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Historical regions (or historical areas) are
geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10. ...

geographical
areas which at some point in time had a
cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms within the same species, and encompasses any behavior in which one member affects the other. This is due to an int ...

cultural
,
ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Those attributes can include common sets of traditions, ancest ...
,
linguistic Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing ...

linguistic
or
political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive process resulting in the selection ...

political
basis, regardless of latterday borders. They are used as delimitations for studying and analysing social development of
period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical composition * Period, a descriptor for a historical or period drama ...
-specific cultures without any reference to contemporary political, economic or social organisations.
The fundamental principle underlying this view is that older political and mental structures exist which exercise greater influence on the spatial-social identity of individuals than is understood by the contemporary world, bound to and often blinded by its own worldview - e.g. the focus on the nation-state.
Definitions of regions vary,xiii, Tägil and regions can include
macroregionA macroregion is a geopolitical subdivision that encompasses several traditionally or politically defined regions or countries. The meaning may vary, with the common denominator being cultural, economical, historical or social similarity within a mac ...
s such as Europe, territories of traditional
states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
or smaller
microregionMicroregion is a designation for territorial entities. Brazil * Microregion (Brazil) Klaus Roth and Ulf Brunnbauer A microregion is a geographic region of a size between that of a community and that of a district.p. 18, "What's in a Region? Southe ...
al areas. A geographic proximity is the often required precondition for emergence of a regional identity. In Europe, the regional identities are often derived from the
Migration Period The Migration Period, also known as the Barbarian Invasions (from the Roman and Greek perspective), is a term sometimes used for the period in the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the ...
but for the contemporary perspective are often related to the , and another in the post-Cold War period. Some regions are entirely invented, such as the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
in 1902 by a
military strategist A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or para ...
,
Alfred Thayer Mahan Alfred Thayer Mahan (; September 27, 1840 – December 1, 1914) was a United States naval officer and historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A ...
, to refer to the area of the Persian Gulf.p. 65, Lewis, Wigen


See also

*
List of historical regions of Central Europe There are many historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hell ...
*
Historical regions of the Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather ...
*
Country subdivision Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for geographical areas into which a particular ...


References


Works cited

* Sven Tägil, (ed.), ''Regions in Central Europe: The Legacy of History'', C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 1999 * Marko Lehti, David James Smith, ''Post-Cold War Identity Politics: Northern and Baltic Experiences'', Routledge, 2003 * Compiled by V. M. Kotlyakov, A. I. Komarova, ''Elsevier's dictionary of geography: in English, Russian, French, Spanish, German'', Elsevier, 2006 * Martin W. Lewis, Kären Wigen, ''The Myth of Continents: A Critique of
Metageography Metageography is a term used by Martin W. Lewis and Kären E. Wigen's 1997 ''The Myth of Continents: A Critique of Metageography'', which analyzes metageographical constructs such as "East", "West", "Europe", "Asia", "North" or "South". which they ...
'', University of California Press, 1997


Further reading

* Susan Smith-Peter, ''Imagining Russian Regions: Subnational Identity and Civil Society in Nineteenth-Century Russia'', Brill, 2017 {{geo-term-stub