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The history of the papacy, the office held by the
pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

pope
as head of the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics Catholic Church by country, worldwide . As the wo ...

Catholic Church
, spans from the time of
Peter Peter may refer to: People * List of people named Peter {{expand list, date=August 2020 Peter is a common name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing ...

Peter
to the present day. Moreover, many of the bishops of Rome in the first three centuries of the Christian era are obscure figures. Most of Peter's successors in the first three centuries following his life suffered martyrdom along with members of their flock in periods of persecution. During the
Early Church The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religio ...
, the bishops of Rome enjoyed no temporal power until the time of Constantine. After the
Fall of the Western Roman Empire The fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called the fall of the Roman Empire or the fall of Rome) was the loss of central political control in the Western Roman Empire, a process in which the Empire failed to enforce its rule, and its vast ...
(the "
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
", about 476), the papacy was influenced by the temporal rulers of the surrounding
Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regi ...
; these periods are known as the
Ostrogothic Papacy The Ostrogothic Papacy was a period from 493 to 537 where the papacy was strongly influenced by the Ostrogothic Kingdom, if the pope was not papal appointment, outright appointed by the Ostrogothic King. The selection and administration of popes dur ...
,
Byzantine Papacy The Byzantine Papacy was a period of Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, wh ...
, and
Frankish Papacy From 756 to 857, the papacy shifted from the orbit of the Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiqu ...
. Over time, the papacy consolidated its territorial claims to a portion of the peninsula known as the
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
. Thereafter, the role of neighboring sovereigns was replaced by powerful Roman families during the ''
saeculum obscurum ''Saeculum obscurum'' (, "the dark age/century"), was a period in the history of the Papacy during the first two-thirds of the 10th century, beginning with the installation of Pope Sergius III Pope Sergius III (c. 860 − 14 April 911) was th ...
'', the
Crescentii The Crescentii clan (in modern Italian Crescenzi) — if they were an extended family — essentially ruled Rome and papal appointment, controlled the Papacy from 965 until the nearly simultaneous deaths of their puppet pope Sergius IV and the ''p ...
era, and the
Tusculan Papacy The Tusculan Papacy was a period of papal history from 1012 to 1048 where three successive relatives of the counts of Tusculum The counts of Tusculum Tusculum is a ruined Classical Rome, Roman city in the Alban Hills, in the Latium region of Ita ...
. From 1048 to 1257, the papacy experienced increasing conflict with the leaders and churches of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
and the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
(Eastern Roman Empire). Conflict with the latter culminated in the
East–West Schism The East–West Schism (also known as the Great Schism or Schism of 1054) was the break of communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also called the Holy Communion or Lord's Supper), the Christian rite involving the eatin ...
, dividing the Western Church and
Eastern Church Eastern Christianity comprises Christian traditions and church families that originally developed during classical and late antiquity in Western Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia. It is entirely a part ...
. From 1257–1377, the pope, though the bishop of Rome, resided in
Viterbo Viterbo (; Viterbese: ; lat-med, Viterbium) is an ancient city and '' comune'' in the Lazio region of central Italy, the capital of the province of Viterbo. It conquered and absorbed the neighboring town of Ferento (see Ferentium) in its ea ...
,
Orvieto Orvieto () is a city and ''comune'' in the Province of Terni, southwestern Umbria, Italy situated on the flat summit of a large butte of volcanic tuff. The city rises dramatically above the almost-vertical faces of tuff cliffs that are comple ...
, and
Perugia Perugia (, , ; lat, Perusia) is the capital city of Umbria it, Umbro (man) it, Umbra (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes ...
, and lastly
Avignon Avignon (, ; ; oc, Avinhon, label= Provençal or , ; la, Avenio) is the prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. L ...
. The return of the popes to Rome after the Avignon Papacy was followed by the
Western Schism The Western Schism, also known as the Papal Schism, the Vatican Standoff, the Great Occidental Schism, or the Schism of 1378 (), was a split within the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is ...
: the division of the western church between two and, for a time, three competing papal claimants. The
Renaissance Papacy The Renaissance Papacy was a period of papal history between the Western Schism The Western Schism, also called Papal Schism, The Vatican Standoff, Great Occidental Schism and Schism of 1378 (), was a split within the Catholic Church ...
is known for its artistic and architectural patronage, forays into European power politics, and theological challenges to papal authority. After the start of the
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abra ...
, the
Reformation Papacy with his cardinal-nephew A cardinal-nephew ( la, cardinalis nepos; it, cardinale nipote; es, valido de su tío; pt, cardeal-sobrinho; french: prince de fortune)Signorotto and Visceglia, 2002, p. 114. Modern French scholarly literature uses th ...
and Baroque Papacy led the Catholic Church through the
Counter-Reformation The Counter-Reformation (), also called the Catholic Reformation () or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic Church, Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revol ...
. The popes during the Age of Revolution witnessed the largest expropriation of wealth in the church's history, during the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
and those that followed throughout Europe. The
Roman Question The Roman Question ( it, Questione romana; la, Quaestio Romana) was a dispute regarding the temporal power of the pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Rom ...
, arising from
Italian unification The unification of Italy ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the ''Risorgimento'' (, ; meaning "Resurgence"), was the 19th-century political and social movement that resulted in the Merger (politics), consolidation of List of historic stat ...

Italian unification
, resulted in the loss of the Papal States and the creation of
Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Città del Vaticano; la, Status Civitatis Vaticanae),—' * german: Vatikanstadt, cf. '—' (in Austria: ') * pl, Miasto Watykańskie, cf. '—' * pt, Cidade do Vatica ...

Vatican City
.


During the Roman Empire (until 493)


Early Christianity

Roman-Catholics recognize the pope as both the successor to
Peter Peter may refer to: People * List of people named Peter {{expand list, date=August 2020 Peter is a common name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing ...

Peter
Kirsch, Johann Peter
"St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles."
The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 21 Jul. 2014
and the first bishop of Rome. Official declarations of the church speak of the popes as holding within the college of the bishops a position analogous to that held by Peter within the "college" of the
Apostles upright=1.35, Jesus and his Twelve Apostles, Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Catacombs of Domitilla">Chi_Rho.html" ;"title="fresco with the Chi Rho">Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Catacombs of Domitilla, Rome In Christian theology and ecclesiology, apostles, parti ...
, namely
Prince of the Apostles The primacy of Peter, also known as Petrine primacy (from Latin: ''Petrus'', "Peter"), is the position of preeminence that is attributed to Saint Peter Saint Peter; he, שמעון בר יונה, Šimʿōn bar Yōnāh; ar, سِمعَان بُ ...
, of which the college of the Bishops, a distinct entity, is viewed by some to be the successor.
Pope Clement I Pope Clement I ( la, Clemens Romanus; Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is app ...

Pope Clement I
, the earliest of the Church Fathers, is identified with Clement of
Philippians The Epistle to the Philippians, commonly referred to as Philippians, is a Pauline epistle of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second di ...
4:3. His letter to the Corinthians is the "first known example of the exercise and acceptance" of the ecclesiastical authority of the papacy. Written while
John the Apostle John the Apostle ( arc, ܝܘܚܢܢ ܫܠܝܚܐ, ; he, יוחנן בן זבדי, ; grc, Ἰωάννης; cop, ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ; la, Ioannes; ) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, '' Yēšū́a ...
was still alive, Clement commanded that the Corinthians maintain unity with each other and bring to an end the schism that had divided the church in that region. This papal letter from Clement was held in such esteem that it was considered by some as part of the New Testament canon, as the Ethiopian Orthodox Church still does. Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, writing to Pope Soter ("as a father to his children") references Pope Clement's letter: Many deny that Peter and those claimed to be his immediate successors had universally-recognized supreme authority over all the early churches, citing instead that the bishop of Rome was, and is, "first among equals" as stated by the patriarch of the Orthodox Church in the 2nd century A.D. and again in the 21st century. However, what form that should take remains a matter of contention between the Catholic and Orthodox Churches, which formed one church for at least the first seven ecumenical councils, and until the formal split over papal primacy in 1054 AD. Many of the bishops of Rome in the first three centuries of the Christian era are obscure figures. Most of Peter's successors in the first three centuries following his life suffered martyrdom along with members of their flock in periods of persecution.


From Constantine (312–493)

The legend surrounding the victory of
Constantine I Constantine I ( la, Flavius Valerius Constantinus; ; 27 February 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). Th ...

Constantine I
in the
Battle of the Milvian Bridge The Battle of the Milvian Bridge took place between the Roman Emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...
(312) relates his vision of the
Chi Rho The Chi Rho (; also known as ''chrismon'') is one of the earliest forms of christogram A Christogram (Latin ') is a monogram or combination of letters that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, traditionally used as a Christian ...

Chi Rho
and the text
in hoc signo vinces "''In hoc signo vinces''" (, ) is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning " ...

in hoc signo vinces
in the sky, and reproducing this symbol on the shields of his troops. The following year, Constantine and
Licinius Licinius (; la, Valerius Licinianus Licinius ; (Ancient Greek Λίκινιος) (c. 265 – 325) was Roman emperor from 308 to 324. For most of his reign he was the colleague and rival of Constantine I, with whom he co-authored the Edict of M ...
proclaimed the toleration of the Christian faith with the
Edict of Milan The Edict of Milan ( la, Edictum Mediolanense, el, Διάταγμα τῶν Μεδιολάνων, ''Diatagma tōn Mediolanōn'') was the February 313 CE agreement to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire.Frend, W. H. C. ''Th ...
, and in 325, Constantine convened and presided over the
First Council of Nicaea The First Council of Nicaea (; grc, Νίκαια ) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynia Bithynia (; Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialec ...
, the first
ecumenical council An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice in which those entitled to vote a ...
. None of this, however, has particularly much to do with the pope, who did not even attend the Council; in fact, the first bishop of Rome to be contemporaneously referred to as
Pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

Pope
is
Damasus I Damasus I (; c. 305 – 11 December 384) was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Withi ...

Damasus I
(366–84).Baumgartner, 2003, p. 6. Moreover, between 324 and 330, Constantine moved the capital of the Roman empire from Rome to Byzantium, a former Greek city on the Bosporus. The power of Rome was transferred to Byzantium which later, in 330 became
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
and today is Istanbul. The "
Donation of Constantine and Constantine the Great, showing the purported Donation (Santi Quattro Coronati, Rome) The ''Donation of Constantine'' ( ) is a Forgery, forged Roman imperial decree by which the 4th-century emperor Constantine the Great supposedly transferred ...
", an 8th-century forgery used to enhance the prestige and authority of popes, places the pope more centrally in the narrative of Constantinian Christianity. The legend of the Donation claims that Constantine offered his crown to
Sylvester I Sylvester I (also Silvester, died 31 December 335) was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and overs ...

Sylvester I
(314–35), and even that Sylvester baptized Constantine. In reality, Constantine was baptized (nearing his death in May 337) by
Eusebius of Nicomedia Eusebius of Nicomedia (; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος; died 341) was an Arian priest who baptized Constantine the Great Constantine I ( la, Flavius Valerius Constantinus; ; 27 February 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was ...
, an
Arian Arianism is a Christological doctrine first attributed to Arius Arius (; grc-koi, Ἄρειος, ; 250 or 256–336) was a Cyrenaic The Cyrenaics or Kyrenaics ( grc, Κυρηναϊκοί; ''Kyrēnaïkoí'') were a sensual hedonist Greek ...
bishop. Although the "Donation" never occurred, Constantine did hand over the
Lateran Palace The Lateran Palace ( la, Palatium Lateranense), formally the Apostolic Palace of the Lateran ( la, Palatium Apostolicum Lateranense), is an ancient palace A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of sta ...
to the bishop of Rome, and around 310 AD began the construction of Basilica of Constantine in Germany, called Aula Palatina. Emperor Constantine also erected the Old St. Peter's Basilica, or Constantinian Basilica, the current location of the current, Renaissance era, St. Peter's Basilica within the Vatican, on the place of St. Peter's burial, as held by the Catholic community of Rome, after his conversion to Catholicism.
Pope Leo I Pope Leo I ( 400 – 10 November 461), also known as Leo the Great, was bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of autho ...

Pope Leo I
(440–461), also called Leo the Great, was so influential that he was later named a
Doctor of the Church Doctor of the Church (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be ...
, a distinction he shares with only one other pope (Gregory I). During his papacy, the term Pope (which previously meant any bishop) came to exclusively mean the Bishop of Rome.


Middle Ages (493–1417)


Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)

The Ostrogothic Papacy period ran from 493 to 537. The papal election of March 483 was the first to take place without the existence of a Western Roman emperor. The papacy was strongly influenced by the
Ostrogothic Kingdom The Ostrogothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of Italy (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communi ...

Ostrogothic Kingdom
, though the pope was not outright appointed by the Ostrogothic King. The selection and administration of popes during this period was strongly influenced by
Theodoric the Great Theodoric (or Theoderic) the Great (454 – 30 August 526), also called Theodoric the Amal ( la, Flāvius Theoderīcus; el, Θευδέριχος, Theuderichos), was king of the Ostrogoths The Ostrogoths ( la, Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were a ...
and his successors
Athalaric Athalaric (; 5162 October 534) was the king of the Ostrogoths in Italy between 526 and 534. He was a son of Eutharic and Amalasuntha, the youngest daughter of Theoderic the Great, whom Athalaric succeeded as king in 526. As Athalaric was only te ...
and
Theodahad Theodahad, also known as Thiudahad ( la, Flavius Theodahatus , Theodahadus, Theodatus; born 480 AD in Tauresium – December 536) was king of the Ostrogoths from 534 to 536. Early life Theodahad was a nephew of Theodoric the Great through ...

Theodahad
. This period ended with
Justinian I Justinian I (; la, Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus; grc-gre, Ἰουστινιανός ; 48214 November 565), also known as Justinian the Great, was the Byzantine emperor This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation o ...
's reconquest of Italy and City of Rome itself during the
Gothic WarGothic War may refer to: *Gothic War (367–369), a war of Thervingi against the Eastern Roman Empire in which the Goths retreated to Montes Serrorum *Gothic War (376–382), Thervingi and Greuthungi against the Roman Empire *Gothic War (401–403), ...
, inaugurating the
Byzantine Papacy The Byzantine Papacy was a period of Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, wh ...
(537–752). The role of the Ostrogoths became clear in the first schism, when, on November 22, 498, two men were elected pope. The subsequent triumph of
Pope Symmachus Pope Symmachus (died 19 July 514) was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within th ...

Pope Symmachus
(498–514) over
Antipope Laurentius Laurentius (possibly Caelius) was Archpriest of Santa Prassede and later antipope of the Roman Catholic Church. Elected in 498 at the Basilica Saint Mariae (presumably Saint Maria Maggiore) with the support of a dissenting faction with Byzantine sy ...
is the first recorded example of
simony Simony () is the act of selling church offices and roles or sacred things. It is named after Simon Magus Simon Magus ( Greek Σίμων ὁ μάγος, Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Ital ...

simony
in papal history.Richards, 1979, p. 70. Symmachus also instituted the practice of popes naming their own successors, which held until an unpopular choice was made in 530, and discord continued until the selection in 532 of
John II
John II
, the first to rename himself upon succession.
Theodoric Theodoric is a Germanic given name. First attested as a Gothic name in the 5th century, it became widespread in the Germanic-speaking world, not least due to its most famous bearer, Theodoric the Great, king of the Ostrogoths. Overview The name ...
was tolerant towards the Catholic Church and did not interfere in dogmatic matters. He remained as neutral as possible towards the pope, though he exercised a preponderant influence in the affairs of the papacy.Löffler, Klemens. "Ostrogoths." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 21 Jul. 2014
/ref> Ostrogothic influence ended with the reconquest of Rome by Justinian, who had had pro-Gothic
Pope Silverius Pope Silverius (died 2 December 537) ruled the Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome, is the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope, which includes the apostolic see, apostol ...

Pope Silverius
(536–537) deposed and replaced with his own choice,
Pope Vigilius Pope Vigilius (died 7 June 555) was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the C ...

Pope Vigilius
(537–555).


Byzantine Papacy (537–752)

The
Byzantine Papacy The Byzantine Papacy was a period of Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, wh ...
was a period of return to
Imperial Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, California * Imperial, Missouri * Imperial, Nebraska * Imperial, Pennsylvania * Imperial, Texas * ...

Imperial
domination of the
papacy The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

papacy
from 537 to 752, when popes required the approval of the Byzantine Emperors for
episcopal consecration A bishop is an ordained Ordination is the process by which individuals are Consecration, consecrated, that is, set apart and elevated from the laity class to the clergy, who are thus then authorization, authorized (usually by the religious denom ...

episcopal consecration
, and many popes were chosen from the '' apocrisiarii'' (liaisons from the pope to the emperor) or the inhabitants of
Byzantine Greece The history of Byzantine Greece mainly coincides with the history of the Empire itself. Background: Roman Greece The Greek peninsula Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southe ...
,
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...
, or
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...
.
Justinian I Justinian I (; la, Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus; grc-gre, Ἰουστινιανός ; 48214 November 565), also known as Justinian the Great, was the Byzantine emperor This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation o ...
restored the Roman imperial rule in the Italian peninsula after the Gothic War (535–54) and appointed the next three popes, a practice that would be continued by his successors and later be delegated to the
Exarchate of Ravenna The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy ( la, Exarchatus Ravennatis) was a lordship of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the R ...
. With the exception of
Pope Martin I The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as supreme pontiff ( or ), Roman pontiff () or sovereign pontiff, is the bishop of Rome, head of the worldwide Catholic Church The Catholic Church, ...

Pope Martin I
, no pope during this period questioned the authority of the Byzantine monarch to confirm the election of the
bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...
before consecration could occur; however, theological conflicts were common between pope and emperor in the areas such as monotheletism and
iconoclasm alt=A painting, 288px, In this Elizabethan work of propaganda, the top right of the picture depicts men busy pulling down and smashing icons, while power is shifting from the dying King Henry VIII at left, pointing to his far more staunchly Pr ...
. Greek speakers from Greece, Syria, and Byzantine Sicily replaced members of the powerful Roman nobles from Italian descent in the papal chair during this period. Rome under the Greek popes constituted a "melting pot" of Western and Eastern Christian traditions, reflected in art as well as liturgy.
Pope Gregory I Pope Gregory I ( la, Gregorius I; – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, was the from 3 September 590 to his death. He is known for instigating the first recorded large-scale mission from Rome, the , to convert the then- ...

Pope Gregory I
(590–604) was a major figure in asserting
papal primacy Papal primacy, also known as the primacy of the bishop of Rome, is a Christian ecclesiological In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of the Church (congregation), Church, the origins of Christianity, its relationship to Jesus, ...
and gave the impetus to missionary activity in northern Europe, including England. The
Duchy of Rome A duchy is a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe s ...
was a Byzantine district in the Exarchate of Ravenna, ruled by an imperial functionary with the title dux. Within the exarchate, the two chief districts were the country about Ravenna where the exarch was the centre of Byzantine opposition to the Lombards, and the Duchy of Rome, which embraced the lands of Latium north of the Tiber and of Campania to the south as far as the Garigliano. There the pope himself was the soul of the opposition. The pains were taken, as long as possible, to retain control of the intervening districts and with them communication over the Apennine mountains. In 728, the Lombard King Liutprand took the Castle of
Sutri Sutri (Latin ''Sutrium'') is an Ancient town, modern ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides ...
, on the road to Perugia, but restored it to Pope Gregory II "as a gift to the blessed Apostles Peter and Paul". The popes continued to acknowledge the imperial Government. In 738, the Lombard duke Transamund of Spoleto captured the Castle of Gallese, which protected the road to Perugia. By a large payment, Pope Gregory III induced the duke to restore the castle to him.


Frankish influence (756–857)

In 751,
Aistulf Aistulf (also Ahistulf, Aistulfus, Haistulfus, Astolf etc.; it, Astolfo; died December 756) was the Duke of Friuli The dukes and margraves of Friuli were the rulers of the Duchy of Friuli, Duchy and March of Friuli in the Middle Ages. The d ...
took Ravenna and threatened Rome. In response to this threat,
Pope Stephen II Pope Stephen II ( la, Stephanus II; 714 – 26 April 757) was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority an ...

Pope Stephen II
made an unusual journey north of the Alps to visit the Frankish king,
Pepin III Pepin the Short, also called the Younger (german: Pippin der Jüngere, french: Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was King of the Franks from 751 until his death in 768. He was the first Carolingian to become king. The younger son of the ...
, to seek his help against the invading Lombards. The papal elections were marked by battles between various secular and ecclesiastical factions frequently entangled in the power politics of Italy.Goodson, 2010, p. 13. The pope anointed Pepin at the abbey of St Denis, near Paris, together with Pepin's two young sons
Charles Charles is a masculine given name A given name (also known as a first name or forename) is the part of a personal name A personal name, or full name, in onomastic Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the etymology, histor ...

Charles
and Carloman. Pepin duly invaded northern Italy in 754, and again in 756. Pepin was able to drive the Lombards from the territory belonging to Ravenna but he did not restore it to its rightful owner, the Byzantine emperor. Instead, he handed over large areas of central Italy to the pope and his successors. The land given to pope Stephen in 756, in the so-called
Donation of Pepin The Donation of Pepin in 756 provided a legal basis for the creation of the Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were ...
, made the papacy a temporal power and for the first time created an incentive for secular leaders to interfere with
papal succession A papal conclave is a gathering of the College of Cardinals convened to elect a Bishop (Catholic Church), bishop of Rome, also known as the pope. The pope is considered by Catholics to be the Apostolic succession, apostolic successor of Saint ...
. This territory would become the basis for the
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
, over which the popes ruled until the Papal States were incorporated into the new
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II en, Victor Emmanuel Mario Albert Eugene Ferdinand Thomas , house = House of Savoy, Savoy , father = Charles Albert o ...
in 1870. For the next eleven centuries, the story of Rome would be almost synonymous with the story of the papacy. After being physically attacked by his enemies in the streets of Rome,
Pope Leo III Leo III (died 12 June 816) was the 96th pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of th ...

Pope Leo III
made his way in 799 through the Alps to visit
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
at Paderborn. It is not known what was agreed between the two, but Charlemagne traveled to Rome in 800 to support the pope. In a ceremony in St Peter's Basilica, on Christmas Day, Leo was supposed to anoint Charlemagne's son as his heir. But unexpectedly (it is maintained), as Charlemagne rose from prayer, the pope placed a crown on his head and acclaimed him emperor. It is reported that Charlemagne expressed displeasure but nevertheless accepted the honour. Charlemagne's successor, "Louis the Pious", intervened in the papal election by supporting the claim of
Pope Eugene II Pope Eugene II ( la, Eugenius II; died 27 August 827) was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and overs ...

Pope Eugene II
; the popes henceforth were required to swear loyalty to the Frankish Emperor.Baumgartner, 2003, p. 14. Papal subjects were made to swear loyalty to the Frankish Emperor and the consecration of the pope could be performed only in the presence of the Emperor's representatives. The consecration of
Pope Gregory IV Pope Gregory IV ( la, Gregorius IV; died 25 January 844) was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and ov ...

Pope Gregory IV
(827-844), chosen by the Roman nobles, was delayed for six months to attain the assent of Louis.
Pope Sergius II Pope Sergius II ( la, Sergius II; died 27 January 847) was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and o ...

Pope Sergius II
(844-847), choice of the Roman nobility, was consecrated without reference to Emperor Lothaire, the latter sent with an army, and only when "Sergius succeeded in pacifying Louis, whom he crowned king" did
Lothair I Lothair I or Lothar I (Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" ...
side with Sergius II.


Influence of powerful Roman families (904–1048)

The period beginning with the installation of
Pope Sergius III Pope Sergius III (c. 860 − 14 April 911) was the bishop of Rome and nominal ruler of the Papal States from 29 January 904 to his death. He was pope during a period of violence and disorder in central Italy, when warring aristocratic factions s ...

Pope Sergius III
in 904 and lasting for sixty years until the death of
Pope John XII Pope John XII ( la, Ioannes XII; c. 930/93714 May 964), born Octavian, was the bishop of Rome and ruler of the Papal States from 16 December 955 to his death in 964. He was related to the counts of Tusculum, a powerful Roman family which had domi ...

Pope John XII
in 964 is sometimes referred to as
Saeculum obscurum ''Saeculum obscurum'' (, "the dark age/century"), was a period in the history of the Papacy during the first two-thirds of the 10th century, beginning with the installation of Pope Sergius III Pope Sergius III (c. 860 − 14 April 911) was th ...
or the "dark age." Historian
Will Durant William James Durant (; November 5, 1885 – November 7, 1981) was an Americans, American writer, historian, and philosopher. He became best known for his work ''The Story of Civilization'', 11 volumes written in collaboration with his wife, A ...

Will Durant
refers to the period from 867 to 1049 as the "nadir of the papacy". During this period, the
pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

pope
s were controlled by a powerful and corrupt aristocratic family, the
Theophylacti The counts of Tusculum Tusculum is a ruined Classical Rome, Roman city in the Alban Hills, in the Latium region of Italy. Tusculum was most famous in Roman times for the many great and luxurious patrician country villas sited close to the city, ...
, and their relatives.


Conflicts with the Emperor and East (1048–1257)

The Imperial crown once held by the Carolingian emperors was disputed between their fractured heirs and local overlords; none emerged victorious until
Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (german: Otto der Große, it, Ottone il Grande), was East Francia East Francia (Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a ...

Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor
invaded Italy. Italy became a constituent kingdom of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
in 962, from which point the emperors were German. As emperors consolidated their position, northern Italian city-states would become divided by
Guelphs and Ghibellines The Guelphs and Ghibellines (, , ; it, guelfi e ghibellini ) were faction Faction or factionalism may refer to: * Political faction, a group of people with a common political purpose * Faction (literature), a type of historical novel based o ...
.
Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor Henry III (28 October 1016 – 5 October 1056), called the Black or the Pious, was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the ...

Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor
found three rival popes when he visited Rome in 1048 because of the unprecedented actions of
Pope Benedict IX Pope Benedict IX ( la, Benedictus IX; c. 1012 – c. 1056), born Theophylactus of Tusculum in Rome, was bishop of Rome and ruler of the Papal States on three occasions between October 1032 and July 1048. Aged approximately 20 at his first election ...

Pope Benedict IX
. He deposed all three and installed his own preferred candidate:
Pope Clement II Pope Clement II ( la, Clemens II; born Suidger von Morsleben; died 9 October 1047), was bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a posit ...

Pope Clement II
. The history of the papacy from 1048 to 1257 would continue to be marked by conflict between popes and the
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
, most prominently the
Investiture Controversy#REDIRECT Investiture Controversy The Investiture Controversy, also called Investiture Contest, was a conflict between church and state in medieval Europe over the ability to choose and install bishops ( investiture) and abbots of monasteries a ...
, a dispute over who—pope or emperor—could appoint bishops within the Empire. Henry IV's
Walk to Canossa The Humiliation of Canossa, ( it, L'umiliazione di Canossa), sometimes called the Walk to Canossa (german: Gang nach Canossa/''Kanossa'') or the Road to Canossa, was the ritual submission of the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV to Pope Gregory VII ...
in 1077 to meet
Pope Gregory VII Pope Gregory VII ( la, Gregorius VII; 1015 – 25 May 1085), born Hildebrand of Sovana ( it, Ildebrando da Soana), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian d ...

Pope Gregory VII
(1073–85), although not dispositive within the context of the larger dispute, has become legendary. Although the emperor renounced any right to lay investiture in the
Concordat of Worms The Investiture Controversy, also called Investiture Contest, was a conflict between church and state in medieval Europe over the ability to choose and install bishops (investiture) and abbots of monasteries and the pope himself. A series of po ...
(1122), the issue would flare up again. Long-standing divisions between East and West also came to a head in the
East–West Schism The East–West Schism (also known as the Great Schism or Schism of 1054) was the break of communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also called the Holy Communion or Lord's Supper), the Christian rite involving the eatin ...
and the
Crusades The Crusades were a series of religious wars initiated, supported, and sometimes directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The term refers especially to the Eastern Mediterranean campaigns in the period between 1095 and 1271 that h ...

Crusades
. The
first seven Ecumenical Councils #REDIRECT First seven ecumenical councils #REDIRECT First seven ecumenical councils#REDIRECT First seven ecumenical councils In the history of Christianity The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christian countries, and ...
had been attended by both Western and Eastern prelates, but growing doctrinal, theological, linguistic, political and geographic differences finally resulted in mutual denunciations and excommunications.
Pope Urban II Pope Urban II ( la, Urbanus II;  – 29 July 1099), otherwise known as Odo of Châtillon or Otho de Lagery, was the head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christia ...

Pope Urban II
(1088–99) convened a
council A council is a group of people who come together to consult, deliberate, or make decisions. A council may function as a legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is t ...
at , November 1096 with the hopes of reunion and lending support to the who wanted to reclaim their lands lost to the
Seljuk Turks The Seljuk dynasty, or Seljuks ( ; fa, آل سلجوق ''Al-e Saljuq''), was an Oghuz Turkic Sunni Muslim dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n.''" Oxford Un ...
. After the 10 day Council Pope Urban II gave a rousing speech to a massive crowd when he, "emphasized the duty of the Christian West to march to the rescue of the Christian East." Nine months later,
Pope Urban II Pope Urban II ( la, Urbanus II;  – 29 July 1099), otherwise known as Odo of Châtillon or Otho de Lagery, was the head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christia ...

Pope Urban II
(1088–99) speech at the
Council of Clermont The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, called by Pope Urban II and held from 17 to 27 November 1095 at Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont, County of Auvergne, Auvergne, at the time part of the Duchy ...
in August 1096 became the rallying cry of the
First Crusade The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a series of religious wars, or Crusades, initiated, supported and at times directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The objective was the recovery of the Holy Land from Muslim conqu ...
. Unlike the previous millennium, the process for papal selection became somewhat fixed during this period.
Pope Nicholas II Pope Nicholas II ( la, Nicholaus II; c. 990/995 – 27 July 1061), otherwise known as Gerard of Burgundy, was the head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 24 January 1059 until his death. At the time of his election, he was ...

Pope Nicholas II
promulgated '' In nomine Domini'' in 1059, which limited suffrage in papal elections to the
College of Cardinals The College of Cardinals, or more formally the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all Cardinal (Catholicism), cardinals of the Catholic Church. List of current cardinals, its current membership is 215. Cardinals are appointed by the ...
. The rules and procedures of papal elections evolved during this period, laying the groundwork for the modern
papal conclave A papal conclave is a gathering of the College of Cardinals The College of Cardinals, or more formally the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal ( ...
. The driving force behind these reforms was Cardinal Hildebrand, who later became Gregory VII.


The wandering popes (1257–1309)

The pope is the
bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...
, but nowhere is it written that he has to stay there (in fact, only 200 years prior, cardinals would have been required to reside in Rome). Political instability in thirteenth-century Italy forced the papal court to move to several different locations, including Viterbo, Orvieto, and Perugia. The popes brought the Roman Curia with them, and the
College of Cardinals The College of Cardinals, or more formally the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all Cardinal (Catholicism), cardinals of the Catholic Church. List of current cardinals, its current membership is 215. Cardinals are appointed by the ...
met in the city where the last pope had died to hold papal elections. Host cities enjoyed a boost to their prestige and certain economic advantages, but the municipal authorities risked being subsumed into the administration of the Papal States if they allowed the pope to overstay his welcome. According to Eamon Duffy, "aristocratic factions within the city of Rome once again made it an insecure base for a stable papal government. Innocent IV was exiled from Rome and even from Italy for six years, and all but two of the papal elections of the thirteenth century had to take place outside Rome. The skyline of Rome itself was now dominated by the fortified war-towers of the aristocracy (a hundred were built in Innocent IV's pontificate alone) and the popes increasingly spent their time in the papal palaces at Viterbo and Orvieto."


Avignon Papacy (1309–1377)

During this period, seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon starting in 1309: Pope Clement V (1305–14), Pope John XXII (1316–34), Pope Benedict XII (1334–42), Pope Clement VI (1342–52), Pope Innocent VI (1352–62), Pope Urban V (1362–70), Pope Gregory XI (1370–78). The papacy was controlled by the French King in this time. In 1378, Gregory XI moved the papal residence back to Rome and died there.


Western Schism (1378–1417)

The French cardinals withdrew to a conclave of their own, where they elected one of their number, Robert of Geneva. He took the name Antipope Clement VII, Clement VII. This was the beginning of the period of difficulty from 1378 to 1417 which Catholic scholars refer to as the "Western Schism" or, "the great controversy of the antipopes" (also called "the second great schism" by some secular and Protestant historians), when parties within the Catholic Church were divided in their allegiances among the various claimants to the office of pope. The Council of Constance, in 1417, finally resolved the controversy. Another council was convened in 1414 at Council of Constance, Constance. In March 1415, the Pisan antipope, John XXIII, fled from Constance in disguise; he was brought back a prisoner and deposed in May. The Roman pope, Gregory XII, resigned voluntarily in July. The council in Constance, having finally cleared the field of popes and antipopes, elected Pope Martin V as pope in November.


Early Modern and Modern Era (1417–present)


Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)

From the election of Pope Martin V of the Council of Constance in 1417 to the Reformation, Western Christianity was largely free from schism as well as significant antipope, disputed papal claimants. Martin V returned the papacy to Rome in 1420. Although there were important divisions over the direction of the religion, these were resolved through the then-settled procedures of the
papal conclave A papal conclave is a gathering of the College of Cardinals The College of Cardinals, or more formally the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal ( ...
. Unlike their European peers, popes were not hereditary monarchy, hereditary monarchs, so they could only promote their family interests through nepotism.Spielvogel, 2008, p. 369. The word ''nepotism'' originally referred specifically to the practice of creating cardinal-nephews, when it appeared in the English language about 1669. According to Duffy, "the inevitable outcome of all of this was a creation of a wealthy cardinalatial class, with strong dynastic connections."Duffy, 2006, p. 193. The College was dominated by cardinal-nephews—relatives of the popes that elevated them, crown-cardinals—representatives of the Catholic monarchies of Europe, and members of the powerful Italian families. The wealthy popes and cardinals increasingly patronized Renaissance art and architecture, (re)building the landmarks of Rome from the ground up. The
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
began to resemble a modern nation state during this period, and the papacy took an increasingly active role in European wars and diplomacy. Pope Julius II become known as "the Warrior Pope" for his use of bloodshed to increase the territory and property of the papacy.Spielvogel, 2008, p. 368. The popes of this period used the papal military not only to enrich themselves and their families, but also to enforce and expand upon the longstanding territorial and property claims of the papacy as an institution.Duffy, 2006, p. 190. Although, before the Western Schism, the papacy had derived much of its revenue from the "vigorous exercise of its spiritual office," during this period the popes were financially dependent on the revenues from the Papal States themselves. With ambitious expenditures on war and construction projects, popes turned to new sources of revenue from the sale of indulgences and bureaucratic and ecclesiastical offices.Duffy, 2006, p. 194. Pope Clement VII's diplomatic and military campaigns resulted in the Sack of Rome (1527), Sack of Rome in 1527. Popes were more frequently called upon to arbitrate disputes between competing colonial powers than to resolve complicated theological disputes. Columbus' discovery in 1492 upset the unstable relations between the kingdoms of Portugal and Crown of Castile, Castile, whose jockeying for possession of colonial territories along the African coast had for many years been regulated by the papal bulls of 1455, 1456, and 1479. Alexander VI responded with three bulls, dated May 3 and 4, which were highly favorable to Castile; the third ''Inter caetera'' (1493) awarded Spain the sole right to Spanish colonization of the Americas, colonize most of the New World. According to Eamon Duffy, "the Renaissance papacy invokes images of a Hollywood spectacular, all decadence and drag. Contemporaries viewed Renaissance Rome as we now view Nixon's Washington, a city of expense-account whores and political graft, where everything and everyone had a price, where nothing and nobody could be trusted. The popes themselves seemed to set the tone." For example, Leo X was said to have remarked: "Let us enjoy the papacy, since God has given it to us." Several of these popes List of sexually active popes, took mistresses and fathered children and engaged in intrigue or even murder. Pope_Alexander_VI, Alexander VI had four acknowledged children: Cesare Borgia, Lucrezia Borgia, Gioffre Borgia, and Giovanni Borgia, 2nd Duke of Gandia, Giovanni Borgia before he became Pope.


Reformation and Counter-Reformation (1517–1580)


Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)

The pontificate of Pope Sixtus V (1585–1590) opened up the final stage of the Catholic Reformation, characteristic of the Baroque age of the early seventeenth century, shifting away from compelling to attracting. His reign focused on rebuilding Rome as a great European capital and Baroque city, a visual symbol for the Catholic Church.


During the Age of Revolution (1775–1848)


Roman Question (1870–1929)

The last eight years of his long pontificate – the longest in church history – Pope Pius IX spent as prisoner of the Vatican. Catholics were forbidden to vote or be voted for in national elections. However, they were permitted to participate in local elections, where they achieved successes. Pius himself was active during those years by creating new diocesan seats and appointing bishops to numerous dioceses, which had been unoccupied for years. Asked if he wanted his successor to follow his Italian policies, the old pontiff replied: Pope Leo XIII, considered a great diplomat, managed to improve relations with Russia, Prussia, German France, England and other countries. However, in light of a hostile anti-Catholic climate in Italy, he continued the policies of Pius IX towards Italy, without major modifications. He had to defend the freedom of the church against Italian persecutions and attacks in the area of education, expropriation and violation of Catholic Churches, legal measures against the church and brutal attacks, culminating in anticlerical groups attempting to throw the body of the deceased Pope Pius IX into the Tiber river on July 13, 1881. The pope even considered moving the papacy to Trieste or Salzburg, two cities under Austrian control, an idea which the Austrian monarch Franz Josef I gently rejected. His encyclicals changed church positions on relations with temporal authorities, and, in the 1891 encyclical ''Rerum novarum'' addressed for the first time social inequality and social justice issues with Papal authority. He was greatly influenced by Wilhelm Emmanuel von Ketteler, a German bishop who openly propagated siding with the suffering working classes Since Leo XIII, Papal teachings expand on the right and obligation of workers and the limitations of private property: Pope Pius XI ''Quadragesimo anno'', the Social teachings of Pope Pius XII on a huge range of social issues, John XXIII ''Mater et magistra'' in 1961, Pope Paul VI, the encyclical Populorum progressio on World development issues, and Pope John Paul II, ''Centesimus annus, commemorating the 100th anniversary of ''Rerum novarum'' of Pope Leo XIII.


From the creation of Vatican City (1929)

The pontificate of Pope Pius XI was marked by great diplomatic activity and the issuance of many important papers, often in the form of encyclicals. In diplomatic affairs, Pius was aided at first by Pietro Gasparri and after 1930 by Eugenio Pacelli (who succeeded him as Pope Pius XII). Cardinal Gasparri's masterpiece was the Lateran Treaty (1929), negotiated for the Vatican by Francesco Pacelli. Nevertheless, the Fascist government and the pope were in open disagreement over the restriction of youth activities; this culminated in a strong papal letter (Non abbiamo bisogno, 1931), arguing the impossibility of being at once a Fascist and a Catholic. Relations between Mussolini and the Holy See were cool ever after. Negotiations for the settlement of the
Roman Question The Roman Question ( it, Questione romana; la, Quaestio Romana) was a dispute regarding the temporal power of the pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Rom ...
began in 1926 between the government of Italy and the Holy See, and in 1929 they culminated in the agreements of the three Lateran Pacts, signed for King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy by Prime Minister of Italy, Prime Minister Benito Mussolini and for Pope Pius XI by Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri in the
Lateran Palace The Lateran Palace ( la, Palatium Lateranense), formally the Apostolic Palace of the Lateran ( la, Palatium Apostolicum Lateranense), is an ancient palace A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of sta ...
(hence the name by which they are known). The Lateran Treaty included a political treaty, which created the state of the Vatican City and guaranteed full and independent sovereignty to the Holy See. The pope was pledged to perpetual Neutrality (international relations), neutrality in international relations and to abstention from mediation in a controversy unless specifically requested by all parties. The concordat established Catholicism as the religion of Italy. And the financial agreement was accepted as settlement of all the claims of the Holy See against Italy arising from the loss of temporal power in 1870. A national concordat with Germany was one of Pacelli's main objectives as secretary of state. As nuncio during the 1920s, he had made unsuccessful attempts to obtain German agreement for such a treaty, and between 1930 and 1933 he attempted to initiate negotiations with representatives of successive German governments, but the opposition of Protestant and Socialist parties, the instability of national governments and the care of the individual states to guard their autonomy thwarted this aim. In particular, the questions of denominational schools and pastoral work in the armed forces prevented any agreement on the national level, despite talks in the winter of 1932. Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor on 30 January 1933 and sought to gain international respectability and to remove internal opposition by representatives of the church and the Catholic Centre Party (Germany), Centre Party. He sent his vice chancellor Franz von Papen, a Catholic nobleman and former member of the Centre Party, to Rome to offer negotiations about a Reichskonkordat. On behalf of Cardinal Pacelli, his long-time associate Prelate Ludwig Kaas, the out-going chairman of the Centre Party, negotiated first drafts of the terms with Papen. The concordat was finally signed, by Pacelli for the Vatican and von Papen for Germany, on 20 July and ratified on September 10, 1933. Between 1933 and 1939, Pacelli issued 55 protests of violations of the ''Reichskonkordat''. Most notably, early in 1937, Pacelli asked several German cardinals, including Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber to help him write a protest of Nazi violations of the ''Reichskonkordat''; this was to become Pius XI's encyclical ''Mit brennender Sorge''. The encyclical, condemning the view that "exalts racism, race, or the people, or the statism, State, or a particular form of State … above their standard value and divinizes them to an idolatrous level", was written in German language, German instead of Latin and read in German churches on Palm Sunday 1937.


World War II (1939–1945)

When Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, the Vatican declared neutrality to avoid being drawn into the conflict and also to avoid occupation by the Italian military. The Church policies after World War II of Pope Pius XII focused on material aid to war-torn Europe with its 15 million displaced persons and refugees, an internal internationalization of the Catholic Church, and the development of its worldwide diplomatic relations. His encyclical ''Evangelii praecones'' increased the local decision-making of Catholic missions, many of which became independent dioceses. Pius XII demanded recognition of local cultures as fully equal to European culture. He internationalized the College of Cardinals by eliminating the Italian majority and appointed cardinals from Asia, South America and Australia. In Western Africa Southern Africa British Eastern Africa, Finland, Burma and French Africa Pope Pius established independent dioceses in 1955. While after years of rebuilding the church thrived in the West and most of the developing world, it faced most serious persecutions in the East. Sixty million Catholics came under Soviet dominated regimes in 1945, with tens of thousands of priests and religious killed, and millions deported into Soviet and Chinese Gulags. The communist regimes in Albania, Bulgaria, Romania and China practically eradicated the Catholic Church in their countries


From Vatican II (1962–1965)

On October 11, 1962, Pope John XXIII opened the Second Vatican Council, Second Ecumenical Vatican Council. The 21st
ecumenical council An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice in which those entitled to vote a ...
of the Catholic Church emphasized the universal call to holiness and brought many changes in practices. On December 7, 1965, a Joint Catholic-Orthodox Declaration of Pope Paul VI and the Ecumenical Patriarch Athenagoras I lifted the mutual excommunication against Catholic and Orthodox which had been in force since the Great Schism of 1054. The bishops agreed that the pope exercises supreme authority over the church, but defined "collegiality", meaning that all bishops share in this authority. Local bishops have equal authority as successors of the Apostles and as members of a larger organization, the church founded by Jesus Christ and entrusted to the apostles. The pope serves as a symbol of unity and has additional authority to ensure the continuation of that unity. During the Second Vatican Council, Catholic bishops drew back a bit from statements which might anger Christians of other faiths. Cardinal Augustin Bea, the President of the Christian Unity Secretariat had always the full support of Pope Paul VI in his attempts to ensure that the Council language is friendly and open to the sensitivities of Protestant and Orthodox Churches, whom he had invited to all sessions at the request of Pope John XXIII. Bea also was strongly involved in the passage of ''Nostra aetate'', which regulates relation of the church with the Jewish faith and members of other religions Pope Paul VI (1963–1978), however, continued the ecumenical efforts of Pope John XXIII in his contacts with Protestant and Eastern Orthodox Church, Orthodox churches. Pope Paul VI faced criticism throughout his papacy from both traditionalists and liberals for steering a middle course during Second Vatican Council, Vatican II and in the course of the implementation of its reforms thereafter. His passion for peace during the Vietnam War was not understood by all. The urgent task of overcoming World poverty and start real development resulted partly in benign neglect of papal teachings by the influential and the rich. On basic church teachings, this pope was unwavering. On the tenth anniversary of Humanae Vitae, he strongly reconfirmed his teachings.Graham, 76. In his style and methodology, he was a disciple of Pius XII, whom he deeply revered. He suffered under the attacks of his predecessor for his alleged silences, knowing from personal association with the late pope the real concerns and compassion of Pius XII. Pope Paul is not credited to have had the encyclopaedic culture of Pius XII, nor his phenomenal memory, his amazing gift for languages, his brilliant style in writing, nor did he have the Charisma and outpouring love, sense of humor and human warmth of John XXIII. ''He took on himself the unfinished reform work of these two popes, bringing them diligently with great humility and common sense and without much fanfare to conclusion.'' In doing so, Paul VI saw himself following in the footsteps of the Apostle Paul, torn to several directions as ''Saint Paul, who always said, I am attracted to two sides at once, because the Cross always divides.'' He became the first pope to visit all five continents.Josef Schmitz van Vorst, 68 Paul VI systematically continued and completed the efforts of his predecessors, to turn the Euro-centric church into a church for the whole world, by integrating the bishops from all continents in its government and in the Synods which he convened. His August 6, 1967 Motu Proprio ''Pro Comperto Sane'' opened the Roman Curia to the bishops of the world. Until that time, only Cardinals could be leading members of the Curia. An inner joy seems to have been a characteristic of Paul VI. His confessor, the Jesuit Paolo Dezza arrived at the Vatican every Friday evening at seven p.m. to hear confession of Paul VI. The only words he ever spoke about his long service to Paul VI during his pontificate were, ''that this pope is a man of great joy.'' After the death of Pope Paul VI, Dezza was more outspoken, saying that "if Paul VI was not a saint, when he was elected pope, he became one during his pontificate. I was able to witness not only with what energy and dedication he toiled for Christ and the Church but also and above all, how much he suffered for Christ and the Church. I always admired not only his deep inner resignation but also his constant abandonment to divine providence.". It is this character trait, which led to the opening of the process of beatification and canonization for Paul VI. With the accession of Pope John Paul II after the mysterious death of Pope John Paul I (who only survived as pope for 33 days), the church had, for the first time since Pope Adrian VI in the 16th century, a non-Italian pope. John Paul II has been credited with helping to bring down communism in eastern Europe by sparking what amounted to a peaceful revolution in his Poland, Polish homeland. Lech Wałęsa, one of the several founders of the Solidarity (Polish trade union), Solidarity worker movement that ultimately toppled communism, credited John Paul with giving Poles the courage to rise up. The former Soviet general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev acknowledged publicly the role of John Paul II in the fall of Communism. The pope himself stated after the fall of Communism that "the claim to build a world without God has been shown to be an illusion" (Prague, April 21, 1990). But this world without God exists in Capitalism too. Therefore, as did his predecessors, John Paul repeated the content of Christianity, its religious and moral message, its defense of the human person, and warned against the dangers of capitalism. "Unfortunately, not everything the West proposes as a theoretical vision or as a concrete lifestyle reflects Gospel values." The long pontificate of John Paul is credited with re-creating a sense of stability and even identity to the Catholic Church after years of questioning and searching. His teaching was firm and unwavering on issues which seemed to be in doubt under his predecessor including the ordination of women, liberation theology and priestly celibacy. He virtually stopped the liberal laicisation of problem priests policy of Pope Paul VI, which inadvertently may have contributed to problems in the USA. His authoritative style was reminiscent of Pope Pius XII, whose teaching he repeated in his own words, such as the identity of the Catholic Church with the Body of Christ and his condemnations of capitalism "viruses": secularism, indifferentism, hedonistic consumerism, practical materialism, and also formal atheism.see ''Anni sacri'' As always after a long pontificate, a new page was opened in the history of the church with the election of a new pope. Pope Benedict XVI was elected in 2005. In his inaugural homily, the new Pontiff explained his view of a relation with Christ: On February 11, 2013, Pope Benedict XVI announced that he would tender his resignation on February 28, 2013, less than three weeks later. On March 13, 2013, Pope Francis—the first Jesuit pope and the first pope from the Americas—was elected to the papacy.


See also

*List of popes *
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
*Papal Zouaves *Index of Vatican City-related articles


Notes


Further reading

* Adiele, Pius Onyemechi. ''The Popes, the Catholic Church and the Transatlantic Enslavement of Black Africans 1418-1839'' (Georg Olms Verlag, 2017). * Aradi, Zsolt. ''The Popes The History Of How They Are Chosen Elected And Crowned'' (1955
online
* Bauer, Stefan. (2020):
The Invention of Papal History: Onofrio Panvinio between Renaissance and Catholic Reform
'' Oxford University Press. * * Chadwick, Owen, ''The Popes and European revolution'' (Oxford UP, 1981
online
covers 1789 to 1815 * Chadwick, Owen. ''A history of the popes, 1830-1914'' (Oxford UP, 1998), scholarl
online
* * Coppa, Frank J. ''The Papacy in the Modern World: A Political History '' (2014
online review
* Coppa, Frank J. ed. ''The great popes through history: an encyclopedia'' (2 vol, 2002
online
* * Fletcher, Stella. ''The Popes and Britain: a history of rule, rupture and reconciliation'' (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2017). * Lascelles, Christopher. ''Pontifex Maximus: A Short History of the Popes'' (Crux Publishing Ltd, 2017). * * * *, popular history * O’Malley, S.J., John W. ''The Jesuits and the Popes: A Historical Sketch of Their Relationship'' (2016) * * * Schatz, Klaus. ''Papal Primacy from its Origins to the Present'' (Collegeville, MN, 1996). * Schimmelpfennig, Bernhard. ''The Papacy'' (New York, 1992) *, popular history * Vaughan, Herbert. ''The Medici Popes'' (Jovian Press, 2018).


Early and Medieval

* * Dunn, Geoffrey D., ed. ''The bishop of Rome in late antiquity'' (Routledge, 2016), scholarly essays. * Housely, Norman. ''The Avignon Papacy and the Crusades'' (Oxford UP, 1986). * Larson, Atria, and Keith Sisson, eds. ''A Companion to the Medieval Papacy: Growth of an Ideology and Institution'' (Brill, 2016
online
* Moorhead, John. ''The Popes and the Church of Rome in Late Antiquity'' (Routledge, 2015) * Noble, Thomas F.X. “The Papacy in the Eighth and Ninth Centuries.” ''New Cambridge Medieval History, v. 2: c. 700-c.900, ''ed. Rosamund McKiterrick (Cambridge UP, 1995). * Robinson, Ian Stuart. ''The Papacy, 1073-1198: Continuity and Innovation'' (Cambridge, 1990). * Richards, Jeffrey. ''Popes and the Papacy in the Early Middle Ages, 476-752'' (London, 1979). * Setton, Kenneth M. ''The Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571'' (4 vols. Philadelphia, 1976-1984) * Sotinel, Claire. “Emperors and Popes in the Sixth Century.” in ''The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian,'' ed. Michael Maas'' (Cambridge UP, 2005). * * Walter Ullmann, Ullmann, Walter. ''A short history of the papacy in the Middle Ages''. (1960
online
{{DEFAULTSORT:History Of The Papacy History of the papacy, Popes,