In algebraic topology, a branch of mathematics, a homotopy sphere is an ''n''-manifold that is homotopy equivalent to the ''n''-sphere. It thus has the same homotopy groups and the same homology groups as the ''n''-sphere, and so every homotopy sphere is necessarily a homology sphere. The topological generalized Poincaré conjecture is that any ''n''-dimensional homotopy sphere is homeomorphic to the ''n''-sphere; it was solved by Stephen Smale in dimensions five and higher, by Michael Freedman in dimension 4, and for dimension 3 (the original Poincaré conjecture) by Grigori Perelman in 2005. The resolution of the smooth Poincaré conjecture in dimensions 5 and larger implies that homotopy spheres in those dimensions are precisely exotic spheres. It is still an open question () whether or not there are non-trivial smooth homotopy spheres in dimension 4.


* A. Kosinski, ''Differential Manifolds.'' Academic Press 1993.

See also

*Homology sphere *Homotopy groups of spheres *Poincaré conjecture Category:Homotopy theory Category:Topological spaces {{topology-stub