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The Libyan House of Representatives (HoR) ( ar, مجلس النواب, translit=Majlis al-Nuwaab, translation=Council of Deputies) is the
legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with the Executive (government), executive and Judiciary, ...
of
Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībiyā), officially the State of Libya ( ar, دولة ليبيا, Dawlat Lībiyā), is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to Egypt–Libya border, th ...

Libya
resulting from the 2014 Libyan parliamentary election, which had an 18% turnout. In late 2014, following the failed coup attempt to take over the capital
Tripoli Tripoli (; ar, طرابلس, ; ber, ⵜⵔⵢⴱⵓⵍⵙ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals ...

Tripoli
in the context of the
Libyan Civil War Libyans (ليبيون) and their population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībīyā), officially the State of Lib ...
, the House of Representatives relocated itself to
Tobruk Tobruk or Tobruck ( grc, Αντίπυργος, Antipyrgus) (; ar, طبرق, Tubruq ''Ṭubruq''; also Transliteration, transliterated as ''Tobruch'' and ''Tubruk'') is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean coast, near th ...
in the far east of Libya. Several HoR sessions were held in Tripoli in May 2019 while Tripoli was under armed attack, electing an Interim Speaker for 45 days. Between 2014 and 2021, the House of Representatives supported the Tobruk-based government led by
Abdullah al-Thani Abdullah al-Thani ( ar, عبد الله الثني  Libyan Arabic, Libyan pronunciation: ) is a Libyan politician who became List of heads of government of Libya, prime minister of the House of Representatives (Libya), House of Representat ...

Abdullah al-Thani
before supporting the incumbent Government of National Unity led by
Abdul Hamid Dbeibeh Abdul Hamid Mohammed Dbeibeh or Dabaiba ( ar, عبد الحميد الدبيبة), born 1959, is a Libyan politician and businessman from the Western city of Misrata. On 5 February 2021, he was designated as the transitional prime minister of t ...
. In September 2021, the House of Representatives passed a
no-confidence motion A motion of no confidence, vote of no confidence, or no confidence motion, sometimes in the reverse as a motion of confidence or vote of confidence, is a statement or vote about whether a person in a position of responsibility (government, manager ...
against the interim
Government of National Unity#REDIRECT National unity government {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
led by
Abdul Hamid Dbeibeh Abdul Hamid Mohammed Dbeibeh or Dabaiba ( ar, عبد الحميد الدبيبة), born 1959, is a Libyan politician and businessman from the Western city of Misrata. On 5 February 2021, he was designated as the transitional prime minister of t ...
.


History


Formation

The Libyan House of Representatives officially became a legislative body on 4 August 2014, following an election on 25 June 2014, replacing the
General National Congress The General National Congress or General National Council (GNC; ar, المؤتمر الوطني العام, Berber language, Berber: Agraw Amuran Amatay) was the Legislature, legislative authority of Libya for two years following the end of the ...
. Turnout at the election was 18%, down from 60% in the first post-
Gaddafi Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi, Modern Standard . Due to the lack of standardization of transcribing written and regionally pronounced Arabic, Gaddafi's name has been romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Lin ...

Gaddafi
election of July 2012. Because of security concerns no voting took place in some locations. the
chairman The chairperson (also chair, chairman, or chairwoman) is the presiding officer of an organized group such as a board Board or Boards may refer to: Flat surface * Lumber, or other rigid material, milled or sawn flat ** Plank (wood) ** Cutting ...
was
Aguila Saleh Issa Aguila Saleh Issa ( ar, عقيلة صالح عيسى; born January 11, 1944) is a Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībīyā), officially the State of Libya, ( ar, دولة ليبيا, Dawlat Lībīyā) is a country in the Maghreb region in Nort ...
. the deputy presidents of the Council of Deputies were Imhemed Shaib and Ahmed Huma. , the HoR's associated executive authority is the
Second Al-Thani Cabinet The Second Cabinet of Abdullah Al-Thani was approved on 22 September 2014 by Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībīyā), officially the State of Libya, ( ar, دولة ليبيا, Dawlat Lībīyā) is a country in the Maghreb region in North Afr ...
, led by Prime Minister
Abdullah al-Thani Abdullah al-Thani ( ar, عبد الله الثني  Libyan Arabic, Libyan pronunciation: ) is a Libyan politician who became List of heads of government of Libya, prime minister of the House of Representatives (Libya), House of Representat ...

Abdullah al-Thani
, based in
Bayda, Libya Bayda, or Elbeida ( or ; ar, البيضاء ) (also spelt ''az-Zāwiyat al-Bayḍāʾ'', ''Zāwiyat al-Bayḑā’'', ''Beida'' and ''El Beida''; known as ''Beda Littoria'' under Italian Libya, Italian colonial rule), is a commercial and industr ...
. The Tripoli-based Libyan Supreme Constitutional Court ruled on 6 November 2014 that the June elections were unconstitutional and that the House of Representatives should be dissolved. The House of Representatives rejected the ruling, saying that the ruling was made "at gunpoint", with the court being controlled by armed militias. In late 2014, a rival parliament in Tripoli was restored, the
General National Congress The General National Congress or General National Council (GNC; ar, المؤتمر الوطني العام, Berber language, Berber: Agraw Amuran Amatay) was the Legislature, legislative authority of Libya for two years following the end of the ...
(GNC). The House of Representatives did not recognize the new GNC, and voted on 6 October 2015, 112 out of 131, "to extend its term beyond 20 October", given the inability to hold elections.


Shift to Tobruk

In late 2014, following the occupation of
Tripoli Tripoli (; ar, طرابلس, ; ber, ⵜⵔⵢⴱⵓⵍⵙ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals ...

Tripoli
by armed Islamist groups during the
Second Libyan Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Second Libyan Civil War , partof = the Arab Winter The Arab Winter is a term for the resurgence of authoritarianism Authoritarianism is a form of government A gov ...
, the House of Representatives relocated to
Tobruk Tobruk or Tobruck ( grc, Αντίπυργος, Antipyrgus) (; ar, طبرق, Tubruq ''Ṭubruq''; also Transliteration, transliterated as ''Tobruch'' and ''Tubruk'') is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean coast, near th ...
in the far east of the country. Since there was not enough housing for them, they initially hired a car ferry from a Greek shipping company, the '' Elyros'' of
ANEK Lines ANEK Lines (Ανώνυμη Ναυτιλιακή Εταιρεία Κρήτης, ''Anonymi Naftiliaki Eteria Kritis'', Anonymous Shipping Company of Crete) is one of the largest passenger shipping company in Greece. It was founded in 1967 by nume ...
, for members to live and meet in. Later the HoR relocated to the Dar al-Salam Hotel in Tobruk.


Skhirat agreement

In October 2015, the UN envoy for Libya, Bernardino León, announced a proposal for the House of Representatives to share power with the rival new GNC government, under a compromise prime minister,
Fayez al-Sarraj Fayez Mustafa al-Sarraj ( ar, فائز السراج or ; born 20 February 1960) is a Libyan politician, who served as the Chairman of the Presidential Council (Libya), Presidential Council of Libya and Prime Minister of Libya, prime minister of t ...
. However, the terms of the final proposal were not acceptable to either side, and both rejected it. Nonetheless, the proposal did spark a revised proposal put together by Fayez al-Sarraj and others, which was subsequently supported by the United Nations. On 17 December 2015 members of the House of Representatives and the new General National Congress signed this revised political agreement, generally known as the ''"Libyan Political Agreement"'' or the ''"Skhirat Agreement"''. Under the terms of the agreement, a nine-member Presidency Council and a seventeen-member interim
Government of National Accord The Government of National Accord ( ar, حكومة الوفاق الوطني) was an interim government for Libya that was formed under the terms of the Libyan Political Agreement, a United Nations–led initiative, signed on 17 December 2015. The ...
would have been formed, with a view to holding new elections within two years. The House of Representatives would have continued to exist as a legislature and an advisory body, to be known as the High Council of State, would have been formed with members nominated by the
New General National Congress The General National Congress or General National Council (GNC; ar, المؤتمر الوطني العام, Berber: Agraw Amuran Amatay) was the legislative authority of Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībīyā), officially the State of L ...
. On 31 December 2015, Chairman of the House of Representatives,
Aguila Saleh Issa Aguila Saleh Issa ( ar, عقيلة صالح عيسى; born January 11, 1944) is a Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībīyā), officially the State of Libya, ( ar, دولة ليبيا, Dawlat Lībīyā) is a country in the Maghreb region in Nort ...
declared his support for the Libyan Political Agreement. As of April 2016, the Libyan National Elections Commission was still considering its recommendations on legislation to implement the next election of the House of Representatives. A new round of talks that started in October 2017 in
Tunis Tunis ( ar, تونس ') is the and largest city of . The greater metropolitan area of Tunis, often referred to as "", has about 2,700,000 inhabitants. , it is the fourth-largest city in the region (after , and ) and the in the . Situated on ...

Tunis
broke down a month later without a deal. On 17 December 2017, general
Khalifa Haftar Field marshal (Libya), Field Marshal Khalifa Belqasim Haftar ( ar, خليفة بلقاسم حفتر, Ḵalīfa Bilqāsim Ḥaftar; born 7 November 1943) is a Libyan-American politician, military officer and the commander of the Tobruk-based Libyan ...
declared the "so-called" Skhirat agreement void.


2019 Tripoli meetings

Early in April 2019, during the 2019–20 Western Libya campaign, 31 members of the House of Representatives made a public statement supporting the attack on Tripoli and 49 members made a public statement opposing the attack. On 2 May, 51 members of the HoR held a session at the Rixos al-Nasr Hotel. They stated that their session was not intended to split up the HoR nor Libya and called other members of the HoR to attend another Tripoli session planned for 5 May. They opposed the use of military force, called for a political solution to the offensive, and called for the Presidential Council, in its role as the head of the Libyan armed forces, to appoint a new head of the army to replace
Khalifa Haftar Field marshal (Libya), Field Marshal Khalifa Belqasim Haftar ( ar, خليفة بلقاسم حفتر, Ḵalīfa Bilqāsim Ḥaftar; born 7 November 1943) is a Libyan-American politician, military officer and the commander of the Tobruk-based Libyan ...
, who had been appointed by the HoR on 2 March 2015. On 5 May, a Tripoli session of 47 members of the House of Representatives elected al-Sadiq al-Kehili as Interim Speaker, Musaab al-Abed as a rapporteur and Hammuda Siala as a spokesperson, for a period of 45 days, with 27 votes in favour. In the , al-Kehili was elected with 1596 votes in electorate 56,
Tajura Tajura ( ar, تاجوراء, translit=Tājūrā), also spelt ''Tajoura'', is a town in north-western Libya, and baladiyah in the Tripoli Muhafazah, on the Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean coast east of Tripoli. From 2001 to 2007 Tajura was ...
; Musaab al-Abed (Musab Abulgasim) was elected with 2566 votes in electorate 59, Hay al-Andalus; and Sayala (Siyala) was elected with 6023 votes in electorate 58, Tripoli Central. On 8 May, another session was held in Tripoli, creating an Internal Code Review committee, to review HoR decisions made since 2014, under Article 16 of the Skhirat Agreement; an International Communication committee; a Secretarial Office; and a Crisis committee, to "follow" the work of the emergency committee created by the Presidential Council in relation to the 2019 Western Libya offensive. Sayala stated in a televised interview that solving the crisis in Libya would require a political agreement in which the HoR is "restored" as the highest legislative authority in Libya.


Disappearances

On 17 July 2019, one of the Benghazi members of the House of Representatives, Seham Sergewa, well-known for her documentation of rape as a weapon of war during the
2011 Libyan Civil War The First Libyan Civil War was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and ...
, was detained by the
Libyan National Army This article is about Libyans (ليبيون) and their population density, Ethnic group, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, and religious affiliations, as well as other aspects of the Libyan population. No compl ...

Libyan National Army
(LNA). , her location was unknown.


Government of National Unity

On 10 March 2021, the House of Representatives met in the central city of
Sirte Sirte (; ar, سِرْت, ), also spelled ''Sirt'', ''Surt'', ''Sert'' or ''Syrte'', is a city in Libya. It is located south of the Gulf of Sirte, between Tripoli and Benghazi. It is famously known for its battles, Demographics of Libya, ethni ...

Sirte
to formally approve the formation of a
Government of National Unity#REDIRECT National unity government {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
led by
Mohamed al-Menfi Mohamed Yunus al-Menfi ( ar, محمد يونس المنفي; born 1976) is a Libyan diplomat and politician from Tobruk. On 5 February 2021, he was chosen as the president of the Libyan Presidential Council at the Libyan Political Dialogue For ...
as chairman of the Presidential Council and
Abdul Hamid Dbeibeh Abdul Hamid Mohammed Dbeibeh or Dabaiba ( ar, عبد الحميد الدبيبة), born 1959, is a Libyan politician and businessman from the Western city of Misrata. On 5 February 2021, he was designated as the transitional prime minister of t ...
as Prime Minister. 121 members of the House voted to approve the formation of the unity government. The Government of National Unity seeks to unify the rival
Government of National Accord The Government of National Accord ( ar, حكومة الوفاق الوطني) was an interim government for Libya that was formed under the terms of the Libyan Political Agreement, a United Nations–led initiative, signed on 17 December 2015. The ...
based in
Tripoli Tripoli (; ar, طرابلس, ; ber, ⵜⵔⵢⴱⵓⵍⵙ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals ...

Tripoli
and the
Second Al-Thani Cabinet The Second Cabinet of Abdullah Al-Thani was approved on 22 September 2014 by Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībīyā), officially the State of Libya, ( ar, دولة ليبيا, Dawlat Lībīyā) is a country in the Maghreb region in North Afr ...
based in
Tobruk Tobruk or Tobruck ( grc, Αντίπυργος, Antipyrgus) (; ar, طبرق, Tubruq ''Ṭubruq''; also Transliteration, transliterated as ''Tobruch'' and ''Tubruk'') is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean coast, near th ...
.


See also

*
High Council of State (Libya) The High Council of State, ( ar, المجلس الأعلى للدولة, ''al majlis al'aelaa lildawla''), is an advisory body for Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībīyā), officially the State of Libya, ( ar, دولة ليبيا, Dawlat L ...
*
Libyan Civil War (2014–2020) {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Second Libyan Civil War , partof = the Arab Winter, and the Libyan Crisis (2011–present), Libyan Crisis , image = Libyan Civil War.svg , image_size = 400px , ca ...
*
Libyan Crisis (2011–present) The Libyan Crisis refers to the current humanitarian crisis and political-military instability occurring in Libya, beginning with the Arab Spring protests of 2011, which led to a Libyan Civil War (2011), civil war, 2011 military intervention in L ...
* 2014 Libyan parliamentary election


References


External links


Official websiteOfficial Facebook page
{{National unicameral legislatures Politics of Libya Political organizations based in Libya
Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībiyā), officially the State of Libya ( ar, دولة ليبيا, Dawlat Lībiyā), is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to Egypt–Libya border, th ...
Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībiyā), officially the State of Libya ( ar, دولة ليبيا, Dawlat Lībiyā), is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to Egypt–Libya border, th ...
2014 establishments in Libya