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Humphrey DeForest Bogart (; December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957), nicknamed Bogie, was an American film and stage actor. His performances in
Classical Hollywood cinema Classical Hollywood cinema is a term used in film criticism Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art for ...
films made him an American cultural icon. In 1999, the
American Film Institute The American Film Institute (AFI) is an American film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applyin ...
selected Bogart as the greatest male star of classic American cinema. Bogart began acting in
Broadway shows Broadway theatre,Although ''theater'' is the generally preferred spelling in the United States (see American and British English spelling differences Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within differ ...
, beginning his career in motion pictures with ''
Up the River ''Up the River'' is a 1930 American Pre-Code Hollywood, pre-Code comedy film directed by John Ford, and starring Claire Luce, Spencer Tracy and Humphrey Bogart. The plot concerns escaped convicts, as well as a female convict. It was the film de ...
'' (1930) for
Fox Foxes are small to medium-sized, s belonging to several of the family . They have a flattened skull, upright triangular ears, a pointed, slightly upturned , and a long bushy (or ''brush''). Twelve belong to the "true foxes" group of ge ...

Fox
and appeared in supporting roles for the next decade, sometimes portraying gangsters. He was praised for his work as Duke Mantee in ''
The Petrified Forest ''The Petrified Forest'' is a 1936 American film directed by Archie Mayo and based on Robert E. Sherwood's 1935 Broadway drama of the same name. The motion picture stars Leslie Howard (actor), Leslie Howard, Bette Davis and Humphrey Bogart. The ...
'' (1936) but remained secondary to other actors
Warner Bros. Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. (commonly known as Warner Bros. and abbreviated as WB) is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate Conglomerate or conglomeration may refer to: * Conglomerate (company) * ...
cast in lead roles. His breakthrough from supporting roles to stardom came with '' High Sierra'' (1941) and '' The Maltese Falcon'' (1941), considered one of the first great ''
noir Noir (or noire) is the French word for black. It may also refer to: Places In Canada * Noire River (Ottawa River tributary), in the Outaouais region of Quebec * Noire River, a tributary of the Yamaska River in Eastern Townships area, Quebec In ...
'' films. Bogart's private detectives,
Sam Spade Sam Spade is a fictional character and the protagonist 200px, Shakespeare's ''Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.'' William Morris Hunt, oil on canvas, c. 1864 A protagonist (from grc, πρωταγωνιστής, translit=prōtagōnistḗs, lit=one wh ...
(in ''The Maltese Falcon'') and
Phillip Marlowe Philip Marlowe () is a fictional character created by Raymond Chandler, and exemplifying the hardboiled crime fiction genre. Marlowe first appeared under that name in ''The Big Sleep'', published in 1939. Chandler's early short story, short stori ...
(in 1946's ''
The Big Sleep ''The Big Sleep'' (1939) is a hardboiled crime novel by American-British writer Raymond Chandler, the first to feature the detective Philip Marlowe. It has been adapted for film twice, The Big Sleep (1946 film), in 1946 and again The Big Sleep ...
''), became the models for detectives in other ''noir'' films. His most significant romantic lead role was with
Ingrid Bergman Ingrid Bergman (29 August 191529 August 1982) was a Swedish actress who starred in a variety of European and American films, television movies, and plays.Obituary ''Variety Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebra ...
in ''
Casablanca Casablanca ( ar, الدار البيضاء, ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; ber, ⴰⵏⴼⴰ, anfa) is the largest city of Morocco. Located in the central-western part of Morocco bordering the Atlantic Ocean, it is the second largest city in the Maghreb ...
'' (1942), which earned him his first nomination for the
Academy Award for Best Actor The Academy Award for Best Actor is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS, often pronounced ; also known as simply the Academy or the Motion Pictu ...
. Forty-four-year-old Bogart and 19-year-old
Lauren Bacall Lauren Bacall (; born Betty Joan Perske; September 16, 1924 – August 12, 2014) was an American actress. She was named the 20th-greatest female star of classic Hollywood cinema by the American Film Institute The American Film Institute (AFI) ...

Lauren Bacall
fell in love when they filmed ''
To Have and Have Not ''To Have and Have Not'' is a novel by Ernest Hemingway published in 1937 by Charles Scribner's Sons. The book follows Harry Morgan, a fishing boat captain out of Key West, Florida. ''To Have and Have Not'' was Hemingway's second novel set in th ...
'' (1944). In 1945, a few months after principal photography for ''The Big Sleep'', their second film together, he divorced his third wife and married Bacall. After their marriage, they played each other's love interest in the mystery thrillers ''
Dark Passage ''Dark Passage'' (1946 in literature, 1946) is a Crime fiction, crime novel by David Goodis. It was the basis for the 1947 film noir Dark Passage (film), of the same name. The film implements extensive use of the First-person narrative, First-pe ...
'' (1947) and ''
Key Largo Key Largo ( es, Cayo Largo) is an island in the upper Florida Keys The Florida Keys are a coral island, coral cay archipelago located off the southern coast of Florida, forming the southernmost part of the continental United States. They b ...
'' (1948). Bogart's performances in '' The Treasure of the Sierra Madre'' (1948) and ''
In a Lonely Place ''In a Lonely Place'' is a 1950 American film noir directed by Nicholas Ray and starring Humphrey Bogart and Gloria Grahame, produced for Bogart's Santana Productions. The script was written by Andrew P. Solt from Edmund H. North's adaptation of ...
'' (1950) are now considered among his best, although they were not recognized as such when the films were released. He reprised those unsettled, unstable characters as a World War II naval-vessel commander in ''
The Caine Mutiny ''The Caine Mutiny'' is a 1951 Pulitzer Prize#REDIRECT Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature and musical composition within the United States. It was estab ...
'' (1954), which was a critical and commercial hit and earned him another Best Actor nomination. He won the
Academy Award for Best Actor The Academy Award for Best Actor is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS, often pronounced ; also known as simply the Academy or the Motion Pictu ...
for his portrayal of a cantankerous river steam launch skipper opposite
Katharine Hepburn Katharine Houghton Hepburn (May 12, 1907 – June 29, 2003) was an American actress of film, stage and television. Hepburn's career as a Hollywood leading lady spanned over 60 years. She was known for her headstrong independence, spirited ...
's missionary in the World War I African adventure ''
The African QueenThe African Queen may refer to: Horticulture * African Queen, a cultivar of ''Osteospermum'', a member of the sunflower family Vessels * African Queen (boat), the vessel used in the 1951 film "The African Queen" * African Queen (ship), including a ...
'' (1951). Other significant roles in his later years included ''
The Barefoot Contessa ''The Barefoot Contessa'' is a 1954 American Drama (film and television), drama film written and directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz about the life and loves of fictional Spanish sex symbol Maria Vargas. It stars Humphrey Bogart, Ava Gardner, and E ...
'' (1954) with
Ava Gardner Ava Lavinia Gardner (December 24, 1922 – January 25, 1990) was an American actress and singer. She first signed a contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. (also known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures or MGM) is ...

Ava Gardner
and his on-screen competition with
William Holden William Holden (born William Franklin Beedle Jr.; April 17, 1918 – November 12 , 1981) was an American actor, one of the biggest box-office draws of the 1950s. Holden won the Academy Award for Best Actor The Academy Award for Best Actor i ...

William Holden
for
Audrey Hepburn Audrey Hepburn (born Audrey Kathleen Ruston; 4 May 1929 – 20 January 1993) was a British actress and humanitarian. Recognised as both a film and fashion icon, she was ranked by the American Film Institute The American Film Institute (AFI) ...

Audrey Hepburn
in ''
Sabrina Sabrina may refer to: *Sabrina (given name) Sabrina is a feminine given name A given name (also known as a first name or forename) is the part of a personal name A personal name, or full name, in onomastic Onomastics or onomatology ...
'' (1954). A heavy smoker and drinker, Bogart died from
esophageal cancer Esophageal cancer is cancer Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumor A benign tumor is a mass of cells Cell most ...
in January 1957.


Early life and education

Humphrey DeForest Bogart was born on Christmas Day 1899 in New York City, the eldest child of Belmont DeForest Bogart (1867–1934) and Maud Humphrey (1868–1940). Belmont was the only child of the unhappy marriage of Adam Welty Bogart (a
Canandaigua, New York Canandaigua (''Utaʼnaráhkhwaʼ'' in Tuscarora language, Tuscarora) is a City (New York), city in Ontario County, New York, United States. Its population was 10,545 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Ontario County; some administrativ ...
, innkeeper) and Julia Augusta Stiles, a wealthy heiress. The name "Bogart" derives from the Dutch surname, "Bogaert". Belmont and Maud married in June 1898. He was a
Presbyterian Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of ...
, of English and Dutch descent, and a descendant of
Sarah Rapelje Sarah Rapelje (9 June 1625 – 1685) was the first White people, European Christianity, Christian female born in New Netherland. Biography Sarah Rapelje was the daughter of Joris Jansen Rapelje (1604-1663) and Catalina Trico (1605-1689), who wer ...
(the first European child born in
New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonl ...
). Maud was an
Episcopalian Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia * ...
of English heritage, and a descendant of ''
Mayflower ''Mayflower'' was an English ship that transported a group of English families, known today as the Pilgrims (Plymouth Colony), Pilgrims, from England to the New World in 1620. After a grueling 10 weeks at sea, ''Mayflower'', with 102 passenger ...

Mayflower
'' passenger
John Howland John Howland (February 23, 1673) accompanied the English Separatists and other passengers when they left England on the to settle in Plymouth Colony, Plymouth. He was an indentured servant and in later years an executive assistant and personal s ...
. Humphrey was raised Episcopalian, but was non-practicing for most of his adult life. The date of Bogart's birth has been disputed. Clifford McCarty wrote that
Warner Bros. Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. (commonly known as Warner Bros. and abbreviated as WB) is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate Conglomerate or conglomeration may refer to: * Conglomerate (company) * ...
publicity department had altered it to January 23, 1900 "to foster the view that a man born on Christmas Day couldn't really be as villainous as he appeared to be on screen". The "corrected" January birthdate subsequently appeared—and in some cases, remains—in many otherwise-authoritative sources. According to biographers Ann M. Sperber and
Eric Lax Eric Lax is an American author who has written books on modern medicine, four books on Woody Allen including a biography, and a personal memoir ''Faith: Interrupted'' about his loss of Christian faith. Biography Lax was raised in an Episcopalian ...
, Bogart always celebrated his birthday on December 25 and listed it on official records (including his marriage license).
Lauren Bacall Lauren Bacall (; born Betty Joan Perske; September 16, 1924 – August 12, 2014) was an American actress. She was named the 20th-greatest female star of classic Hollywood cinema by the American Film Institute The American Film Institute (AFI) ...

Lauren Bacall
wrote in her autobiography that Bogart's birthday was always celebrated on Christmas Day, saying that he joked about being cheated out of a present every year. Sperber and Lax noted that a birth announcement in the ''Ontario County Times'' of January 10, 1900 rules out the possibility of a January 23 birthdate; state and federal census records from 1900 also report a Christmas 1899 birthdate. Belmont, Bogart's father, was a cardiopulmonary surgeon. Maud was a commercial illustrator who received her art training in New York and France, including study with
James Abbott McNeill Whistler James Abbott McNeill Whistler (; July 11, 1834July 17, 1903) was an American painter active during the American Gilded Age In History of the United States, United States history, the Gilded Age was an era that occurred during the late 19th ...
. She later became art director of the fashion magazine ''
The Delineator ''The Delineator'' was an American women's magazine of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, founded by the Butterick Publishing Company in 1869 under the name ''The Metropolitan Monthly.'' Its name was changed in 1875. The magazine was publis ...
'' and a militant
suffragette A suffragette was a member of an activist women's organisation in the early 20th century who, under the banner "Votes for Women", fought for the right to vote in public elections. The term refers in particular to members of the British Women' ...
. Maud used a drawing of baby Humphrey in an advertising campaign for Mellins Baby Food. She earned over $50,000 a year at the peak of her career – a very large sum of money at the time, and considerably more than her husband's $20,000. The Bogarts lived in an
Upper West Side The Upper West Side (UWS) is a neighborhood in the boroughs of New York City, borough of Manhattan in New York City. It is bounded by Central Park on the east, the Hudson River on the west, 59th Street (Manhattan), West 59th Street to the south, ...

Upper West Side
apartment, and had a cottage on a 55-acre estate on
Canandaigua Lake Canandaigua Lake is the fourth largest of the Finger Lakes in the U.S. state of New York (state), New York. The Canandaigua (city), New York, City of Canandaigua is located at the northern end of the lake and the village of Naples (village), N ...

Canandaigua Lake
in upstate New York. When he was young, Bogart's group of friends at the lake would put on plays. He had two younger sisters: Frances ("Pat") and Catherine Elizabeth ("Kay"). Bogart's parents were busy in their careers, and frequently fought. Very formal, they showed little emotion towards their children. Maud told her offspring to call her "Maud" instead of "Mother", and showed little, if any, physical affection for them. When she was pleased, she " apped you on the shoulder, almost the way a man does", Bogart recalled. "I was brought up very unsentimentally but very straightforwardly. A kiss, in our family, was an event. Our mother and father didn't glug over my two sisters and me." Bogart was teased as a boy for his curls, tidiness, the "cute" pictures his mother had him pose for, the
Little Lord Fauntleroy ''Little Lord Fauntleroy'' is a novel by Frances Hodgson Burnett. It was published as a serial in ''St. Nicholas Magazine'' from November 1885 to October 1886, then as a book by Charles Scribner's Sons, Scribner's (the publisher of ''St. Nic ...
clothes in which she dressed him, and for his first name. He inherited a tendency to needle, a fondness for fishing, a lifelong love of boating, and an attraction to strong-willed women from his father. Bogart attended the private Delancey School until the fifth grade, and then attended the prestigious Trinity School. He was an indifferent, sullen student who showed no interest in after-school activities. Bogart later attended
Phillips Academy ("Not for Self") la, Finis Origine Pendet ("The End Depends Upon the Beginning") , address = 180 Main Street , city = Andover Andover may refer to: Places ;In Australia: *Andover, Tasmania ;In Canada: * ...
, a boarding school to which he was admitted based on family connections. Although his parents hoped that he would go on to
Yale University Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
, Bogart left Phillips in 1918 after one semester. He failed four out of six classes. Several reasons have been given; according to one, he was expelled for throwing the headmaster (or a groundskeeper) into Rabbit Pond on campus. Another cited smoking, drinking, poor academic performance, and (possibly) inappropriate comments made to the staff. In a third scenario, Bogart was withdrawn by his father for failing to improve his grades. His parents were deeply disappointed in their failed plans for his future.


Navy

With no viable career options, Bogart enlisted in the
United States Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors = Blue and gold  , colors_label = Colors , march = "Anchors Aweigh" , mascot = , equipment = List of equipment of the United St ...
in the spring of 1918 (during
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
), and served as a
coxswain The coxswain ( , or ) is the person in charge of a boat A boat is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical sys ...
.Celebrities and Other Famous People: A list of people that once served in or was associated with the U.S. Coast Guard.
uscg.mil. Retrieved April 16, 2021.
He recalled later, "At eighteen, war was great stuff. Paris! Sexy French girls! Hot damn!" Bogart was recorded as a model sailor, who spent most of his sea time after the
armistice An armistice is a formal agreement Agreement or concord (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates. It is an instance of inflection, and usually involves makin ...
ferrying troops back from Europe.Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 27. Bogart left the service on June 18, 1919Famous Veteran: Humphrey Bogart.
Military.com. Retrieved April 16, 2021.
at the rank of Boatswain's Mate Third Class.Bogart, Humphrey Deforest, PO3
navy.togetherweserved.com. Retrieved July 4, 2021.
During the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, Bogart attempted to reenlist in the Navy but was rejected due to his age. He then volunteered for the Coast Guard Temporary Reserve in 1944, patrolling the California coastline in his yacht, the ''Santana''. He may have received his trademark scar and developed his characteristic lisp during his naval stint. There are several conflicting stories. In one, his lip was cut by shrapnel when his ship (the ) was shelled. The ship was never shelled, however, and Bogart may not have been at sea before the armistice. Another story, held by longtime friend
Nathaniel Benchley Nathaniel Goddard Benchley (November 13, 1915 – December 14, 1981) was an American writer from Massachusetts. Early life Born in Newton, Massachusetts Newton is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. It is approximatel ...
, was that Bogart was injured while taking a prisoner to
Portsmouth Naval Prison Portsmouth Naval Prison is a former United States Navy, U.S. Navy and United States Marine Corps, Marine Corps prison on the grounds of the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (PNS) in Kittery, Maine. The building has the appearance of a castle. The reinfo ...

Portsmouth Naval Prison
in
Kittery, Maine Kittery is a town in York County, Maine York County is the southwesternmost County (United States), county in the U.S. state of Maine, along the state of New Hampshire's eastern border. It is divided from Strafford County, New Hampshire, by the ...
. While changing trains in
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
, the handcuffed prisoner reportedly asked Bogart for a cigarette. When Bogart looked for a match, the prisoner smashed him across the mouth with the cuffs (cutting Bogart's lip) and fled before he was recaptured and imprisoned. In an alternative version, Bogart was struck in the mouth by a handcuff loosened while freeing his charge; the other handcuff was still around the prisoner's wrist. By the time Bogart was treated by a doctor, a scar had formed.
David Niven James David Graham Niven (; 1 March 1910 – 29 July 1983) was a British actor, memoirist, and novelist. He won the Academy Award for Best Actor The Academy Award for Best Actor is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Pictu ...
said that when he first asked Bogart about his scar, however, he said that it was caused by a childhood accident. "Goddamn doctor", Bogart later told Niven. "Instead of stitching it up, he screwed it up." According to Niven, the stories that Bogart got the scar during wartime were made up by the studios. His post-service physical did not mention the lip scar, although it noted many smaller scars. When actress
Louise Brooks Mary Louise Brooks (November 14, 1906 – August 8, 1985) was an American film actress and dancer during the 1920s and 1930s. She is regarded today as a Jazz Age The Jazz Age was a period in the 1920s and 1930s in which jazz Jazz is a ...
met Bogart in 1924, he had scar tissue on his upper lip which Brooks said Bogart may have had partially repaired before entering the film industry in 1930. Brooks said that his "lip wound gave him no speech impediment, either before or after it was mended."


Acting


First performances

Bogart returned home to find his father in poor health, his medical practice faltering, and much of the family's wealth lost in bad timber investments. His character and values developed separately from his family during his navy days, and he began to rebel. Bogart became a liberal who disliked pretension, phonies and snobs, sometimes defying conventional behavior and authority; he was also well-mannered, articulate, punctual, self-effacing and standoffish. After his naval service, he worked as a shipper and a bond salesman, joining the Coast Guard Reserve. Bogart resumed his friendship with Bill Brady Jr. (whose father had show-business connections), and obtained an office job with William A. Brady's new World Films company. Although he wanted to try his hand at screenwriting, directing, and production, he excelled at none. Bogart was
stage manager Stage management is a broad field that is generally defined as the practice of organization and coordination of an event or theatrical production. Stage management may encompass a variety of activities including the overseeing of the rehearsal ...
for Brady's daughter
Alice Alice may refer to: * Alice (name), most often a feminine given name, but also used as a surname Literature * Alice (Alice's Adventures in Wonderland), Alice (''Alice's Adventures in Wonderland''), a character in books by Lewis Carroll * Alice s ...
's play ''A Ruined Lady''. He made his stage debut a few months later as a Japanese butler in Alice's 1921 play ''Drifting'' (nervously delivering one line of dialogue), and appeared in several of her subsequent plays. Although Bogart had been raised to believe that acting was a lowly profession, he liked the late hours actors kept and the attention they received: "I was born to be indolent and this was the softest of rackets." He spent much of his free time in
speakeasies A speakeasy, also called a blind pig or blind tiger, is an illicit establishment that sells alcoholic beverages, or a retro style bar that replicates aspects of historical speakeasies. Speakeasy bars came into prominence in the United States d ...
, drinking heavily. A barroom brawl at this time was also a purported cause of Bogart's lip damage, dovetailing with Louise Brooks' account. Preferring to learn by doing, he never took acting lessons. Bogart was persistent and worked steadily at his craft, appearing in at least 17 Broadway productions between 1922 and 1935. He played juveniles or romantic supporting roles in drawing-room comedies and is reportedly the first actor to say, " Tennis, anyone?" on stage. According to
Alexander Woollcott Alexander Humphreys Woollcott (January 19, 1887 – January 23, 1943) was an American critic and commentator for ''The New Yorker'' magazine, a member of the Algonquin Round Table, an occasional actor and playwright, and a prominent radio persona ...

Alexander Woollcott
, Bogart "is what is usually and mercifully described as inadequate." Other critics were kinder.
Heywood Broun Heywood Campbell Broun Jr. (; December 7, 1888 – December 18, 1939) was an American journalist. He worked as a sportswriting, sportswriter, newspaper columnist, and editing, editor in New York City. He founded the American Newspaper Guild, later ...

Heywood Broun
, reviewing ''Nerves'', wrote: "Humphrey Bogart gives the most effective performance ... both dry and fresh, if that be possible". He played a juvenile lead (reporter Gregory Brown) in
Lynn Starling Lynn Starling (September 13, 1888 – February 25, 1955) was an American screenwriter and playwright.Solomon p.329 Starling wrote the 1923 play ''Meet the Wife (play), Meet the Wife'', subsequently adapted into a 1931 Meet the Wife (film), film of t ...
's comedy '' Meet the Wife'', which had a successful 232-performance run at the
Klaw Theatre The Klaw Theatre was a Broadway theatre, Broadway theatre located at 251–257 West 45th Street (now a part of George Abbott Way) in Midtown Manhattan. Built in 1921 for Theatrical producer, producer Marcus Klaw, Eugene De Rosa was the architect. ...
from November 1923 through July 1924. Bogart disliked his trivial, effeminate early-career parts, calling them "White Pants Willie" roles. While playing a double role in ''Drifting'' at the Playhouse Theatre in 1922, he met actress
Helen Menken Helen Menken (née __NOTOC__ A birth name is the name of the person given upon their birth. The term may be applied to the surname In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's personal name 300px, F ...
; they were married on May 20, 1926, at the
Gramercy Park Hotel Gramercy Park Hotel is a luxury hotel located at 2 Lexington Avenue, in the Gramercy Park neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, adjacent to the park of the same name. It is known for its rich history. __FORCETOC__ History Gramercy Park Hotel ...
in New York City. Divorced on November 18, 1927, they remained friends. Menken said in her divorce filing that Bogart valued his career more than marriage, citing neglect and abuse. He married actress
Mary Philips Mary Philips (January 23, 1901April 22, 1975) was an American stage and film actress. Biography The only child of Charles and Anna (née Hurley) Philips of New Haven, Connecticut, Philips was born in New London, Connecticut, and she was educated ...
on April 3, 1928, at her mother's apartment in
Hartford, Connecticut Hartford is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as ...
; Bogart and Philips had worked together in the play ''Nerves'' during its brief run at the Comedy Theatre in 1924. Theatrical production dropped off sharply after the
Wall Street Crash of 1929 The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as the Great Crash, was a major American stock market crash A stock market crash is a sudden dramatic decline of stock In finance, stock (also capital stock) consists of all of the shares In ...
, and many of the more-photogenic actors headed for Hollywood. Bogart debuted on film with
Helen Hayes Helen Hayes MacArthur ( Brown; October 10, 1900 – March 17, 1993) was an American actress whose career spanned 80 years. She eventually received the nickname "First Lady of American Theatre" and was one of 16 people who have won an Emmy, a G ...
in the 1928 two-reeler, ''The Dancing Town'', a complete copy of which has not been found. He also appeared with
Joan Blondell Rose Joan Blondell (née Bluestein; August 30, 1906 – December 25, 1979) was an American actress who performed in film and television for half a century. Blondell began her career in vaudeville Vaudeville (; ) is a of born in France a ...
and
Ruth Etting Ruth Etting (November 23, 1896 – September 24, 1978) was an American singer and actress of the 1920s and 1930s, who had over 60 hit recordings and worked in stage, radio, and film. Known as "America's sweetheart of song", her signature tunes ...

Ruth Etting
in a
Vitaphone File:First-nighters posing for the camera outside the Warners' Theater before the premiere of "Don Juan" with John Barrymore, - NARA - 535750.jpg, 300px, Premiere of ''Don Juan (1926 film), Don Juan'' in New York City Vitaphone was a sound film ...
short, ''
Broadway's Like That ''Broadway's Like That'' (1929) is a 10-minute Vitaphone short film starring Ruth Etting, with Joan Blondell, Humphrey Bogart and Mary Philips. Bogart and Philips were married at the time of this film. Plot summary A girl who works in a music st ...
'' (1930), which was rediscovered in 1963.


Broadway to Hollywood

Bogart signed a contract with the
Fox Film The Fox Film Corporation (also known as Fox Studios) was an American Independent company that produced film, motion pictures, formed by William Fox (producer), William Fox in 1915. It was the corporate successor and spin-off to his earlier Great ...

Fox Film
Corporation for $750 a week. There he met
Spencer Tracy Spencer Bonaventure Tracy (April 5, 1900 – June 10, 1967) was an American actor, known for his natural performing style and versatility. One of the major stars of Hollywood's Golden Age, Tracy was the first actor to win two consecutive ...

Spencer Tracy
, a Broadway actor whom Bogart liked and admired, and the two men became close friends and drinking companions. In 1930, Tracy first called him "Bogie". Tracy made his feature film debut in his only movie with Bogart,
John Ford John Martin Feeney (February 1, 1894 – August 31, 1973), known professionally as John Ford, was an American film director and naval officer. He is renowned both for Western (genre), Westerns such as ''Stagecoach (1939 film), Stagecoach'' (19 ...

John Ford
's early
sound film A sound film is a motion picture with synchronization, synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film. The first known public exhibition of projected sound films took place in Paris in 1900, but decad ...
''
Up the River ''Up the River'' is a 1930 American Pre-Code Hollywood, pre-Code comedy film directed by John Ford, and starring Claire Luce, Spencer Tracy and Humphrey Bogart. The plot concerns escaped convicts, as well as a female convict. It was the film de ...
'' (1930), in which their leading roles were as inmates. Tracy received top billing, but Bogart's picture appeared on the film's posters. He was billed fourth behind Tracy,
Claire Luce Claire Luce (October 15, 1903 – August 31, 1989) was an American stage and screen actress, dancer and singer. Among her few films were ''Up the River'' (1930), directed by John Ford and starring Spencer Tracy and Humphrey Bogart in their ...

Claire Luce
and
Warren Hymer Edgar Warren Hymer (February 25, 1906 – March 25, 1948) was an American actor. He was born in New York City. His father, John Bard Hymer (1875 or 1876–1953) was a playwright (with nine Broadway plays to his credit, according to the ...
but his role was almost as large as Tracy's and much larger than Luce's or Hymer's. A quarter of a century later, the two men planned to make '' The Desperate Hours'' together. Both insisted upon top billing, however; Tracy dropped out, and was replaced by
Fredric March Fredric March (born Ernest Frederick McIntyre Bickel; August 31, 1897 – April 14, 1975) was an American actor, regarded as one of Hollywood's most celebrated, versatile stars of the 1930s and 1940s.Obituary ''Variety Variety may refer to: ...
. Bogart then had a supporting role in '' Bad Sister'' (1931) with
Bette Davis Ruth Elizabeth "Bette" Davis (April 5, 1908 – October 6, 1989) was an American actress with a career spanning more than 50 years and 100 acting credits. She was noted for playing unsympathetic, sardonic To be sardonic is to be disdainfully or c ...

Bette Davis
. Bogart shuttled back and forth between Hollywood and the New York stage from 1930 to 1935, out of work for long periods. His parents had separated; his father died in 1934 in debt, which Bogart eventually paid off. He inherited his father's gold ring, which he wore in many of his films. At his father's deathbed, Bogart finally told him how much he loved him. Bogart's second marriage was rocky; dissatisfied with his acting career, depressed and irritable, he drank heavily.Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 45.


In Hollywood permanently: ''The Petrified Forest''

In 1934, Bogart starred in the
Broadway Broadway may refer to: Theatre * Broadway Theatre (disambiguation) * Broadway theatre, theatrical productions in professional theatres near Broadway, Manhattan, New York City, U.S. ** Broadway (Manhattan), the street **Broadway Theatre (53rd St ...
play ''Invitation to a Murder'' at the Theatre Masque (renamed the
John Golden Theatre The John Golden Theatre, formerly the Theatre Masque and Masque Theater, is a Broadway Broadway may refer to: Theatre * Broadway Theatre (disambiguation) * Broadway theatre, theatrical productions in professional theatres near Broadway, Ma ...
in 1937). Its producer,
Arthur Hopkins Arthur Hopkins (October 4, 1878 – March 22, 1950) was a well-known Broadway theater director and producer in the early twentieth century. Between 1912 and 1948, he produced and staged more than 80 plays – an average of more than two per year ...
, heard the play from offstage; he sent for Bogart and offered him the role of escaped murderer Duke Mantee in Robert E. Sherwood's forthcoming play, ''The Petrified Forest''. Hopkins later recalled: The play had 197 performances at the
Broadhurst Theatre The Broadhurst Theatre is a Broadway theatre located at 235 West 44th Street in Midtown Manhattan. It was designed by architect Herbert J. Krapp, a well-known theatre designer who had been working directly with the Shubert brothers; the Broadhur ...
in New York in 1935. Although
Leslie Howard Leslie Howard Steiner (3 April 18931 June 1943) was an English actor, director and producer.Obituary ''Variety Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equ ...
was the star, ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'' critic
Brooks Atkinson Justin Brooks Atkinson (November 28, 1894 – January 14, 1984) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United Stat ...
said that the play was "a peach ... a roaring Western melodrama ... Humphrey Bogart does the best work of his career as an actor." Bogart said that the play "marked my deliverance from the ranks of the sleek, sybaritic, stiff-shirted, swallow-tailed 'smoothies' to which I seemed condemned to life." However, he still felt insecure. Warner Bros. bought the screen rights to ''The Petrified Forest'' in 1935. The play seemed ideal for the studio, which was known for its socially-realistic pictures for a public entranced by real-life criminals such as
John Dillinger John Herbert Dillinger (June 22, 1903 – July 22, 1934) was an American gangster of the Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in ...
and
Dutch Schultz Dutch Schultz (born Arthur Simon Flegenheimer; August 6, 1901October 24, 1935) was an American mobster. Based in New York City in the 1920s and 1930s, he made his fortune in organized crime Organized crime is a category of transnational, na ...
.
Bette Davis Ruth Elizabeth "Bette" Davis (April 5, 1908 – October 6, 1989) was an American actress with a career spanning more than 50 years and 100 acting credits. She was noted for playing unsympathetic, sardonic To be sardonic is to be disdainfully or c ...

Bette Davis
and Leslie Howard were cast. Howard, who held the production rights, made it clear that he wanted Bogart to star with him. The studio tested several Hollywood veterans for the Duke Mantee role and chose
Edward G. Robinson Edward G. Robinson (born Emanuel Goldenberg; ; December 12, 1893January 26, 1973) was a Romanian American, Romanian-born American actor of stage and screen during Classical Hollywood cinema, Hollywood's Golden Age. He appeared in 30 Broadway pla ...

Edward G. Robinson
, who had star appeal and was due to make a film to fulfill his contract. Bogart cabled news of this development to Howard in Scotland, who replied: "Att: Jack Warner Insist Bogart Play Mantee No Bogart No Deal L.H.". When Warner Bros. saw that Howard would not budge, they gave in and cast Bogart. Jack Warner wanted Bogart to use a
stage name A stage name is a pseudonym A pseudonym () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) or alias () is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which differs from their original or true name (orthonym). This a ...
, but Bogart declined having built a reputation with his name in Broadway theater. The film version of ''
The Petrified Forest ''The Petrified Forest'' is a 1936 American film directed by Archie Mayo and based on Robert E. Sherwood's 1935 Broadway drama of the same name. The motion picture stars Leslie Howard (actor), Leslie Howard, Bette Davis and Humphrey Bogart. The ...
'' was released in 1936. According to ''
Variety Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes of algebraic structures defined by equations in universal algebra Hor ...
'', "Bogart's menace leaves nothing wanting". Frank S. Nugent wrote for ''The New York Times'' that the actor "can be a psychopathic gangster more like Dillinger than the outlaw himself." The film was successful at the box office, earning $500,000 in rentals, and made Bogart a star. He never forgot Howard's favor and named his only daughter, Leslie Howard Bogart, after him in 1952.


Supporting gangster and villain roles

Despite his success in ''The Petrified Forest'' (an "A movie"), Bogart signed a tepid 26-week contract at $550 per week and was
typecast In film, television, and theatre, typecasting is the process by which a particular actor An actor is a person who portrays a character Character(s) may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Character'' (novel), a 1936 ...
as a gangster in a series of
B movie A B movie or B film is a low-budget A low-budget film or low-budget movie is a motion picture shot with little to no funding from a major film studio or private investor. Many independent films are made on low budgets, but films made on the ...

B movie
crime dramas. Although he was proud of his success, the fact that it derived from
gangster A gangster is a criminal In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department ...

gangster
roles weighed on him: "I can't get in a mild discussion without turning it into an argument. There must be something in my tone of voice, or this arrogant face—something that antagonizes everybody. Nobody likes me on sight. I suppose that's why I'm cast as the heavy." In spite of his success, Warner Bros. had no interest in raising Bogart's profile. His roles were repetitive and physically demanding; studios were not yet
air-conditioned Air conditioning (also A/C, air conditioner) is the process of removing heat and controlling the humidity Humidity is the concentration of water vapor, water vapour present in the air. Water vapor, the gaseous state of water, is generally ...
, and his tightly-scheduled job at Warners was anything but the indolent and "peachy" actor's life he hoped for. Although Bogart disliked the roles chosen for him, he worked steadily. "In the first 34 pictures" for Warner's, he told
George Frazier George Francis Frazier Jr. (June 10, 1911 – June 13, 1974) was an American journalist A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to a news-worthy form and disseminate ...
, "I was shot in 12, electrocuted or hanged in 8, and was a jailbird in 9". Shipman indicates the quote is from a 1965 book about Bogart by Richard Gehman citing Frazier. This outline also appears in Frazier'
June 2, 1944 profile
of Bogart in ''
Life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities A bubble of exhaled gas in water In common usage and classical mechanics, a physical object or physical body (or simply an object or body) is a collection of matter within a ...
'' magazine, p. 59
He averaged a film every two months between 1936 and 1940, sometimes working on two films at the same time. Bogart used these years to begin developing his film persona: a wounded, stoical, cynical, charming, vulnerable, self-mocking loner with a code of honor. Amenities at Warners were few, compared to the prestigious
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. (also known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures or MGM) is an American media company, founded in 1924, that produces and distributes feature films and television programs. It is based in Beverly Hills, California ...
. Bogart thought that the Warners wardrobe department was cheap, and often wore his own suits in his films; he used his dog, Zero, to play Pard (his character's dog) in '' High Sierra''. His disputes with Warner Bros. over roles and money were similar to those waged by the studio with more established and less malleable stars such as Bette Davis and
James Cagney James Francis Cagney Jr. (; July 17, 1899March 30, 1986) was an American actor and dancer. On stage and in film, Cagney was known for his consistently energetic performances, distinctive vocal style, and deadpan comic timing. He won acclaim and ...

James Cagney
. Leading men at Warner Bros. included James Cagney and
Edward G. Robinson Edward G. Robinson (born Emanuel Goldenberg; ; December 12, 1893January 26, 1973) was a Romanian American, Romanian-born American actor of stage and screen during Classical Hollywood cinema, Hollywood's Golden Age. He appeared in 30 Broadway pla ...

Edward G. Robinson
. Most of the studio's better scripts went to them (or others), leaving Bogart with what was left: films like ''
San Quentin San Quentin State Prison (SQ) is a California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation The California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) is the agency of the government of California responsible for the operation of the Cali ...
'' (1937), ''
Racket Busters ''Racket Busters'' is a 1938 film about crime in the trucking industry starring Humphrey Bogart and George Brent. The film was directed by Lloyd Bacon. Plot summary Successful prosecution attorney Hugh Alison agrees to investigate gangster. Joh ...
'' (1938), and ''
You Can't Get Away with Murder ''You Can't Get Away with Murder'' is a 1939 crime drama Crime films, in the broadest sense, is a film genre A film genre is a stylistic or thematic category for motion pictures A film, also called a movie, motion picture or m ...
'' (1939). His only leading role during this period was in ''
Dead End Dead End or dead end may refer to: * Dead end (street), a street connected only at one end with other streets, called by many other official names, including ''cul-de-sac''. Film and television * ''The Dead End'' (1914 film), directed by David ...
'' (1937, on loan to
Samuel Goldwyn Samuel Goldwyn (born Szmuel Gelbfisz; yi, שמואל געלבפֿיש; August 27, 1882 January 31, 1974), also known as Samuel Goldfish, was a Polish-American Polish Americans ( pl, Polonia amerykańska) are Americans Americans are the ...
), as a gangster modeled after
Baby Face Nelson Lester Joseph Gillis (December 6, 1908 – November 27, 1934), known by the alias George Nelson and Baby Face Nelson, was an American bank robber. He became partners with John Dillinger, helping him escape from prison in Crown Point, Indiana. Ne ...

Baby Face Nelson
. Bogart played violent roles so often that in
Nevil Shute Nevil Shute Norway (17 January 189912 January 1960) was an English novelist and aeronautical engineer who spent his later years in Australia. He used his full name in his engineering career and Nevil Shute as his pen name to protect his enginee ...
's 1939 novel, ''
What Happened to the Corbetts ''What Happened to the Corbetts'' (US title: ''Ordeal'') is a novel by Nevil Shute, a fictional depiction of the effect of Aerial bombing of cities, aerial bombing on the British city of Southampton, a major maritime centre. It was written in 193 ...
'', the protagonist replies "I've seen Humphrey Bogart with one often enough" when asked if he knows how to operate an automatic weapon. Although he played a variety of supporting roles in films such as ''
Angels with Dirty Faces ''Angels with Dirty Faces'' is a 1938 American gangster film A gangster film or gangster movie is a film belonging to a genre that focuses on gang A gang is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counti ...
'' (1938), Bogart's roles were either rivals of characters played by Cagney and Robinson or a secondary member of their gang. In '' Black Legion'' (1937), a movie
Graham Greene Henry Graham Greene (2 October 1904 – 3 April 1991) was an English writer and journalist regarded by many as one of the leading English novelists of the 20th century. Combining literary acclaim with widespread popularity, Greene acquir ...
described as "intelligent and exciting, if rather earnest", he played a good man who was caught up with (and destroyed by) a racist organization. The studio cast Bogart as a wrestling promoter in ''
Swing Your Lady ''Swing Your Lady'' is a 1938 country music, country musical comedy film directed by Ray Enright, starring Humphrey Bogart, Frank McHugh, and Louise Fazenda. Also featured in the cast is Ronald Reagan in one of his early roles. Bogart was appare ...
'' (1938), a "
hillbilly "Hillbilly" is a term (often derogatory A pejorative or slur is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, ...
musical" which he reportedly considered his worst film performance. He played a rejuvenated, formerly-dead scientist in ''
The Return of Doctor X ''The Return of Doctor X'' (also billed as ''The Return of Dr. X'') is a 1939 American science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginati ...
'' (1939), his only horror film: "If it'd been Jack Warner's blood ... I wouldn't have minded so much. The trouble was they were drinking mine and I was making this stinking movie." His wife, Mary, had a stage hit in ''A Touch of Brimstone'' and refused to abandon her Broadway career for Hollywood. After the play closed, Mary relented; she insisted on continuing her career, however, and they divorced in 1937. On August 21, 1938, Bogart entered a turbulent third marriage to actress
Mayo Methot Mayo Jane Methot (March 3, 1904 – June 9, 1951) was an American film and stage actress. She appeared in over 30 films, as well as in various Broadway theatre, Broadway productions, though she attracted significant media attention for her temp ...
, a lively, friendly woman when sober but
paranoid Paranoia is an instinct or thought process that is believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality. Paranoid thinking typically includes persecutory beliefs, or beliefs of conspiracy concer ...

paranoid
and aggressive when drunk. She became convinced that Bogart was unfaithful to her (which he eventually was, with Lauren Bacall, while filming ''To Have and Have Not'' in 1944). They drifted apart; Methot's drinking increased, and she threw plants, crockery and other objects at Bogart. She set their house afire, stabbed him with a knife, and slashed her wrists several times. Bogart needled her; apparently enjoying confrontation, he was sometimes violent as well. The press called them "the Battling Bogarts". According to their friend, Julius Epstein, "The Bogart-Methot marriage was the sequel to the
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
". Bogart bought a motor launch which he named ''Sluggy,'' his nickname for Methot: "I like a jealous wife .. We get on so well together (because) we don't have illusions about each other ... I wouldn't give you two cents for a
dame ''Dame'' is an honorific title and the feminine form of address for the honour of damehood in many Christian chivalric orders, as well as the Orders, decorations, and medals of the United Kingdom, British honours system and those of several other ...

dame
without a temper." Louise Brooks said that "except for Leslie Howard, no one contributed as much to Humphrey's success as his third wife, Mayo Methot." Methot's influence was increasingly destructive, however, and Bogart also continued to drink. He had a lifelong disdain for pretension and phoniness, and was again irritated by his inferior films. Bogart rarely watched his own films and avoided premieres, issuing fake press releases about his private life to satisfy journalistic and public curiosity. When he thought an actor, director or studio had done something shoddy, he spoke up publicly about it. Bogart advised Robert Mitchum that the only way to stay alive in Hollywood was to be an "againster". He was not the most popular of actors, and some in the Hollywood community shunned him privately to avoid trouble with the studios. Bogart once said, The Hollywood press, unaccustomed to such candor, was delighted.


Early stardom


''High Sierra''

'' High Sierra'' (1941, directed by Raoul Walsh) featured a screenplay written by John Huston, Bogart's friend and drinking partner, albeit adapted from a novel by W. R. Burnett, author of the novel on which ''Little Caesar (film), Little Caesar'' was based. Paul Muni, George Raft, Cagney and Robinson turned down the lead role, giving Bogart the opportunity to play a character with some depth. Walsh initially opposed Bogart's casting, preferring Raft for the part. It was Bogart's last major film as a gangster; a supporting role followed in ''The Big Shot (1942 film), The Big Shot'', released in 1942. He worked well with Ida Lupino, sparking jealousy from Mayo Methot. The film cemented a strong personal and professional connection between Bogart and Huston. Bogart admired (and somewhat envied) Huston for his skill as a writer; a poor student, Bogart was a lifelong reader. He could quote Plato, Alexander Pope, Pope, Ralph Waldo Emerson and over a thousand lines of William Shakespeare, Shakespeare, and subscribed to the ''Harvard Law Review''. Bogart admired writers; some of his best friends were screenwriters, including Louis Bromfield,
Nathaniel Benchley Nathaniel Goddard Benchley (November 13, 1915 – December 14, 1981) was an American writer from Massachusetts. Early life Born in Newton, Massachusetts Newton is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. It is approximatel ...
, and Nunnally Johnson. He enjoyed intense, provocative conversation (accompanied by stiff drinks), as did Huston. Both were rebellious and enjoyed playing childish pranks. Huston was reportedly easily bored during production and admired Bogart (also bored easily off-camera) for his acting talent and his intense concentration on-set.


''The Maltese Falcon''

Now regarded as a classic film noir, '' The Maltese Falcon'' (1941) was John Huston's directorial debut. Based on the Dashiell Hammett novel, it was first serialized in the pulp magazine ''Black Mask (magazine), Black Mask'' in 1929 and was the basis of two earlier film versions; the second was ''Satan Met a Lady'' (1936), starring
Bette Davis Ruth Elizabeth "Bette" Davis (April 5, 1908 – October 6, 1989) was an American actress with a career spanning more than 50 years and 100 acting credits. She was noted for playing unsympathetic, sardonic To be sardonic is to be disdainfully or c ...

Bette Davis
. Producer Hal B. Wallis initially offered to cast George Raft as the leading man, but Raft (far more established than Bogart) had a contract stipulating he was not required to appear in remakes. Fearing that it would be nothing more than a sanitized version of the pre-Motion Picture Production Code, Production Code ''The Maltese Falcon (1931 film), The Maltese Falcon'' (1931), Raft turned down the role to make ''Manpower (1941 film), Manpower'' with director Raoul Walsh, with whom he had worked on ''The Bowery (1933 film), The Bowery'' in 1933. Huston then eagerly accepted Bogart as his
Sam Spade Sam Spade is a fictional character and the protagonist 200px, Shakespeare's ''Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.'' William Morris Hunt, oil on canvas, c. 1864 A protagonist (from grc, πρωταγωνιστής, translit=prōtagōnistḗs, lit=one wh ...
. Complementing Bogart were co-stars Sydney Greenstreet, Peter Lorre, Elisha Cook Jr., and Mary Astor as the treacherous female foil. Bogart's sharp timing and facial expressions were praised by the cast and director as vital to the film's quick action and rapid-fire dialogue.Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 127. It was a commercial hit, and a major triumph for Huston. Bogart was unusually happy with the film: "It is practically a masterpiece. I don't have many things I'm proud of ... but that's one".


''Casablanca''

Bogart played his first romantic lead in ''
Casablanca Casablanca ( ar, الدار البيضاء, ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; ber, ⴰⵏⴼⴰ, anfa) is the largest city of Morocco. Located in the central-western part of Morocco bordering the Atlantic Ocean, it is the second largest city in the Maghreb ...
'' (1942): Rick Blaine, an expatriate nightclub owner hiding from a suspicious past and negotiating a fine line among Nazi Germany, Nazis, the French Resistance, French underground, the Vichy France, Vichy prefect and unresolved feelings for his ex-girlfriend. Bosley Crowther wrote in his November 1942 ''New York Times'' review that Bogart's character was used "to inject a cold point of tough resistance to evil forces afoot in Europe today". The film, directed by Michael Curtiz and produced by Hal Wallis, featured
Ingrid Bergman Ingrid Bergman (29 August 191529 August 1982) was a Swedish actress who starred in a variety of European and American films, television movies, and plays.Obituary ''Variety Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebra ...
, Claude Rains, Sydney Greenstreet, Paul Henreid, Conrad Veidt, Peter Lorre and Dooley Wilson. Bogart and Bergman's on-screen relationship was based on professionalism rather than actual rapport, although Mayo Methot assumed otherwise. Off the set, the co-stars hardly spoke. Bergman (who had a reputation for affairs with her leading men)Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 201. later said about Bogart, "I kissed him but I never knew him." Because she was taller, Bogart had blocks attached to his shoes in some scenes. Bogart is reported to have been responsible for the notion that Rick Blaine should be portrayed as a chess player, a metaphor for the relationships he maintained with friends, enemies, and allies. He played tournament-level chess (one division below master) in real life, often enjoying games with crew members and cast but finding his better in Paul Henreid. ''Casablanca'' won the Academy Award for Best Picture at the 16th Academy Awards for 1943. Bogart was nominated for Academy Award for Best Actor, Best Actor in a Leading Role, but lost to Paul Lukas for his performance in ''Watch on the Rhine''. The film vaulted Bogart from fourth place to first in the studio's roster, however, finally overtaking
James Cagney James Francis Cagney Jr. (; July 17, 1899March 30, 1986) was an American actor and dancer. On stage and in film, Cagney was known for his consistently energetic performances, distinctive vocal style, and deadpan comic timing. He won acclaim and ...

James Cagney
. He more than doubled his annual salary to over $460,000 by 1946, making him the world's highest-paid actor. Bogart went on United Service Organizations and War bond, War Bond tours with Methot in 1943 and 1944, making arduous trips to Italy and North Africa (including Casablanca). He was still required to perform in films with weak scripts, leading to conflicts with the front office. He starred in ''Conflict (1945 film), Conflict'' (1945, again with Greenstreet), but turned down ''God Is My Co-Pilot (film), God is My Co-Pilot'' that year.


Bogart and Bacall


''To Have and Have Not''

Howard Hawks introduced Bogart and Lauren Bacall (1924–2014) while Bogart was filming ''Passage to Marseille'' (1944). The three subsequently collaborated on ''
To Have and Have Not ''To Have and Have Not'' is a novel by Ernest Hemingway published in 1937 by Charles Scribner's Sons. The book follows Harry Morgan, a fishing boat captain out of Key West, Florida. ''To Have and Have Not'' was Hemingway's second novel set in th ...
'' (1944), a loose adaptation of the Ernest Hemingway novel, and Bacall's film debut. It has several similarities to ''Casablanca'': the same kind of hero and enemies, and a piano player (portrayed this time by Hoagy Carmichael) as a supporting character. When they met, Bacall was 19 and Bogart 44; he nicknamed her "Baby." A model since age 16, she had appeared in two failed plays. Bogart was attracted by Bacall's high cheekbones, green eyes, tawny blond hair, lean body, maturity, poise and earthy, outspoken honesty; he reportedly said, "I just saw your test. We'll have a lot of fun together". Their emotional bond was strong from the start, their difference in age and acting-experience encouraged a mentor-student dynamic. In contrast to the Hollywood norm, their affair was Bogart's first with a leading lady. His early meetings with Bacall were discreet and brief, their separations bridged by love letters. The relationship made it easier for Bacall to make her first film, and Bogart did his best to put her at ease with jokes and quiet coaching.Bacall, Lauren. ''By Myself and Then Some'', HarperCollins, New York, 2005. He encouraged her to steal scenes; Howard Hawks also did his best to highlight her role, and found Bogart easy to direct. However, Hawks began to disapprove of the relationship. He considered himself Bacall's protector and mentor, and Bogart was usurping that role. Not usually drawn to his starlets, the married director also fell for Bacall; he told her that she meant nothing to Bogart and threatened to send her to the poverty-row studio Monogram Pictures. Bogart calmed her down, and then went after Hawks; Jack Warner settled the dispute, and filming resumed. Hawks said about Bacall, "Bogie fell in love with the character she played, so she had to keep playing it the rest of her life."


''The Big Sleep''

Months after wrapping ''To Have and Have Not'', Bogart and Bacall were reunited for an encore: the film noir ''
The Big Sleep ''The Big Sleep'' (1939) is a hardboiled crime novel by American-British writer Raymond Chandler, the first to feature the detective Philip Marlowe. It has been adapted for film twice, The Big Sleep (1946 film), in 1946 and again The Big Sleep ...
'' (1946), based on the novel by Raymond Chandler with script help from William Faulkner. Chandler admired the actor's performance: "Bogart can be tough without a gun. Also, he has a sense of humor that contains that grating undertone of contempt." Although the film was completed and scheduled for release in 1945, it was withdrawn and re-edited to add scenes exploiting Bogart and Bacall's box-office chemistry in ''To Have and Have Not'' and the publicity surrounding their offscreen relationship. At director Howard Hawks' urging, production partner Charles K. Feldman agreed to a rewrite of Bacall's scenes to heighten the "insolent" quality which had intrigued critics such as James Agee and audiences of the earlier film, and a memo was sent to studio head Jack Warner. The dialogue, especially in the added scenes supplied by Hawks, was full of sexual innuendo. The film was successful, although some critics found its plot confusing and overly complicated. According to Chandler, Hawks and Bogart argued about who killed the chauffeur; when Chandler received an inquiry by telegram, he could not provide an answer.


Marriage

Bogart filed for divorce from Methot in February 1945. He and Bacall married in a small ceremony at the country home of Bogart's close friend, Pulitzer Prize-winning author Louis Bromfield, at Malabar Farm State Park, Malabar Farm (near Lucas, Ohio) on May 21, 1945. They moved into a $160,000 ($ in ) white brick mansion in an exclusive neighborhood of Los Angeles's Holmby Hills, Los Angeles, Holmby Hills. The marriage was a happy one, with tensions due to their differences. Bogart's drinking was sometimes problematic. He was a homebody, and Bacall liked the nightlife; he loved the sea, which made her Motion sickness, seasick. Bogart bought the ''Santana'', a sailing yacht, from actor Dick Powell in 1945. He found the sea a sanctuary and spent about thirty weekends a year on the water, with a particular fondness for sailing around Santa Catalina Island (California), Catalina Island: "An actor needs something to stabilize his personality, something to nail down what he really is, not what he is currently pretending to be." Bogart joined the Coast Guard Temporary Reserve, offering the Coast Guard use of the ''Santana''. He reportedly attempted to enlist, but was turned down due to his age.


''Dark Passage'' and ''Key Largo''

The suspenseful ''
Dark Passage ''Dark Passage'' (1946 in literature, 1946) is a Crime fiction, crime novel by David Goodis. It was the basis for the 1947 film noir Dark Passage (film), of the same name. The film implements extensive use of the First-person narrative, First-pe ...
'' (1947) was Bogart and Bacall's next collaboration. Vincent Parry (Bogart) is intent on finding the real murderer for a crime of which he was convicted and sentenced to prison. According to Bogart's biographer, Stefan Kanfer, it was "a production line film noir with no particular distinction". Bogart and Bacall's last pairing in a film was in ''
Key Largo Key Largo ( es, Cayo Largo) is an island in the upper Florida Keys The Florida Keys are a coral island, coral cay archipelago located off the southern coast of Florida, forming the southernmost part of the continental United States. They b ...
'' (1948). Directed by John Huston,
Edward G. Robinson Edward G. Robinson (born Emanuel Goldenberg; ; December 12, 1893January 26, 1973) was a Romanian American, Romanian-born American actor of stage and screen during Classical Hollywood cinema, Hollywood's Golden Age. He appeared in 30 Broadway pla ...

Edward G. Robinson
was billed second (behind Bogart) as gangster Johnny Rocco: a seething, older synthesis of many of his early bad-guy roles. The billing question was hard-fought and at the end of at least one of the trailers, Robinson is listed above Bogart in a list of the actors' names in the last frame; and in the film itself, Robinson's name, appearing between Bogart's and Bacall's, is pictured slightly higher onscreen than the other two. Robinson had top billing over Bogart in their four previous films together: ''Bullets or Ballots'' (1936), ''Kid Galahad (1937 film), Kid Galahad'' (1937), ''The Amazing Dr. Clitterhouse'' (1938) and ''Brother Orchid'' (1940). In some posters for ''Key Largo'', Robinson's picture is substantially larger than Bogart's, and in the foreground manhandling Bacall while Bogart is in the background. The characters are trapped during a hurricane in a hotel owned by Bacall's father-in-law, portrayed by Lionel Barrymore. Claire Trevor won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance as Rocco's physically abused, alcoholic girlfriend.


Later career


''The Treasure of the Sierra Madre''

Riding high in 1947 with a new contract which provided limited script refusal and the right to form his production company, Bogart rejoined with John Huston for '' The Treasure of the Sierra Madre'': a stark tale of greed among three gold prospectors in Mexico. Lacking a love interest or a happy ending, it was considered a risky project. Bogart later said about co-star (and John Huston's father) Walter Huston, "He's probably the only performer in Hollywood to whom I'd gladly lose a scene." The film was shot in the heat of summer for greater realism and atmosphere and was grueling to make. James Agee wrote, "Bogart does a wonderful job with this character ... miles ahead of the very good work he has done before." Although John Huston won the Academy Award for Best Director and screenplay and his father won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, Best Supporting Actor award, the film had mediocre box-office results. Bogart complained, "An intelligent script, beautifully directed—something different—and the public turned a cold shoulder on it."


House Un-American Activities Committee

Bogart, a liberal Democratic Party (United States), Democrat, organized the Committee for the First Amendment (a delegation to Washington, D.C.) opposing what he saw as the House Un-American Activities Committee's harassment of Hollywood screenwriters and actors. He later wrote an article, "I'm No Communist", for the March 1948 issue of ''Photoplay'' magazine distancing himself from the Hollywood blacklist, Hollywood Ten to counter negative publicity resulting from his appearance. Bogart wrote, "The ten men cited for contempt by the House Un-American Activities Committee were not defended by us."


Santana Productions

Bogart created his film company, Santana Productions (named after his yacht and the cabin cruiser in ''Key Largo''), in 1948. The right to create his own company had left Jack Warner furious, fearful that other stars would do the same and further erode the major studios' power. In addition to pressure from freelancing actors such as Bogart, James Stewart, and Henry Fonda, they were beginning to buckle from the impact of television and the enforcement of antitrust laws which broke up theater chains. Bogart appeared in his final films for Warners, ''Chain Lightning (1950 film), Chain Lightning'' (1950) and ''The Enforcer (1951 film), The Enforcer'' (1951). Except for ''Beat the Devil (film), Beat the Devil'' (1953), originally distributed in the United States by United Artists, the company released its films through Columbia Pictures; Columbia re-released ''Beat the Devil'' a decade later. In quick succession, Bogart starred in ''Knock on Any Door'' (1949), ''Tokyo Joe (film), Tokyo Joe'' (1949), ''
In a Lonely Place ''In a Lonely Place'' is a 1950 American film noir directed by Nicholas Ray and starring Humphrey Bogart and Gloria Grahame, produced for Bogart's Santana Productions. The script was written by Andrew P. Solt from Edmund H. North's adaptation of ...
'' (1950), and ''Sirocco (film), Sirocco'' (1951). Santana also made two films without him: ''And Baby Makes Three'' (1949) and ''The Family Secret (1951 film), The Family Secret'' (1951). Although most lost money at the box office (ultimately forcing Santana's sale), at least two retain a reputation; ''In a Lonely Place'' is considered a film-noir high point. Bogart plays Dixon Steele, an embittered writer with a violent reputation who is the primary suspect in the murder of a young woman and falls in love with failed actress Laurel Gray (Gloria Grahame). Several Bogart biographers, and actress-writer Louise Brooks, have felt that this role is closest to the real Bogart. According to Brooks, the film "gave him a role that he could play with complexity, because the film character's pride in his art, his selfishness, drunkenness, lack of energy stabbed with lightning strokes of violence were shared by the real Bogart". The character mimics some of Bogart's personal habits, twice ordering the actor's favorite meal (ham and eggs). A parody of sorts of ''The Maltese Falcon'', ''Beat the Devil'' was the final film for Bogart and John Huston. Co-written by Truman Capote, the eccentrically-filmed story follows an amoral group of rogues, one of whom was portrayed by Peter Lorre, chasing an unattainable treasure. Bogart sold his interest in Santana to Columbia for over $1 million in 1955.


''The African Queen''

Outside Santana Productions, Bogart starred with
Katharine Hepburn Katharine Houghton Hepburn (May 12, 1907 – June 29, 2003) was an American actress of film, stage and television. Hepburn's career as a Hollywood leading lady spanned over 60 years. She was known for her headstrong independence, spirited ...
in the John Huston-directed ''
The African QueenThe African Queen may refer to: Horticulture * African Queen, a cultivar of ''Osteospermum'', a member of the sunflower family Vessels * African Queen (boat), the vessel used in the 1951 film "The African Queen" * African Queen (ship), including a ...
'' in 1951. The C. S. Forester novel on which it was based was overlooked and left undeveloped for 15 years until producer Sam Spiegel and Huston bought the rights. Spiegel sent Katharine Hepburn the book; she suggested Bogart for the male lead, believing that "he was the only man who could have played that part". Huston's love of adventure, his deep, longstanding friendship (and success) with Bogart, and the chance to work with Hepburn convinced the actor to leave Hollywood for a difficult shoot on location in the Belgian Congo. Bogart was to get 30 percent of the profits and Hepburn 10 percent, plus a relatively small salary for both. The stars met in London and announced that they would work together. Bacall came for the over-four-month duration, leaving their young son in Los Angeles. The Bogarts began the trip with a Film promotion, junket through Europe, including a visit with Pope Pius XII. Bacall later made herself useful as a cook, nurse and clothes washer; her husband said: "I don't know what we'd have done without her. She Lux (soap), Luxed my undies in darkest Africa." Nearly everyone in the cast developed dysentery except Bogart and Huston, who subsisted on canned food and alcohol; Bogart said, "All I ate was baked beans, canned asparagus and Scotch whisky. Whenever a fly bit Huston or me, it dropped dead." Hepburn (a Teetotalism, teetotaler) fared worse in the difficult conditions, losing weight and at one point becoming very ill. Bogart resisted Huston's insistence on using real leeches in a key scene where Charlie has to drag his steam launch through an infested marsh, and reasonable fakes were employed. The crew overcame illness, Army ant, army-ant infestations, leaky boats, poor food, attacking hippopotamus, hippos, poor water filters, extreme heat, isolation, and a boat fire to complete the film. Despite the discomfort of jumping from the boat into swamps, rivers and marshes, ''The African Queen'' apparently rekindled Bogart's early love of boats; when he returned to California, he bought a classic mahogany Hacker-Craft runabout which he kept until his death. His performance as cantankerous skipper Charlie Allnutt earned Bogart an
Academy Award for Best Actor The Academy Award for Best Actor is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS, often pronounced ; also known as simply the Academy or the Motion Pictu ...
in 1951 (his only award of three nominations), and he considered it the best of his film career. Promising friends that if he won his speech would break the convention of thanking everyone in sight, Bogart advised Claire Trevor when she was nominated for ''
Key Largo Key Largo ( es, Cayo Largo) is an island in the upper Florida Keys The Florida Keys are a coral island, coral cay archipelago located off the southern coast of Florida, forming the southernmost part of the continental United States. They b ...
'' to "just say you did it all yourself and don't thank anyone". When Bogart won, however, he said: "It's a long way from the Belgian Congo to the stage of this theatre. It's nicer to be here. Thank you very much ... No one does it alone. As in tennis, you need a good opponent or partner to bring out the best in you. John and Katie helped me to be where I am now." Despite the award and its accompanying recognition, Bogart later said: "The way to survive an Oscar is never to try to win another one ... too many stars ... win it and then figure they have to top themselves ... they become afraid to take chances. The result: A lot of dull performances in dull pictures." ''The African Queen'' was Bogart's first starring Technicolor role.


''The Caine Mutiny''

Bogart dropped his asking price to obtain the role of Captain Queeg in Edward Dmytryk's drama, ''
The Caine Mutiny ''The Caine Mutiny'' is a 1951 Pulitzer Prize#REDIRECT Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature and musical composition within the United States. It was estab ...
'' (1954). Though he retained some of his old bitterness about having to do so, he delivered a strong performance in the lead; he received his final Oscar nomination and was the subject of a June 7, 1954 ''Time (magazine), Time'' magazine cover story. Despite his success, Bogart was still Depression (mood), melancholy; he grumbled to (and feuded with) the studio, while his health began to deteriorate. The character of Queeg was similar to his roles in ''The Maltese Falcon'', ''Casablanca'' and ''The Big Sleep''–the wary loner who trusts no one—but without their warmth and humor. Like his portrayal of Fred C. Dobbs in ''The Treasure of the Sierra Madre'', Bogart's Queeg is a paranoid, self-pitying character whose small-mindedness eventually destroys him. Henry Fonda played a different role in the Broadway version of ''The Caine Mutiny'', generating publicity for the film.


Final roles

For ''
Sabrina Sabrina may refer to: *Sabrina (given name) Sabrina is a feminine given name A given name (also known as a first name or forename) is the part of a personal name A personal name, or full name, in onomastic Onomastics or onomatology ...
'' (1954), Billy Wilder wanted Cary Grant for the older male lead and chose Bogart to play the conservative brother who competes with his younger, playboy sibling (
William Holden William Holden (born William Franklin Beedle Jr.; April 17, 1918 – November 12 , 1981) was an American actor, one of the biggest box-office draws of the 1950s. Holden won the Academy Award for Best Actor The Academy Award for Best Actor i ...

William Holden
) for the affection of the Cinderella-like Sabrina (
Audrey Hepburn Audrey Hepburn (born Audrey Kathleen Ruston; 4 May 1929 – 20 January 1993) was a British actress and humanitarian. Recognised as both a film and fashion icon, she was ranked by the American Film Institute The American Film Institute (AFI) ...

Audrey Hepburn
). Although Bogart was lukewarm about the part, he agreed to it on a handshake with Wilder without a finished script but with the director's assurance that he would take good care of Bogart during filming. The actor, however, got along poorly with his director and co-stars; he complained about the script's last-minute drafting and delivery, and accused Wilder of favoring Hepburn and Holden on and off the set. Wilder was the opposite of Bogart's ideal director (John Huston) in style and personality; Bogart complained to the press that Wilder was "overbearing" and "is [a] kind of Prussian German with a riding crop. He is the type of director I don't like to work with ... the picture is a crock of crap. I got sick and tired of who gets Sabrina." Wilder later said, "We parted as enemies but finally made up." Despite the acrimony, the film was successful; according to a review in ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'', Bogart was "incredibly adroit ... the skill with which this old rock-ribbed actor blends the gags and such duplicities with a manly manner of melting is one of the incalculable joys of the show". Joseph L. Mankiewicz's ''
The Barefoot Contessa ''The Barefoot Contessa'' is a 1954 American Drama (film and television), drama film written and directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz about the life and loves of fictional Spanish sex symbol Maria Vargas. It stars Humphrey Bogart, Ava Gardner, and E ...
'' (1954) was filmed in Rome. In this Hollywood backstory, Bogart is a broken-down man, a cynical director-narrator who saves his career by making a star of a flamenco dancer modeled on Rita Hayworth. He was uneasy with
Ava Gardner Ava Lavinia Gardner (December 24, 1922 – January 25, 1990) was an American actress and singer. She first signed a contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. (also known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures or MGM) is ...

Ava Gardner
in the female lead; she had just broken up with his Rat Pack buddy Frank Sinatra, and Bogart was annoyed by her inexperienced performance. The actor was generally praised as the film's strongest part. During filming and while Bacall was home, Bogart resumed his discreet affair with Verita Bouvaire-Thompson (his long-time studio assistant, whom he drank with and took sailing). When Bacall found them together, she extracted an expensive shopping spree from her husband; the three traveled together after the shooting. Bogart could be generous with actors, particularly those who were blacklisted, down on their luck or having personal problems. During the filming of the Edward Dmytryk-directed ''The Left Hand of God'' (1955), he noticed his co-star Gene Tierney having a hard time remembering her lines and behaving oddly; he coached her, feeding Tierney her lines. Familiar with mental illness because of his sister's bouts of depression, Bogart encouraged Tierney to seek treatment. He also stood behind Joan Bennett and insisted on her as his co-star in Michael Curtiz's ''We're No Angels (1955 film), We're No Angels'' (1955) when a scandal made her ''persona non grata'' with studio head Jack Warner. Bogart had already been diagnosed with terminal cancer when shooting ''The Harder They Fall'', a boxing drama with Rod Steiger in a supporting role. Steiger later mentioned Bogart's courage and geniality during his final performance:
"Bogey and I got on very well. Unlike some other stars, when they had closeups, you might have been relegated to a two-shot, or cut out altogether. Bogey didn't play those games. He was a professional and had tremendous authority. He'd come in exactly at 9am and leave at precisely 6pm. I remember once walking to lunch in between takes and seeing Bogey on the lot. I shouldn't have because his work was finished for the day. I asked him why he was still on the lot, and he said, 'They want to shoot some retakes of my closeups because my eyes are too watery'. A little while later, after the film, somebody came up to me with word of Bogey's death. Then it struck me. His eyes were watery because he was in pain with the cancer. I thought: 'How dumb can you be, Rodney'!"


Television and radio

Bogart rarely performed on television, but he and Bacall appeared on Edward R. Murrow's ''Person to Person'' and disagreed on the answer to every question. He also appeared on ''The Jack Benny Program, The Jack Benny Show'', where a surviving kinescope of the live telecast captures him in his only TV sketch-comedy performance (October 25, 1953). Bogart and Bacall worked on an early color telecast in 1955, an NBC adaptation of "
The Petrified Forest ''The Petrified Forest'' is a 1936 American film directed by Archie Mayo and based on Robert E. Sherwood's 1935 Broadway drama of the same name. The motion picture stars Leslie Howard (actor), Leslie Howard, Bette Davis and Humphrey Bogart. The ...
" for ''Producers' Showcase''. Bogart received Billing (performing arts), top billing, Henry Fonda played Leslie Howard's role and Bacall played
Bette Davis Ruth Elizabeth "Bette" Davis (April 5, 1908 – October 6, 1989) was an American actress with a career spanning more than 50 years and 100 acting credits. She was noted for playing unsympathetic, sardonic To be sardonic is to be disdainfully or c ...

Bette Davis
's part. Jack Klugman, Richard Jaeckel, and Jack Warden played supporting roles. In the late 1990s, Bacall donated the only known kinescope of the 1955 performance (in black and white) to the Museum Of Television & Radio (now the Paley Center for Media), where it remains archived for viewing in New York City and Los Angeles. It is now in the public domain. Bogart also performed radio adaptations of some of his best-known films, such as ''Casablanca'' and ''The Maltese Falcon'', and recorded a radio series entitled ''Bold Venture'' with Bacall.


Personal life


Children

Bogart became a father at age 49, when Bacall gave birth to Stephen Humphrey Bogart on January 6, 1949, during the filming of ''Tokyo Joe''. The name was taken from Steve, Bogart's character's nickname in ''To Have and Have Not''. Stephen became an author and biographer and hosted a television special about his father on Turner Classic Movies. The couple's daughter, Leslie Howard Bogart, was born on August 23, 1952. Her first and middle names honor Leslie Howard, Bogart's friend and co-star in ''The Petrified Forest''.


Rat Pack

Bogart was a founding member and the original leader of the Hollywood Rat Pack. In the spring of 1955, after a long party in Las Vegas Valley, Las Vegas attended by Frank Sinatra, Judy Garland, her husband Sidney Luft, Michael Romanoff and his wife Gloria,
David Niven James David Graham Niven (; 1 March 1910 – 29 July 1983) was a British actor, memoirist, and novelist. He won the Academy Award for Best Actor The Academy Award for Best Actor is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Pictu ...
, Angie Dickinson and others, Bacall surveyed the wreckage and said: "You look like a goddamn rat pack."Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 504. The name stuck and was made official at Romanoff's in Beverly Hills, California, Beverly Hills. Sinatra was dubbed pack president; Bacall den mother; Bogart (the actual leader) director of public relations, and Sid Luft acting cage manager.Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 430. Asked by columnist Earl Wilson (columnist), Earl Wilson what the group's purpose was, Bacall replied: "To drink a lot of bourbon and stay up late."


Illness and death

After signing a long-term deal with Warner Bros., Bogart predicted with glee that his teeth and hair would fall out before the contract ended. In 1955, however, his health was failing. In the wake of Santana, Bogart had formed a new company and had plans for a film (''John P. Marquand#Popular fiction, Melville Goodwin, U.S.A.'') in which he would play a general and Bacall a press magnate. His persistent cough and difficulty eating became too serious to ignore, though, and he dropped the project. A heavy smoker and drinker, Bogart had developed
esophageal cancer Esophageal cancer is cancer Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumor A benign tumor is a mass of cells Cell most ...
. He did not talk about his health and visited a doctor in January 1956 after considerable persuasion from Bacall. The disease worsened and several weeks later, on March 1, Bogart had surgery to remove his esophagus, two lymph nodes and a rib. The surgery was unsuccessful, and chemotherapy followed. He had additional surgery in November 1956, when the cancer had metastasized. Although he became too weak to walk up and down stairs, he joked despite the pain: "Put me in the dumbwaiter and I'll ride down to the first floor in style." It was then altered to accommodate his wheelchair. Sinatra, Katharine Hepburn, and Spencer Tracy visited him on January 13, 1957. In an interview, Hepburn said: Bogart lapsed into a coma and died the following day, 20 days after his 57th birthday; at the time of his death he weighed only . A simple funeral was held at All Saints Episcopal Church, with music by Bogart's favorite composers: Johann Sebastian Bach and Claude Debussy. In attendance were some of Hollywood's biggest stars, including Hepburn, Tracy, Judy Garland, David Niven, Ronald Reagan, James Mason,
Bette Davis Ruth Elizabeth "Bette" Davis (April 5, 1908 – October 6, 1989) was an American actress with a career spanning more than 50 years and 100 acting credits. She was noted for playing unsympathetic, sardonic To be sardonic is to be disdainfully or c ...

Bette Davis
, Danny Kaye, Joan Fontaine, Marlene Dietrich,
James Cagney James Francis Cagney Jr. (; July 17, 1899March 30, 1986) was an American actor and dancer. On stage and in film, Cagney was known for his consistently energetic performances, distinctive vocal style, and deadpan comic timing. He won acclaim and ...

James Cagney
, Errol Flynn,
Edward G. Robinson Edward G. Robinson (born Emanuel Goldenberg; ; December 12, 1893January 26, 1973) was a Romanian American, Romanian-born American actor of stage and screen during Classical Hollywood cinema, Hollywood's Golden Age. He appeared in 30 Broadway pla ...

Edward G. Robinson
, Gregory Peck, Gary Cooper, Billy Wilder, and studio head Jack L. Warner. Bacall asked Tracy to give the eulogy; he was too upset, however, and John Huston spoke instead: Bogart was cremated, and his ashes were interred in Forest Lawn Memorial Park (Glendale), Forest Lawn Memorial Park's Columbarium of Eternal Light in its Garden of Memory in Glendale, California. He was buried with a small, gold whistle that had been part of a charm bracelet he had given to Bacall before they married. On it was inscribed, "If you want anything, just whistle." This alluded to a scene in ''To Have and Have Not'' when Bacall's character says to Bogart shortly after their first meeting, "You know how to whistle, don't you, Steve? You just put your lips together and blow." Bogart's estate had a gross value of $910,146 and a net value of $737,668 ($ million and $ million, respectively, in ).


Awards and honors

On August 21, 1946, he recorded his hand- and footprints in cement in a ceremony at Grauman's Chinese Theatre. On February 8, 1960, Bogart was posthumously inducted into the Hollywood Walk of Fame with a List of actors with Hollywood Walk of Fame motion picture stars, motion-picture star at 6322 Hollywood Boulevard.


Legacy and tributes

After his death, a "Bogie cult" formed at the Brattle Theatre in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in Greenwich Village, and in France; this contributed to his increased popularity during the late 1950s and 1960s. In 1997, ''Entertainment Weekly'' magazine ranked Bogart the number-one movie legend of all time; two years later, the
American Film Institute The American Film Institute (AFI) is an American film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applyin ...
rated him the AFI's 100 Years...100 Stars, greatest male screen legend. Jean-Luc Godard's ''Breathless (1960 film), Breathless'' (1960) was the first film to pay tribute to Bogart. Over a decade later, in Woody Allen's comic paean ''Play It Again, Sam (film), Play It Again, Sam'' (1972), Bogart's ghost aids Allen's character: a film critic having difficulties with women who says that his "sex life has turned into the 'Petrified Forest. The United States Postal Service honored Bogart with a stamp in its "Legends of Hollywood" series in 1997, the third figure recognized. At a ceremony attended by Lauren Bacall and the Bogart children, Stephen and Leslie, USPS governing-board chair Tirso del Junco delivered a tribute:
"Today, we mark another chapter in the Bogart legacy. With an image that is small and yet as powerful as the ones he left in celluloid, we will begin today to bring his artistry, his power, his unique star quality, to the messages that travel the world."
On June 24, 2006, 103rd Street between Broadway and West End Avenue in New York City was renamed Humphrey Bogart Place. Lauren Bacall and her son, Stephen Bogart, attended the ceremony. "Bogie would never have believed it", she said to the assembled city officials and onlookers.


In popular culture

Bogart has inspired multiple artists. Two Bugs Bunny cartoons featured the actor: ''Slick Hare'' (1947) and ''8 Ball Bunny'' (1950, based on ''The Treasure of the Sierra Madre''). ''The Man with Bogart's Face'' (1981, starring Bogart lookalike Robert Sacchi) was an Homage (arts), homage to the actor.Null, Christopher
"The Man With Bogart's Face."
''filmcritic.com'', May 17, 2000. Retrieved: January 25, 2011.
The lyrics of Bertie Higgins' 1981 song, "Key Largo (song), Key Largo", refer to two of Bogart's films, ''Key Largo'' and ''Casablanca''.


Filmography


Notable radio appearances


See also

* Bogart–Bacall syndrome * List of actors with Academy Award nominations * List of amateur chess players * List of members of the American Legion


References


Bibliography

* Bacall, Lauren. ''By Myself''. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1979. . * Bogart, Stephen Humphrey. ''Bogart: In Search of My Father''. New York: Dutton, 1995. . * Citro, Joseph A., Mark Sceurman and Mark Moran.''Weird New England''. New York: Sterling, 2005. . * Fantle, David; Johnson, Tom (2009). Twenty Five Years of Celebrity Interviews from Vaudeville to Movies to TV, Reel to Real. Badger Books Inc. * Halliwell, Leslie. ''Halliwell's Film, Video and DVD Guide''. New York: Harper Collins Entertainment, 2004. . * Hepburn, Katharine. ''The Making of the African Queen''. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1987. . * Hill, Jonathan and Jonah Ruddy. ''Bogart: The Man and the Legend''. London: Mayflower-Dell, 1966. * ''History of the U.S.S. Leviathan, Cruiser and Transport Forces, United States Atlantic Fleet'', pp. 207–208. * ''Humphrey Bogart.'' ''Time (magazine), Time'', June 7, 1954. * Hyams, Joe. ''Bogart and Bacall: A Love Story''. New York: David McKay Co., Inc., 1975. . * Hyams, Joe. ''Bogie: The Biography of Humphrey Bogart''. New York: New American Library, 1966 (later editions renamed as: ''Bogie: The Definitive Biography of Humphrey Bogart''). . * Kanfer, Stefan. ''Tough Without A Gun: The Life and Extraordinary Afterlife of Humphrey Bogart.'' New York: Knopf, 2011. . * * Michael, Paul. ''Humphrey Bogart: The Man and his Films''. New York: Bonanza Books, 1965. No ISBN. * Porter, Darwin. ''The Secret Life of Humphrey Bogart: The Early Years (1899–1931)''. New York: Georgia Literary Association, 2003. . * Pym, John, ed. ''"Time Out" Film Guide''. London: Time Out Group Ltd., 2004. . * Santas, Constantine, ''The Essential Humphrey Bogart.'' Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2016. . * Shickel, Richard. ''Bogie: A Celebration of the Life and Films of Humphrey Bogart.'' New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin's Press, 2006. . * Sperber, A. M. and Eric Lax. ''Bogart''. New York: William Morrow & Co., 1997. . * Tierney, Gene with Mickey Herskowitz. ''Self-Portrait''. New York: Peter Wyden, 1979. . * Wallechinsky, David and Amy Wallace. ''The New Book of Lists''. Edinburgh, Scotland: Canongate, 2005. . * Wise, James. ''Stars in Blue: Movie Actors in America's Sea Services''. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1997. . * Youngkin, Stephen D. ''The Lost One: A Life of Peter Lorre''. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 2005, .


External links

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