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Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak, (4 May 1928 – 25 February 2020) was an Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth
president of Egypt The president of Egypt is the executive head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's perso ...
from 1981 to 2011. Before he entered politics, Mubarak was a career officer in the
Egyptian Air Force The Egyptian Air Force (EAF) ( ar, القوات الجوية المصرية, El Qūwāt El Gawīyä El Maṣrīya), is the Air force, aviation branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces, is responsible for all airborne defence missions and operates all ...
. He served as its commander from 1972 to 1975 and rose to the rank of air chief marshal in 1973. In 1975, he was appointed vice president by President
Anwar Sadat Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat, (25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was an Egyptian politician who served as the third President of Egypt, from 15 October 1970 until his assassination Assassination is the act of murder, deliberately kill ...

Anwar Sadat
and assumed the presidency after his
assassination Assassination is the act of murder, deliberately killing a prominent or important person, such as heads of state, head of government, heads of government, politicians, Monarchy, royalty, celebrity, celebrities, journalists, or CEOs. An assassin ...
in 1981. Mubarak's presidency lasted almost thirty years, making him Egypt's longest-serving ruler since
Muhammad Ali Pasha Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha, also known as Muhammad Ali of Egypt and the Sudan ( ota, محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; ar, محمد علي باشا, ; sq, Mehmet Ali Pasha; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849), was th ...
, who ruled the country for 43 years from 1805 to 1848. Before he stepped down, Mubarak was also the fourth-longest serving
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
leader, after Libyan leader
Muammar Gaddafi Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi, Modern Standard . Due to the lack of standardization of transcribing written and regionally pronounced Arabic, Gaddafi's name has been romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics L ...
, Sultan
Qaboos Bin Said Qaboos bin Said Al Said ( ar, قابوس بن سعيد آل سعيد, ; 18 November 1940 – 10 January 2020) was the Sultan of Oman from 23 July 1970 until his death in 2020. A fifteenth-generation descendant of the founder of the House of Al ...
of
Oman Oman ( ; ar, عُمَان ' ), officially the Sultanate of Oman ( ar, سلْطنةُ عُمان ), is a country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. Formerly a maritime empire, Oman is the oldest continuously in ...

Oman
, and Yemeni President
Ali Abdullah Saleh Ali Abdullah Saleh (, ''ʿAlī ʿAbdullāh Ṣāliḥ''; 21 March 1947There is a dispute as to Saleh's date of birth, some saying that it was on 21 March 1942. See: . However, by Saleh's own confession, he was born in 1947 although there is no s ...

Ali Abdullah Saleh
. He assumed the presidency after a
referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct Direct may refer to: Mathematics * Directed set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number th ...
, and renewed his term through referendums in
1987 Events January * January 2 – Chadian–Libyan conflict – Battle of Fada: The Military of Chad, Chadian army destroys a Libyan armoured brigade. * January 3 – Aretha Franklin becomes the first woman inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall o ...
,
1993 1993 was designated as: * International Year for the World's Indigenous People The year 1993 in the Kwajalein Atoll Kwajalein Atoll (; Marshallese: ) is part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands The Marshall Islands, officiall ...
, and
1999 1999 was designated as the International Year of Older PersonsIn its Proclamation on Aging, the United Nations General Assembly decided to declare 1999 as the International Year of Older Persons. The proclamation was launched on 1 October 1 ...
. Under United States pressure, Mubarak held the country's first multi-party election in
2005 2005 was designated as the International Year for Sport and Physical Education and the International Year of MicrocreditImage:YOmicrocredit2005.jpg, right International Year of Microcredit is a special event of the United Nations which took pl ...
and Mubarak renewed his term for the fourth time by winning it. In 1989, he succeeded in reinstating Egypt’s membership in the
Arab League The Arab League ( ar, الجامعة العربية, '), formally the League of Arab States ( ar, جامعة الدول العربية, '), is a regional organization in the Arab world, which is located in Africa and Western Asia. The Arab L ...

Arab League
, which had been frozen since the
Camp David Accords The Camp David Accords were a pair of political agreements signed by President of Egypt, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Prime Minister of Israel, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on 17 September 1978, following twelve days of secret ne ...
with Israel and returning the Arab League's headquarters back to Cairo. He was known for his supportive stance on the
Israeli–Palestinian peace process The Israeli–Palestinian peace process refers to the intermittent discussions held by various parties and proposals put forward in an attempt to resolve the ongoing Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Since the 1970s, there has been a parallel eff ...
, in addition to his role in the
Gulf War The Gulf War was a war waged by coalition forces The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more people, factions, states, political parties, militaries etc. agree to work together temporarily in a partnership t ...
. Despite providing stability and reasons for economic growth, his rule was repressive. The
state of emergency A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to be able to put through policies that it would normally not be permitted to do, for the safety and protection of its citizens. A government can declare such a state duri ...
, which had not been lifted since the 1967 war, stifled
political opposition Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The branch of social science that stu ...
, the security services became known for their brutality, and corruption spread. Mubarak stepped down during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 after 18 days of demonstrations. On 11 February 2011, former Vice President
Omar Suleiman Omar Mahmoud Suleiman ( ar, عمر محمود سليمان, ; 2 July 1936 – 19 July 2012) was an Egyptian army general, politician, diplomat, and intelligence officer. A leading figure in Egypt's intelligence system beginning in 1986, Sul ...
announced that Mubarak and he had resigned as president and vice president respectively and transferred authority to the
Supreme Council of the Armed Forces The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF; ar, المجلس الأعلى للقوات المسلحة, ', also Higher Council of the Armed Forces and National Defence Council) is a statutory body of between 20 and 25 senior Egyptian military ...
. On 13 April 2011, a prosecutor ordered Mubarak and both of his sons ( and ) to be detained for 15 days of questioning about allegations of corruption and abuse of power. Mubarak was then ordered to stand trial on charges of negligence for failing to halt the killing of peaceful protesters during the revolution. These trials began on 3 August 2011, making him the first Arab leader to be tried in his own country in an ordinary court of law. On 2 June 2012, an Egyptian court sentenced Mubarak to life imprisonment. After sentencing, he was reported to have suffered a series of health crises. On 13 January 2013, Egypt's
Court of Cassation A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of justice in Civil law (common law), civil, Cr ...

Court of Cassation
(the nation's high court of appeal) overturned Mubarak's sentence and ordered a retrial. On retrial, Mubarak and his sons were convicted on 9 May 2015 of corruption and given prison sentences. Mubarak was detained in a military hospital while his sons were freed on 12 October 2015 by a
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
court. He was acquitted on 2 March 2017 by the Court of Cassation and was released on 24 March 2017. Mubarak died on 25 February 2020, aged 91. He received a military burial at a family plot outside Cairo.


Early life and Air Force career

Hosni Mubarak was born on 4 May 1928 in Kafr El-Meselha,
Monufia Governorate Monufia Governorate ( ar, محافظة المنوفية ' ) is one of the governorates of Egypt. It is located in the northern part of the country in the Nile Delta, to the south of Gharbia Governorate and to the north of Cairo. The governorat ...
, Egypt. On 2 February 1949, he left the Military Academy and joined the
Air Force Academy An air force academy or air academy is a national institution that provides initial officer training, possibly including undergraduate level education, to air force officer cadets who are preparing to be commissioned officers in a national air forc ...
, gaining his commission as a pilot officer on 13 March 1950 and eventually receiving a bachelor's degree in aviation sciences. Mubarak served as an
Egyptian Air Force The Egyptian Air Force (EAF) ( ar, القوات الجوية المصرية, El Qūwāt El Gawīyä El Maṣrīya), is the Air force, aviation branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces, is responsible for all airborne defence missions and operates all ...
officer in various formations and units; he spent two years in a
Spitfire The Supermarine Spitfire is a British single-seat fighter aircraft Fighter aircraft are fixed-wing A fixed-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air flying machine, such as an airplane An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) ...

Spitfire
squadron. Some time in the 1950s, he returned to the Air Force Academy as an instructor, remaining there until early 1959. From February 1959 to June 1961, Mubarak undertook further training in the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
, attending a Soviet pilot training school in
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
and another at
Kant Air Base Kant Air Base (russian: Авиабаза Кант ''Aviabaza Kant'') is a military air base in Ysyk-Ata District of Chuy Oblast in Kyrgyzstan. It is located just south of Kant, Kyrgyzstan, Kant, around 20 km east of Bishkek. History In 1941 ...

Kant Air Base
near
Bishkek Bishkek ( ky, Бишкек, Bişkek, بىشکەک, ), formerly Pishpek and Frunze (russian: Фрунзе), is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic). Bishkek is also the administrative centre of the Chuy Regi ...

Bishkek
in the
Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic Kirghizia, officially the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic (Kirghiz SSR; ky, Кыргыз Советтик Социалисттик Республикасы ''Qırğız Sovettik Socialisttik Respublikası''; russian: Киргизская Сов ...
. Mubarak undertook training on the
Ilyushin Il-28 The Ilyushin Il-28 (russian: Илью́шин Ил-28; NATO reporting name: Beagle) is a jet bomber A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry (such as bombs), launching aeria ...

Ilyushin Il-28
and
Tupolev Tu-16 The Tupolev Tu-16 (NATO reporting name: Badger) was a twinjet, twin-engined jet strategic heavy bomber used by the Soviet Union. It has flown for more than 60 years, and the Chinese licence-built Xian H-6 remains in service with the People's Libe ...

Tupolev Tu-16
jet bombers. In 1964 he gained a place at the
Frunze Military Academy The M. V. Frunze Military Academy (russian: Военная академия имени М. В. Фрунзе), or in full the Military Order of Lenin and the October Revolution, Red Banner, Order of Suvorov Academy in the name of M. V. Frunze (rus ...
in Moscow. On his return to Egypt, he served as a wing commander, then as a base commander; he commanded the Cairo West Air Base in October 1966 then briefly commanded the
Beni Suef Beni Suef ( ar, بني سويف ') is the capital city of the Beni Suef Governorate Beni Suef ( ar, محافظة بني سويف ') is one of the governorates of Egypt For administrative purposes, Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), offi ...
Air Base. In November 1967, Mubarak became the Air Force Academy's commander when he was credited with doubling the number of Air Force pilots and navigators during the pre- October War years. Two years later, he became Chief of Staff for the Egyptian Air Force. In 1972, Mubarak became Commander of the Air Force and Egyptian Deputy Minister of Defense. On 6 October 1973, at the breakout of the
Yom Kippur War The Yom Kippur War, also known as the Ramadan War, the October War, the 1973 Arab–Israeli War or the Fourth Arab–Israeli War, was an armed conflict fought from 6 to 25 October 1973 between Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵ ...
, the Egyptian Air Force launched a surprise attack on Israeli soldiers on the east bank of the Suez Canal. Egyptian pilots hit 90% of their targets, making Mubarak a national hero.CNN Library
Hosni Mubarak Fast Facts
31 May 2014
The next year he was promoted to Air Chief Marshal in recognition of service during the October War of 1973 against Israel. Mubarak was credited in some publications for Egypt's initial strong performance in the war. The Egyptian analyst
Mohamed Hassanein Heikal Mohamed Hassanein Heikal ( ar, محمد حسنين هيكل‎; 23 September 1923 – 17 February 2016) was an Egyptian journalist. For 17 years (1957–1974), he was editor-in-chief of the Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, ...

Mohamed Hassanein Heikal
said the Air Force played a mostly psychological role in the war, providing an inspirational sight for the Egyptian ground troops who carried out the crossing of the Suez Canal, rather than for any military necessity. However Mubarak's influence was also disputed by Shahdan El-Shazli, the daughter of the former Egyptian military Chief of Staff Saad el-Shazly. She said Mubarak exaggerated his role in the 1973 war. In an interview with the Egyptian independent newspaper Almasry Alyoum (26 February 2011), El-Shazli said Mubarak altered documents to take credit from her father for the initial success of the Egyptian forces in 1973. She also said photographs pertaining to the discussions in the military command room were altered and Saad El-Shazli was erased and replaced with Mubarak. She stated she intended to take legal action.


Vice President of Egypt

In April 1975, President
Anwar Sadat Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat, (25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was an Egyptian politician who served as the third President of Egypt, from 15 October 1970 until his assassination Assassination is the act of murder, deliberately kill ...

Anwar Sadat
appointed Mubarak Vice President of Egypt. In this position, he took part in government consultations that dealt with the future disengagement of forces agreement with Israel. In September 1975, Mubarak went on a mission to
Riyadh Riyadh ( ar, الرياض, 'ar-Riyāḍ, Literal translation, lit.: 'The Gardens' Najdi Arabic, Najdi pronunciation: ) is the capital of Saudi Arabia and the largest city on the Arabian Peninsula. Located in the center of the An Nafud, an-Naf ...

Riyadh
and
Damascus )), is an adjective which means "spacious". , motto = , image_flag = Flag of Damascus.svg , image_seal = Emblem of Damascus.svg , seal_type = Seal , m ...

Damascus
to persuade the Saudi Arabian and Syrian governments to accept the disengagement agreement signed with the Israeli government ("Sinai II"), but was refused a meeting by the Syrian President
Hafez Al-Assad Hafez al-Assad ', , (6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and military officer who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000. He was also Prime Minister of Syria from 1970 to 1971, as well as regional secretary o ...
. During his meetings with the Saudi government, Mubarak developed a friendship with the nation's powerful Crown Prince Fahd, whom Sadat had refused to meet or contact and who was now seen as a major player who could help mend the failing relationship between Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Mubarak also developed friendships with several other important Arab leaders, including Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud, Oman's
Sultan Qaboos Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun ', meaning "authority" or "power" (cognate with ...
, Morocco's
King Hassan II of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg, Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen re ...

King Hassan II
, and Sudan's President
Jaafar Nimeiry Jaafar Muhammad an-Nimeiry (otherwise spelled in English as Jaafar Nimeiry, Jaafar Nimeiry or Ja'far Muhammad Numayri; ar, جعفر محمد النميري; 26 April 192830 May 2009) was a Sudanese politician who served as the President of Sud ...
. Sadat also sent Mubarak to numerous meetings with foreign leaders outside the Arab world. Mubarak's political significance as Vice President can be seen from a conversation held on 23 June 1975 between Foreign Minister Fahmy and US Ambassador
Hermann Eilts Hermann Frederick Eilts (March 23, 1922 – October 12, 2006) was a United States Foreign Service Officer and diplomat. He served as an American ambassador An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat who represent ...
. Fahmy told Eilts that "Mubarak is, for the time being at least, likely to be a regular participant in all sensitive meetings" and he advised the ambassador not to antagonize Mubarak because he was Sadat's personal choice. Though supportive of Sadat's earlier efforts made to bring the
Sinai Peninsula The Sinai Peninsula, or simply Sinai (now usually ) (, ), is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other ...

Sinai Peninsula
back into Egyptian control, Mubarak agreed with the views of various Arab leaders and opposed the
Camp David Accords The Camp David Accords were a pair of political agreements signed by President of Egypt, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Prime Minister of Israel, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on 17 September 1978, following twelve days of secret ne ...
for failing to address other issues relating to the
Arab–Israeli conflict The Arab–Israeli conflict includes the political tension, military conflicts and disputes between Arab League, Arab countries and Israel, which escalated during the 20th century, but had mostly faded out in the early 21st century. The roots o ...
. Sadat even transferred his decision-making authority to Mubarak temporarily at times he went on vacations.


President of Egypt

Mubarak was injured during the assassination of President Sadat in October 1981 by soldiers led by Lieutenant
Khalid Islambouli Khalid Ahmed Showky El Islambouli ( ar, خالد أحمد شوقي الإسلامبولي, ) (15 January 1955 – 15 April 1982) was an Egyptian army officer who planned and participated in the assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, duri ...
. Following Sadat's death, Mubarak became the fourth president of Egypt.


Egypt's return to the Arab League

Until suspension from the
Arab League The Arab League ( ar, الجامعة العربية, '), formally the League of Arab States ( ar, جامعة الدول العربية, '), is a regional organization in the Arab world, which is located in Africa and Western Asia. The Arab L ...

Arab League
at the beginning of the
Libyan Civil War Libyans (ليبيون) and their population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībīyā), officially the State of Lib ...

Libyan Civil War
, Egypt was the only state in the history of the organization to have had its membership suspended, because of President Sadat's peace treaty with Israel. In June 1982, Mubarak met King
Fahd of Saudi Arabia Fahd bin Abdulaziz Al Saud ( ar, فهد بن عبد العزيز آل سعود ''Fahd ibn ʿAbd al ʿAzīz Āl Suʿūd''; 1921 or 1923 – 1 August 2005) was a Saudi Arabian politician who was King of Saudi Arabia The king of Saudi Arabia ...
, which marked a beginning of an Egyptian-Saudi rapprochement. Since Egypt is the most populous Arab country and Saudi Arabia the richest, the Saudi–Egyptian axis was a powerful force in the Arab world. At an Arab League summit later in 1982 in Fez, Saudi Arabia put forward an Egyptian peace plan where in exchange for Israel resolving the
Israeli–Palestinian conflict The Israeli–Palestinian conflict is one of the world's most enduring conflicts, with the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip reaching years of conflict. Various attempts have been made to resolve the conflict as part of th ...
by allowing a
Palestinian state Palestine ( ar, فلسطين, Filasṭīn), recognized officially as the State of Palestine ( ar, دولة فلسطين, Dawlat Filasṭīn) by the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims ...
, the entire Arab world would make peace with Israel. The Islamic Republic of Iran had, from 1979 onward, been making the claim to be the leader of the Islamic world, and in particular
Ayatollah Khomeini Sayyid Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini ( , ; fa, سید روح‌الله موسوی خمینی ; 17 May 1900 3 June 1989), also known in the Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nation ...
had called for the overthrow of the governments of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and other Arab states along the southern shores of the Persian Gulf, calling these states illegitimate. The claim of the Ayatollah Khomeini to be the rightful leader of the Islamic world and his attempts to export the Iranian revolution by working to overthrow governments that Khomeini deemed un-Islamic caused profound alarm and fear in the governments that were targeted like Iraq and Saudi Arabia. In the face of the Iranian challenge, the other Arab states looked towards Egypt as an ally. For King Fahd of Saudi Arabia and the other leaders of the Arab Gulf states, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict faded into the background and the main concern was resisting Iranian pretensions to be the leader of the Islamic world, meaning that Egypt could not be ignored. During the
Iran–Iraq War The Iran–Iraq War), whereas Western sources use that name to refer to the conflict between the American-led coalition and Iraq in 1991., name=, group= ( fa, جنگ ایران و عراق; ar, الحرب الإيرانية العراقية) ...
from 1980 to 1988, Egypt supported Iraq militarily and economically with one million Egyptians working in Iraq to take the place of Iraqi men serving on the front-line. In December 1983, Mubarak welcomed
Yasser Arafat Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini ( , ; ar, محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات القدوة الحسيني; 4 / 24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yass ...

Yasser Arafat
of the PLO to a summit in Cairo, marking a rapprochement with the PLO, and from that time, Egypt became the PLO's main ally. In 1985, the ''Achille Lauro'' hijacking caused a major crisis in relations when the U.S Air Force forced an EgyptAir plane carrying the ''Achille Lauro'' hijackers to
Tunisia ) , image_map = Tunisia location (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = Location of Tunisia in northern Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous , after in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11. ...

Tunisia
to land in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
; otherwise the plane would have been shot down. Mubarak stated in a press conference on 12 October 1985: "I am very wounded. Now there is coolness and strain as a result of this incident." Egypt had been ostracized by the other Arab states for signing the Camp David Accords in 1979, but Egypt's weight within the Arab world had led to Egypt regaining its "central place in the Arab world" by 1989. In 1989, Egypt was re-admitted as a full member to the Arab League and the League's headquarters were moved to their original location in
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
.


Governing style

Throughout the 1980s, Mubarak increased the production of affordable housing, clothing, furniture, and medicine. By the time he became President, Mubarak was one of a few Egyptian officials who refused to visit Israel and vowed to take a less enthusiastic approach to normalizing relations with the Israeli government. Under Mubarak, Israeli journalists often wrote about the "cold peace" with Egypt, observing Israeli–Egyptian relations were frosty at best. Mubarak was quick to deny that his policies would result in difficulties for Egyptian–Israeli dealings in the future. The Israeli historian Major
Efraim Karsh Efraim Karsh ( he, אפרים קארש; born 1953) is an Israeli–British historian, the founding director and emeritus professor of Middle East and Mediterranean Studies at King's College London. Since 2013, he serves as professor of Political S ...
wrote in 2006 that in Egypt "...numberless articles, scholarly writings, books, cartoons, public statements, and radio and television programs, Jews are painted in the blackest terms imaginable". Karsh accused Mubarak of being personally antisemitic, writing he "evidently shared the premises" of his propaganda. Egypt's heavy dependence on US aid and its hopes for US pressure on Israel for a Palestinian settlement continued under Mubarak. He quietly improved relations with the former Soviet Union. In 1987, Mubarak won an election to a second six-year term. In his early years in power, Mubarak expanded the Egyptian
State Security Investigations Service The State Security Investigations Service ( arz, مباحث أمن الدولة ) was the highest national internal security authority in Egypt. Estimated to employ 100,000 personnel, the SSI was the main security and intelligence apparatus of Egy ...
(''Mabahith Amn ad-Dawla'') and the
Central Security Forces The General Security and Central Security Forces ( ar, قوات الأمن العام و الأمن المركزي ''Quwwāt al-Amn al- Amm wa Quwwāt al-Amn al-Markazī'', often shortened to ''Al-Amn al-Markazī'') is an Egyptian paramilitary fo ...
(anti-riot and containment forces). According to Tarek Osman, the experience of seeing his predecessor assassinated "right in front of him" and his lengthy military careerwhich was longer than those of Nasser or Sadatmay have instilled in him more focus and absorption with security than seemed the case with the latter heads of state. Mubarak sought advice and confidence not in leading ministers, senior advisers or leading intellectuals, but from his security chiefs—"interior ministers, army commanders, and the heads of the ultra-influential intelligence services." All through the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, violations of human rights by the security services in Egypt were described as "systematic" by Amnesty International. In 2007, Amnesty International reported that the Egyptian police routinely engaged in "beatings, electric shocks, prolonged suspension by the wrists and ankles in contorted positions, death threats and sexual abuse". The state remained large under Mubarak employing 8 million people out of a population of 75 million. Because of his positions against
Islamic fundamentalism Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who are of the view that Muslim majority countries should return to the fundamentals of an Islamic state, which truly show the essence of the system of Islam, in terms of its socio-p ...
and his diplomacy towards Israel, Mubarak was the target of repeated assassination attempts. According to the BBC, Mubarak survived six attempts on his life. In June 1995, there was an alleged assassination attempt involving noxious gases and
Egyptian Islamic Jihad The Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ, ar, الجهاد الإسلامي المصري), formerly called simply Islamic Jihad ( ar, الجهاد الإسلامي and "Liberation Army for Holy Sites"), originally referred to as al-Jihad, and then the Jih ...
while Mubarak was in Ethiopia for a conference of the
Organization of African Unity An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which ha ...
. He was also reportedly injured by a knife-wielding assailant in
Port Said Port Said ( ar, بورسعيد, Būrsaʿīd, ) is a city that lies in north east Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more ...

Port Said
in September 1999.


Gulf War of 1991

Egypt was a member of the allied coalition during the 1991
Gulf War The Gulf War was a war waged by coalition forces The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more people, factions, states, political parties, militaries etc. agree to work together temporarily in a partnership t ...
; Egyptian infantry were some of the first to land in Saudi Arabia to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait. Egypt's participation in the war solidified its central role in the Arab World and brought financial benefits for the Egyptian government. Reports of sums of up to worth of debt forgiveness were published in the news media. According to ''
The Economist ''The Economist'' is an international weekly newspaper A weekly newspaper is a general-news or current affairsCurrent affairs may refer to: Media * Current Affairs (magazine), ''Current Affairs'' (magazine), a bimonthly magazine of cult ...
'':
The programme worked like a charm: a textbook case, says the nternational Monetary Fund In fact, luck was on Hosni Mubarak's side; when the US was hunting for a military alliance to force Iraq out of Kuwait, Egypt's president joined without hesitation. After the war, his reward was that America, the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, and Europe forgave Egypt around $20 billion of debt.


Stance on the invasion of Iraq in 2003

President Mubarak spoke out against the
2003 invasion of Iraq The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the Second Gulf War or the Third Gulf War by those who consider the Iran–Iraq War the first Gulf War. The war was also called the ...
, arguing that the
Israeli–Palestinian conflict The Israeli–Palestinian conflict is one of the world's most enduring conflicts, with the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip reaching years of conflict. Various attempts have been made to resolve the conflict as part of th ...
should have been resolved first. He also said the war would cause "100 ". However, as President he did not support an immediate US withdrawal from Iraq because he believed it would probably lead to chaos.


2005 elections

President Mubarak was re-elected by majority votes in a referendum for successive terms on four occasions in 1987, 1993, and 1999. Each time, Mubarak secured his position by having himself nominated by Parliament then confirmed without opposition in a referendum. The September 2005 ballot was a multiple-candidate election rather than a referendum, but the electoral institutions and security apparatus remain under the control of the President. On 28 July 2005, Mubarak announced his candidacy. The election was scheduled for 7 September 2005; according to civil organizations that observed the election it was marred by mass rigging activities. In a move widely seen as political persecution,
Ayman Nour Ayman Abd El Aziz Nour ( arz, أيمن عبد العزيز نور, ; born 5 December 1964) is an Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a ...

Ayman Nour
, a dissident and candidate for the
El-Ghad Party The el-Ghad Party ( ar, حزب الغد ', ; "The Tomorrow Party") is an active political party in Egypt that was granted license in October 2004. El-Ghad is a centrist Liberalism, liberal secular political party pressing for widening the scope ...
("Tomorrow party") was convicted of forgery and sentenced to five years' hard labor on 24 December 2005.


State corruption during Mubarak's presidency

While in office, political corruption in the Mubarak administration's Ministry of the Interior rose dramatically. Political figures and young activists were imprisoned without trial. Illegal, undocumented, hidden detention facilities were established, and universities, mosques, and newspaper staff were rejected because of their political views. In 2005
Freedom House Freedom House is a U.S.-based, U.S. government-funded non-profit non-governmental organization File:Europe in a suitcase - UK.jpg, upright=1.3, alt=A roomful of people, Europe-Georgia Institute head George Melashvili addresses the audience a ...
, a non-governmental organization that conducts research into democracy, reported that the Egyptian government under Mubarak expanded bureaucratic regulations, registration requirements, and other controls that often feed corruption. Freedom House said, "corruption remained a significant problem under Mubarak, who promised to do much, but in fact never did anything significant to tackle it effectively". In 2010,
Transparency International Transparency International e.V. (TI) is a German Registered association (Germany), registered association founded in 1993 by former employees of the World Bank. Based in Berlin, its Nonprofit organization, nonprofit and non-governmental purpose i ...
's
Corruption Perceptions Index The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is an index which ranks countries "by their perceived levels of public sector The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public service A public s ...
report assessed Egypt with a CPI score of 3.1, based on perceptions of the degree of corruption from business people and country analysts, with 10 being very clean and 0 being highly corrupt. Egypt ranked 98th out of the 178 countries included in the report.


Wealth and allegations of personal corruption

In February 2011,
ABC News ABC News is the news News is information Information is processed, organised and structured data. It provides context for data and enables decision making process. For example, a single customer’s sale at a restaurant is data ...
reported that experts believed the personal wealth of Mubarak and his family was between and from military contracts made during his time as an air force officer. ''
The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers ''The Observer ''The Observer'' is a British newspaper published on Sun ...

The Guardian
'' reported that Mubarak and his family might be worth up to garnered from corruption,
bribes Bribery is defined by ''Black's Law Dictionary ''Black's Law Dictionary'' is the most widely used law dictionary Image:Legal Dictionaries.jpg, 300px, Several English and Russian legal dictionaries A law dictionary (also known as legal dictionary) ...

bribes
and legitimate business activities. The money was said to be spread out in various bank accounts, including some in Switzerland and the UK, and invested in foreign property. The newspaper said some of the information about the family's wealth might be ten years old. According to ''
Newsweek ''Newsweek'' is an American weekly news magazine A news magazine is a typed, printed, and published , radio or , usually published weekly, consisting of articles about current events. News magazines generally discuss stories, in greater de ...
'', these allegations are poorly substantiated and lack credibility. On 12 February 2011, the government of Switzerland announced it was freezing the Swiss bank accounts of Mubarak and his family. On 20 February 2011, the Egyptian Prosecutor General ordered the freezing of Mubarak's assets and those of his wife Suzanne, his sons Alaa and Gamal Mubarak, and his daughters-in-law Heidi Rasekh and Khadiga Gamal. The Prosecutor General also ordered the Egyptian Foreign Minister to communicate this to other countries where Mubarak and his family could have assets. This order came two days after Egyptian newspapers reported that Mubarak filed his financial statement. Egyptian regulations mandate government officials submit a financial statement listing their assets and sources of income while performing government work. On 21 February 2011, the Egyptian Military Council, which was temporarily given the presidential authorities following 25 January 2011 Revolution, said it had no objection to a trial of Mubarak on charges of corruption. On 23 February 2011, the Egyptian newspaper ''Eldostor'' reported that a "knowledgeable source" described the order of the Prosecutor General to freeze Mubarak's assets and the threats of a legal action as nothing but a signal for Mubarak to leave Egypt after a number of attempts were made to encourage him to leave willingly. In February 2011,
Voice of America Voice of America (VOA) is an American international broadcaster. It is the largest and oldest U.S.-funded international broadcaster. VOA produces digital, TV, and radio content in 47 languages which it distributes to affiliate stations around ...

Voice of America
reported that Egypt's top prosecutor had ordered a travel ban and an asset freeze for Mubarak and his family as he considered further action. On 21 May 2014 a Cairo court convicted Mubarak and his sons of embezzling the equivalent of of state funds which were allocated for renovation and maintenance of presidential palaces but were instead diverted to upgrade private family homes. The court ordered the repayment of , fined the trio , and sentenced Mubarak to three years in prison and each of his sons to four years.


Presidential succession

In 2009, US Ambassador Margaret Scobey said, "despite incessant whispered discussions, no one in Egypt has any certainty about who will eventually succeed Mubarak nor under what circumstances." She said presidential son
Gamal Mubarak Gamal Al Din Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak ( ar, جمال الدين محمد حسنى سيد مبارك, ; born 27 December 1963) is the younger of the two sons of former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and former First Lady Suzanne Mubarak. ...

Gamal Mubarak
was the most likely successor; some thought intelligence chief
Omar Suleiman Omar Mahmoud Suleiman ( ar, عمر محمود سليمان, ; 2 July 1936 – 19 July 2012) was an Egyptian army general, politician, diplomat, and intelligence officer. A leading figure in Egypt's intelligence system beginning in 1986, Sul ...
might seek the office, or Arab League Secretary-General
Amr Moussa Amr Moussa ( ar, عمرو موسى, , Amr Muhammad Moussa; born 3 October 1936) is an Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on mor ...

Amr Moussa
might stand. President Mubarak and his son denied this; they said "a multi-candidate electoral system introduced in 2005 has made the political process more transparent". ''
Nigerian Tribune The ''Nigerian Tribune'' is an English-language newspaper published in Ibadan in Nigeria. It was established in 1949 by Obafemi Awolowo and is the oldest surviving private Nigerian newspaper. In the colonial era, the newspaper served as the mout ...
'' journalist Abiodun Awolaja described a possible succession by Gamal Mubarak as a "hereditary pseudo-monarchy." The National Democratic Party of Egypt continued to state that Hosni Mubarak was to be the party's only candidate in the 2011 Presidential Election. Mubarak said on 1 February 2011 that he had no intention of standing in the 2011 presidential election. When this declaration failed to ease the protests, Mubarak's vice president stated that Gamal Mubarak would not run for president. With the escalation of the demonstration and the fall of Mubarak, Hamdy El-Sayed, a former influential figure in the National Democratic Party, said Gamal Mubarak intended to usurp the presidency, assisted by then Interior Minister, Habib El-Adly.


Israeli–Palestinian conflict

During his presidency, Mubarak upheld the U.S.-brokered
Camp David Accords The Camp David Accords were a pair of political agreements signed by President of Egypt, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Prime Minister of Israel, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on 17 September 1978, following twelve days of secret ne ...
treaty signed between Egypt and Israel in 1978. Mubarak, on occasion also hosted meetings relating to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and made a number of attempts to serve as a broker between them. Mubarak was concerned that Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson did not trust him on the issue and considered meeting him in New York. In October 2000, Mubarak hosted an emergency summit meeting at
Sharm el-Sheikh Sharm el-Sheikh ( ar, شرم الشيخ, ) is an Egyptian city on the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in South Sinai Governorate, on the coastal strip along the Red Sea. Its population is approximately 73,000 . Sharm El Sheikh is the administ ...
to discuss the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. In attendance were: U.S. President
Bill Clinton William Jefferson Clinton ('' né'' Blythe III; born August 19, 1946) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 42nd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and ...

Bill Clinton
, P.L.O. Chairman
Yasser Arafat Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini ( , ; ar, محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات القدوة الحسيني; 4 / 24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yass ...

Yasser Arafat
, Israeli Prime Minister
Ehud Barak Ehud Barak ( he-a, אֵהוּד בָּרָק, Ehud_barak.ogg, link=yes, born Ehud Brog; 12 February 1942) is an Israeli general and politician who served as the tenth prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet ...

Ehud Barak
, King Abdullah of Jordan, NATO Sec. General
Javier Solana Francisco Javier Solana de Madariaga (; born 14 July 1942) is a Spanish physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method ...
, and U.N. Sec. General
Kofi Annan Kofi Atta Annan (; 8 April 193818 August 2018) was a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations The secretary-general of the United Nations (UNSG or SG) is the chief administrative officer of the Uni ...

Kofi Annan
. Mubarak was involved in the
Arab League The Arab League ( ar, الجامعة العربية, '), formally the League of Arab States ( ar, جامعة الدول العربية, '), is a regional organization in the Arab world, which is located in Africa and Western Asia. The Arab L ...

Arab League
, supporting Arab efforts to achieve a lasting peace in the region. At the Beirut Summit on 28 March 2002, the league adopted the
Arab Peace Initiative The Arab Peace Initiative ( ar, مبادرة السلام العربية; ), also known as the Saudi Initiative (; ), is a 10 sentence proposal for an end to the Arab–Israeli conflict The Arab–Israeli conflict includes the political t ...
, a Saudi-inspired plan to end the
Arab–Israeli conflict The Arab–Israeli conflict includes the political tension, military conflicts and disputes between Arab League, Arab countries and Israel, which escalated during the 20th century, but had mostly faded out in the early 21st century. The roots o ...
. In 2006, Mubarak condemned the Israeli military attack in Lebanon, but also indirectly criticised
Hezbollah Hezbollah (; ar, حزب الله ', literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God", also transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive ...
for harming Arab interests. In June 2007, Mubarak held a summit meeting at Sharm el-Sheik with King
Abdullah II of Jordan Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein ( ar, عبدالله الثاني بن الحسين, ''ʻAbd Allāh ath-thani bin Al-Husayn'', born 30 January 1962) is King of Jordan The King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is Jordan's head of state ...
, President
Mahmoud Abbas Mahmoud Abbas ( ar, مَحْمُود عَبَّاس, Maḥmūd ʿAbbās; born 15 November 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen ( ar, أَبُو مَازِن, links=no, ), is the president of the State of Palestine and Palestinian National ...

Mahmoud Abbas
and Prime Minister
Ehud Olmert Ehud Olmert (; he, אֶהוּד אוֹלְמֶרְט, ; born 30 September 1945) is an Israeli politician and lawyer. He served as the 12th Prime Minister of Israel from 2006 to 2009 and before that as a cabinet minister from 1988 to 1992 and ...

Ehud Olmert
. On 19 June 2008, the Egypt-brokered pause in hostilities between Israel and Hamas went into effect. According to ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'', neither side fully respected the terms of the ceasefire. The agreement required Hamas to end rocket attacks on Israel and to enforce the ceasefire throughout
Gaza Gaza may refer to: Places Palestine * Gaza Strip, a Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea ** Gaza City, a city in the Gaza Strip ** Gaza Governorate, a governorate in the Gaza Strip United States * Gaza, Iowa, an ...
. In exchange, Hamas expected the
blockade A blockade is an effort to cut off Contraband, supplies, Materiel, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally. A blockade is not an embargo or International sanctions, sanctions, which are legal b ...
to end, commerce in Gaza to resume, and truck shipments to be restored to 2005 levels. Israel tied an easing of the blockade to a reduction in rocket fire and gradually re-opened supply lines and permitted around 90 daily truck shipments to enter Gaza. Hamas criticized Israel for its continued blockade while Israel accused Hamas of continued weapons smuggling via tunnels to Egypt and pointed to continued rocket attacks. In 2009, Mubarak's government banned the Cairo Anti-war Conference, which had criticised his lack of action against Israel.


Revolution and overthrow

Protests against Mubarak and his regime erupted in Cairo and other Egyptian cities in January 2011. On 1 February, Mubarak announced he would not contest the
presidential election A presidential election is the election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple individuals to hold Public administration, public office. Elections have been the usual m ...
due in September. He also promised constitutional reform. This did not satisfy most protesters, who expected Mubarak to depart immediately. The demonstrations continued and on 2 February, violent clashes occurred between pro-Mubarak and anti-Mubarak protesters. On 10 February, contrary to rumours, Mubarak said he would not resign until the September election, though he would be delegating responsibilities to Vice President
Omar Suleiman Omar Mahmoud Suleiman ( ar, عمر محمود سليمان, ; 2 July 1936 – 19 July 2012) was an Egyptian army general, politician, diplomat, and intelligence officer. A leading figure in Egypt's intelligence system beginning in 1986, Sul ...
. The next day, Suleiman announced that Mubarak had resigned. The announcement sparked cheers, flag-waving, and celebrations from protesters in Egypt. Discussions about the nation's future direction began. It had been suggested that Egypt be put in the hands of a
caretaker government A caretaker government is a temporary ''ad hoc Ad hoc is a Latin phrase __NOTOC__ This is a list of Wikipedia articles of Latin phrases and their translation into English. To view all phrases on a single, lengthy document, see: * List of Lati ...
.


Protests

On 25 January 2011, protests against Mubarak and his government erupted in Cairo and around Egypt calling for Mubarak's resignation.'Egyptians celebrate a moment in history
. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
Mubarak stated in a speech that he would not leave, and would die on Egyptian soil. Opposition leader
Mohamed ElBaradei Mohamed Mustafa ElBaradei ( ar, محمد مصطفى البرادعي, Muḥammad Muṣṭafá al-Barādaʿī, ; born 17 June 1942) is an Egyptian law scholar and Foreign relations of Egypt, diplomat who served as the vice president of Egypt on an ...

Mohamed ElBaradei
paid no attention to Mubarak's remarks and labeled it as a trick designed to help Mubarak to stay in power.BBC on Mubarak
Retrieved 12 February 2011.
In a state televised broadcast on 1 February 2011, Mubarak announced that he would not seek re-election in September but would like to finish his current term and promised constitutional reform. This compromise was not acceptable for the protestors and violent demonstrations occurred in front of the Presidential Palace. On 11 February, then Vice President
Omar Suleiman Omar Mahmoud Suleiman ( ar, عمر محمود سليمان, ; 2 July 1936 – 19 July 2012) was an Egyptian army general, politician, diplomat, and intelligence officer. A leading figure in Egypt's intelligence system beginning in 1986, Sul ...
announced Mubarak had resigned and that power would be turned over to the
Egyptian military The Egyptian Armed Forces are the state military organisation responsible for the defense of Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the North Africa, northeast corne ...
. Two and a half hours after Mubarak's resignation, an Egyptian military member came on air and thanked Mubarak for "putting the interests of the country first." The statement, which said "The Supreme Council is currently studying the situation," did not state what the council would do next.


Post-resignation

Mubarak made no media appearances after his resignation. Except for his family and a close circle of aides, he reportedly refused to talk to anyoneeven his supporters. His health was speculated to be rapidly deteriorating; some reports said he was in a coma. Most sources said he was no longer interested in performing any duties and wanted to "die in Sharm El-Sheikh". On 28 February 2011, the General Prosecutor of Egypt issued an order prohibiting Mubarak and his family from leaving Egypt. It was reported that Mubarak was in contact with his lawyer in case of possible criminal charges against him. As a result, Mubarak and his family were placed under house arrest at a presidential palace in the Red Sea resort of Sharm el-Sheikh. On 13 April 2011, a prosecutor originally appointed by Mubarak ordered the former president and both his sons to be detained for 15 days of questioning about allegations of corruption and abuse of power amid growing suspicion that the Egyptian military was more aligned with the Mubaraks than with the revolution. Gamal and Alaa were jailed in
Tora Prison Tora Prison ( arz, سجن طره '; ) is an Egyptian prison complex for criminal and political detainees, located in Tora, Egypt. The complex is situated in front of the Tora El Balad metro Metro, short for metropolitan, may refer to: Geogra ...
; state television reported that Mubarak was in police custody in a hospital near his residence following a heart attack. Former Israeli Cabinet minister Benjamin Ben Eliezer told Israeli Radio that he had offered Mubarak refuge in the southern Israeli city of
Eilat Eilat ( , ; he, אֵילַת ; ar, إِيلَات, Īlāt) is Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינ ...

Eilat
. On 11 May 2013, he told '' El-Watan'' in his first media appearance since his resignation said, "History will judge and I am still certain that the coming generations will view me fairly." He added that President Mohammed Morsi faced a tough time and that it was too early to judge him.


Trial

On 24 May 2011, Mubarak was ordered to stand trial on charges of premeditated murder of peaceful protesters during the revolution and, if convicted, could face the death penalty. The decision to try Mubarak was made days before a scheduled protest in Tahrir Square. The full list of charges released by the public prosecutor was "intentional murder, attempted killing of some demonstrators ... misuse of influence, deliberately wasting public funds and unlawfully making private financial gains and profits". On 28 May, a Cairo administrative court found Mubarak guilty of damaging the national economy during the protests by shutting down the Internet and telephone services. He was fined LE200 millionabout which the court ordered he must pay from his personal assets. This was the first court ruling against Mubarak, who would next have to answer to the murder charges. The trial of Hosni Mubarak, his sons Ala'a and Gamal, former interior minister Habib el-Adly and six former top police officials began on 3 August 2011 at a temporary criminal court at the Police Academy in north Cairo. They were charged with corruption and the premeditated killing of peaceful protesters during the mass movement to oust the Mubarak government, the latter of which carries the death penalty. The trial was broadcast on Egyptian television; Mubarak made an unexpected appearancehis first since his resignation. He was taken into the court on a hospital bed and held in a cage for the session. Upon hearing the charges against him, Mubarak pleaded not guilty. Judge Ahmed Refaat adjourned the court, ruling that Mubarak be transferred under continued arrest to the military hospital on the outskirts of Cairo. The second court session scheduled for 15 August. On 15 August, the resumed trial lasted three hours. At the end of the session, Rifaat announced that the third session would take place on 5 September and that the remainder of the proceedings would be off-limits to television cameras. The trial resumed in December 2011 and lasted until January 2012. The defense strategy was that Mubarak never actually resigned, was still president, and thus had Sovereign immunity, immunity. On 2 June 2012, Mubarak was found guilty of not halting the killing of protesters by the Egyptian security forces; he was sentenced to life imprisonment. The court found Mubarak not guilty of ordering the crackdown on Egyptian protesters. All other charges against Mubarak, including profiteering and economic fraud, were dismissed. Mubarak's sons, Habib el-Adly, and six senior police officials were all acquitted for their roles in the killing of demonstrators because of a lack of evidence. According to ''
The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers ''The Observer ''The Observer'' is a British newspaper published on Sun ...

The Guardian
'', the relatives of those killed by Mubarak's forces were angered by the verdict. Thousands of demonstrators protested the verdict in Tahrir Square, Arbein Square and Al-Qaed Ibrahim Square. In January 2013, an appeals court overturned Mubarak's life sentence and ordered a retrial. He remained in custody and returned to court on 11 May 2013 for a retrial on charges of complicity in the murder of protesters. On 21 August 2013, a Cairo court ordered his release. Judicial sources confirmed that the court had upheld a petition from Mubarak's longtime lawyer that called for his release. A day later, interim prime minister Hazem El Beblawi ordered that Mubarak be put under house arrest. On 21 May 2014, while awaiting retrial, Mubarak and his sons were convicted on charges of embezzlement; Mubarak was sentenced to three years in prison, while his sons received four-year sentences. The three were fined the equivalent of , and were ordered to repay . In November 2014, conspiracy to kill charges were dismissed by the Cairo Criminal Court on a technicality. The court also cleared Mubarak of corruption charges. On 13 January 2015, Egypt's Court of Cassation overturned Mubarak's and his sons' embezzlement charges, the last remaining conviction against him, and ordered a retrial. A retrial on the corruption charges led to a conviction and sentencing to three years in prison in May 2015 for Mubarak, with four-year terms for his sons, and . It was not immediately clear whether the sentence would take into account time already served – Mubarak and his sons have already spent more than three years in prison, so potentially will not have to serve any additional time. Supporters of Mubarak jeered the decision when it was announced in a
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
courtroom on 9 May. The sentence also included a 125 million Egyptian pound (US$16.3 million) fine, and required the return of 21 million embezzled Egyptian pounds (US$2.7 million). These amounts were previously paid after the first trial.


Support for Sisi

Though mostly out of the public eye, Mubarak granted a rare interview in February 2014 with Kuwaiti journalist Fajer Al-Saeed, expressing support for then-Minister of Defense and Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces Abdel Fattah el-Sisi as the next President of Egypt, recognizing that Sisi was working to restore the confidence of the Egyptian people. "The people want Sisi, and the people's will shall prevail," Mubarak noted. Mubarak also expressed great admiration and gratitude towards the late Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan of the United Arab Emirates and his children, for their continuous support of Egypt and its people. However, Mubarak expressed his dislike of opposition politician Hamdeen Sabbahi, a Nasserist following the policies of Gamal Abdel Nasser.


Health problems

In July 2010, the media said Egypt was about to undergo dramatic change because Mubarak was thought to have cancer and because of the scheduled 2011 Egyptian presidential election, 2011 presidential election. Intelligence sources said he had esophageal cancer, stomach or pancreatic cancer; this was denied by Egyptian authorities. Speculation about his ill health increased after his resignation from the presidency. According to Egyptian media, Mubarak's condition worsened after he went into exile in Sharm el-Sheikh. He was reportedly depressed, refused to take medications, and was slipping in and out of consciousness. According to the sourcean unnamed Egyptian security official"Mubarak wants to be left alone and die in his homeland". The source denied that Mubarak was writing his memoirs, stating that he was almost completely unconscious. After his resignation, Egypt's ambassador to the United States Sameh Shoukry reported that his personal sources said Mubarak "is possibly in somewhat of bad health", while several Egyptian and Saudi Arabian newspapers reported that Mubarak was in a coma and close to death. On 12 April 2011, it was reported that he had been hospitalized after suffering a heart attack during questioning over possible corruption charges. In June 2011, Mubarak's lawyer Farid el-Deeb said his client "has stomach cancer, and the cancer is growing". Mubarak had undergone surgery for the condition in Germany in 2010 and also suffered from circulatory problems with an irregular heart beat. On 13 July 2011, unconfirmed reports stated that Mubarak had slipped into a coma at his residence after giving his final speech, and on 17 July, el-Deeb confirmed the reports. On 26 July 2011, Mubarak was reported to be depressed and refusing solid food while in hospital being treated for a heart condition and in custody awaiting trial. On 2 June 2012, Mubarak was reported as have suffered a health crisis while being transported to prison after his conviction on the charges of complicity in the killing of protestors. Some sources reported he had had a heart attack. Further reports stated that Mubarak's health continued to decline; some said he had to be treated with a defibrillator. On 20 June 2012, as Mubarak's condition continued to decline, state-run media erroneously reported that the former president had been declared "clinically dead", causing widespread confusion. Officials later clarified that Mubarak was in a critical condition. On 27 December 2012, Mubarak was taken from
Tora Prison Tora Prison ( arz, سجن طره '; ) is an Egyptian prison complex for criminal and political detainees, located in Tora, Egypt. The complex is situated in front of the Tora El Balad metro Metro, short for metropolitan, may refer to: Geogra ...
to the Cairo military hospital after falling and breaking a rib. He was released from prison in August 2013. On 19 June 2014, Mubarak slipped in the bathroom at the military hospital in
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
where he was being held and broke his left leg, also fracturing his left thighbone, requiring surgery. Mubarak was serving a three-year sentence for corruption, and also awaiting retrial regarding the killing of protesters during his regime. At one time, his release was ordered. However, Mubarak had remained at the military hospital since January 2014 due to his ongoing health issues.


Acquittal

On 2 March 2017, the
Court of Cassation A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of justice in Civil law (common law), civil, Cr ...

Court of Cassation
, Egypt's top appeals court, acquitted Mubarak of conspiring in the killing of protesters during the 2011 uprising. He was subsequently released on 24 March 2017.


Personal life

Hosni Mubarak was married to Suzanne Mubarak and together they had two sons: and . Both sons served four years in Egyptian jail for corruption and were released in 2015. Through his son Alaa, Mubarak has two grandsons, Mohammed and Omar; and through his son Gamal, he has a granddaughter Farida. Mohammed died in 2009 from a cerebral hemorrhage. In April 2016, Alaa Mubarak was named in the Panama Papers as someone with financial interests that intersect with that of Mossack Fonseca, the firm implicated in that scandal. Hosni Mubarak died on 25 February 2020, in a Cairo military hospital, at the age of 91.


Awards


National

*: ** Grand Cordon of the Order of the Republic (Egypt), Order of the Republic ** Grand Cordon of the Order of the Nile, 1st class ** Recipient of the Order of the Sinai Star ** Order of Honor Star, Honor Star Medal, twice ** Military Training Medal


Foreign honours

*: ** Knight of the Family Order of Laila Utama *: ** Grand Cross of the Order of Stara Planina, Order of the Balkan Mountains *: ** Grand Officer of the Order of Recognition *: ** Grand Officer of the National Order of the Leopard (Zaire) *: ** Knight of the Order of the Elephant *: ** Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour *: ** Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany *: ** Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer *: ** Jawaharlal Nehru Award *: ** Recipient of the Star of the Republic of Indonesia, 1st class *: ** Recipient of the Order of Zolfaghar, 1st class ** Hamayon Merit from Emperor Muhammad Reza Pahlavi, Iran *: ** Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic *: ** Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum *: ** Recipient of the Order of the Golden Eagle *: ** Collar of the Order of Mubarak the Great *: ** Grand Cross of the National Order of Mali *: ** Grand Cross of the Order of the Aztec Eagle *: ** Member First Class of the Order of the Star of Nepal *: ** Grand Cross of the National Order *: ** Recipient of the Order of the National Flag, 1st class *: ** Recipient of the Order of Oman, 1st class (civil) ** Recipient of the Civil Order of Oman *: ** Honor Star Medal from the PLO *: ** Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland *: ** Grand Collar of the Order of Infante Dom Henrique *: ** Recipient of the Order of King Abdulaziz, 1st class ** Recipient of the Order of King Abdulaziz, 2nd class ** Excellent Degree from King Faisal Bin Abdul-Aziz, King Faisal *: ** Grand Officer of the Order of Good Hope *: ** Knight of the Collar of Order of Isabella the Catholic *: ** Recipient of the Order of Honour *: ** Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim *: ** Member First Class of the Order of the Umayyads ** Syrian_Armed_Forces#Awards_and_decorations#Military Honor Medal, Military Honor Medal Knight Rank from the President of Syria *: ** Recipient of the Order of the Republic (Tunisia), Order of the Republic ** Recipient of the Order of 7th November 1987 *: ** First Class of the Order of the State of Republic of Turkey *: ** Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George


References


External links

* at the official Egyptian government site
Air Marshal Hosni Mubarak
at the official Egyptian Air Force site * * * * * *
Hosni Mubarak: The Last Pharaoh
, slideshow by ''Life'' magazine
European Parliament Resolution on Egypt's Human Rights Situation
16 January 2008 , - , - , - , - , - , - , - , - {{DEFAULTSORT:Mubarak, Hosni 1928 births 2020 deaths 20th-century presidents of Egypt 20th-century prime ministers of Egypt 21st-century presidents of Egypt Candidates in the 2005 Egyptian presidential election Egyptian Air Academy alumni Egyptian Air Force air marshals Egyptian Military Academy alumni Egyptian people of the Yom Kippur War Egyptian politicians convicted of crimes Egyptian prisoners sentenced to life imprisonment Egyptian Sunni Muslims Frunze Military Academy alumni Heads of government who were later imprisoned Honorary Knights Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George Grand Crosses Special Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany Collars of the Order of Isabella the Catholic Grand Croix of the Légion d'honneur Knights Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic Grand Crosses of the National Order of Mali Recipients of the Order of the Star of Nepal Grand Crosses of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland Grand Collars of the Order of Prince Henry Mubarak family, Hosni National Democratic Party (Egypt) politicians People convicted of attempted murder People from Monufia Governorate People of the Egyptian revolution of 2011 Presidents of Egypt Prime Ministers of Egypt Prisoners sentenced to life imprisonment by Egypt Secretaries-General of the Non-Aligned Movement Vice-presidents of Egypt Recipients of the Order of the Sinai Star