Name of the recipient
Settlement
Street address (up to door number if necessary)
(HU-)postcode

Vocabulary examples

''Note: The stress is always placed on the first syllable of each word. The remaining syllables all receive an equal, lesser stress. All syllables are pronounced clearly and evenly, even at the end of a sentence, unlike in English.''


Numbers


Source: Wiktionary

Time

Source: Wiktionary Source:''Wiktionary''

Conversation

*Hungarian (person, language): ''magyar'' *Hello!: **Formal, when addressing a stranger: "Good day!": ''Jó napot (kívánok)!'' **Informal, when addressing a close acquaintance: ''Szia!'' *Good-bye!: ''Viszontlátásra!'' (formal) (see above), ''Viszlát!'' (semi-informal), ''Szia!'' (informal: same stylistic remark as for "Hello!" ) *Excuse me: ''Elnézést!'' *Please: **''Kérem (szépen)'' (This literally means "I'm asking (it/you) ''nicely''", as in German ''Bitte schön''. See next for a more common form of the polite request.) **''Legyen szíves!'' (literally: "Be (so) kind!") *I would like ____, please: ''Szeretnék ____'' (this example illustrates the use of the conditional tense, as a common form of a polite request; it literally means "I would like".) *Sorry!: ''Bocsánat!'' *Thank you: ''Köszönöm'' *that/this: ''az'' , ''ez'' *How much?: ''Mennyi?'' *How much does it cost?: ''Mennyibe kerül?'' *Yes: ''Igen'' *No: ''Nem'' *I do not understand: ''Nem értem'' *I do not know: ''Nem tudom'' *Where's the toilet?: **''Hol (van) a vécé?'' (vécé/veːtseː is the Hungarian pronunciation of the English abbreviation of "Water Closet") **''Hol (van) a mosdó?''  – more polite (and word-for-word) version *generic toast: ''Egészségünkre!'' (literally: "To our health!") *juice: ''gyümölcslé'' *water: ''víz'' *wine: ''bor'' *beer: ''sör'' *tea: ''tea'' *milk: ''tej'' *Do you speak English?: Note that the fact of ''asking'' is only shown by the proper intonation: continually rising until the penultimate syllable, then falling for the last one. *I love you: ''Szeretlek'' *Help!: ''Segítség!'' *It is needed: ''kell'' *I need to go: ''Mennem kell''

Recorded examples

WIKITONGUES-_Orsolya_speaking_Hungarian.webm|A Hungarian speaker WIKITONGUES-_Norbert_speaking_Hungarian.webm|A Hungarian speaker recorded in Taiwan WIKITONGUES-_M%C3%A1ria_speaking_Swabian_and_Hungarian.webm|A bilingual speaker of Hungarian and Swabian, recorded in Perbál, Hungary WIKITONGUES- Gabriel speaking Hungarian.webm|A native Icelandic speaker speaking Hungarian

See also

*Hungarian grammar *Hungarian verbs *Hungarian noun phrase *Hungarian phonology *History of the Hungarian language *Hungarian dialects *Hungarian Cultural Institute *List of English words of Hungarian origin *BABEL Speech Corpus *''Magyar szótár'' (Dictionary of the Hungarian Language)

Bibliography



Courses

* ''MagyarOK – Text book and exercise book for beginners''. Szita, Szilvia; Pelcz, Katalin (2013). Pécs; Pécsi Tudományegyetem
MagyarOK website
. *''Colloquial Hungarian – The complete course for beginners''. Rounds, Carol H.; Sólyom, Erika (2002). London; New York: Routledge. . :This book gives an introduction to the Hungarian language in 15 chapters. The dialogues are available on CDs. *''Teach Yourself Hungarian – A complete course for beginners''. Pontifex, Zsuzsa (1993). London: Hodder & Stoughton. Chicago: NTC/Contemporary Publishing. . :This is a complete course in spoken and written Hungarian. The course consists of 21 chapters with dialogues, culture notes, grammar and exercises. The dialogues are available on cassette. *''Hungarolingua 1 – Magyar nyelvkönyv''. Hoffmann, István; et al. (1996)
Debreceni Nyári Egyetem
*''Hungarolingua 2 – Magyar nyelvkönyv''. Hlavacska, Edit; et al. (2001)
Debreceni Nyári Egyetem
*''Hungarolingua 3 – Magyar nyelvkönyv''. Hlavacska, Edit; et al. (1999).
Debreceni Nyári Egyetem
:These course books were developed by the University of Debrecen Summer School program for teaching Hungarian to foreigners. The books are written completely in Hungarian and therefore unsuitable for self study. There is an accompanying 'dictionary' with translations of the Hungarian vocabulary into English, German, and French for the words used in the first two books. *"NTC's Hungarian and English Dictionary" by Magay and Kiss. (You may be able to find a newer edition also. This one is 1996.)

Grammars

* ''Gyakorló magyar nyelvtan / A Practical Hungarian grammar'' (2009, 2010). Szita Szilvia, Görbe Tamás. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. 978 963 05 8703 7. * ''A practical Hungarian grammar'' (3rd, rev. ed.). Keresztes, László (1999). Debrecen: Debreceni Nyári Egyetem. . *''Simplified Grammar of the Hungarian Language'' (1882). Ignatius Singer. London: Trübner & Co. *''Practical Hungarian grammar: compact guide to the basics of Hungarian grammar'. Törkenczy, Miklós (2002). Budapest: Corvina. . *''Hungarian verbs and essentials of grammar: a practical guide to the mastery of Hungarian'' (2nd ed.). Törkenczy, Miklós (1999). Budapest: Corvina; Lincolnwood, ll. Passport Books. . *''Hungarian: an essential grammar'' (2nd ed.). Rounds, Carol (2009). London; New York: Routledge. . *''Hungarian: Descriptive grammar''. Kenesei, István, Robert M. Vago, and Anna Fenyvesi (1998). London; New York: Routledge. .
Hungarian Language Learning References
(including the short reviews of three of the above books) *''Noun Declension Tables – HUNGARIAN''. Budapest
PonsKlett
*''Verb Conjugation Tables – HUNGARIAN''. Budapest
PonsKlett


Others

* Abondolo, Daniel Mario: ''Hungarian Inflectional Morphology''. Akadémiai publishing. Budapest, 1988. * Balázs, Géza: ''The Story of Hungarian. A Guide to the Language.'' Translated by Thomas J. DeKornfeld. Corvina publishing. Budapest, 1997. * Stephanides, Éva H. (ed.): ''Contrasting English with Hungarian''. Akadémiai publishing. Budapest, 1986. *

Notes



References



External links


Free downloadable Hungarian teaching and learning material

Introduction to Hungarian

Hungarian Profile


*ttps://web.archive.org/web/20060805202844/http://how-to-learn-any-language.com/e/languages/hungarian/index.html Hungarian Language Reviewat How-to-learn-any-language.com
"The Hungarian Language: A Short Descriptive Grammar"
by Beáta Megyesi (PDF document)

* ttp://www.rpi.edu/~sofkam/magyar.html Hungarian Language Learning Referenceson the Hungarian Language Page (short reviews of useful books)
One of the oldest Hungarian texts – A Halotti Beszéd (The Funeral Oration)

WikiLang
nbsp;– Hungarian Page (Hungarian grammar / lessons, in English)
Hungarian Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words
(from Wiktionary'
Swadesh-list appendix

Basic Hungarian language course (book + audio files)
USA Foreign Service Institute (FSI)
Old Hungarian Corpus


''Encyclopaedia Humana Hungarica''



* ttp://mek.oszk.hu/01900/01955/html/index2.html The Linguistic Records of the Early Old Hungarian Period; The Linguistic System of the Age
The Old Hungarian Period; The System of the Language of the Old Hungarian Period






Dictionaries


Hungarian ↔ English
created by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences – Computer and Automation Research Institutebr>MTA SZTAKI
(also includes dictionaries for the following languages to and from Hungarian : German, French, Italian, Dutch, and Polish)
bab.la
- Online Hungarian-English dictionary and language learning portal
English-Hungarian-Finnish
nbsp;– three-language freely editable online dictionary
Collection of Hungarian Technical DictionariesHungarian bilingual dictionaries

Hungarian-English dictionary

English-Hungarian dictionary

Hungarian Verb Conjugation
{{DEFAULTSORT:Hungarian Language Category:Agglutinative languages Category:Languages of Austria Category:Languages of Croatia Category:Languages of Hungary Category:Languages of Romania Category:Languages of Slovakia Category:Languages of Slovenia Category:Languages of Serbia Category:Languages of Vojvodina Category:Vowel-harmony languages Category:Subject–object–verb languages Category:Languages of Ukraine