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The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano) refers to people,
cultures Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling differ ...
, or countries related to
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
, the
Spanish language Spanish ( or , ) is a of the that evolved from colloquial spoken in the . Today, it is a with nearly 500 million native speakers, mainly in the Americas and Spain. It is the world's after Mandarin Chinese, and the world's overall after , ...

Spanish language
, or
Hispanidad ''Hispanidad'' (, en, Hispanicity) is a term alluding to the group of people, countries, and communities that share the Spanish language Spanish () or Castilian (, ) is a Romance languages, Romance language that originated in the Iberian Pen ...

Hispanidad
. The term commonly applies to countries with a cultural and historical link to Spain and to colonies formerly part of the
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
following the
Spanish colonization of the Americas The Spanish colonization of the Americas began under the Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decad ...

Spanish colonization of the Americas
, parts of the
Asia-Pacific The Asia-Pacific is the part of the in or near the Western . Asia-Pacific varies in area depending on context, but it generally includes , , , and . The term may also include parts of (on the North Pacific) and countries in the which are on ...
region and Africa. These are mainly countries of
Hispanic America Hispanic America (: ''Hispanoamérica'' or ''América Hispana'') (usually known as Spanish America ( es, América española)) is the portion of the comprising the of North, Central, and South America. In all of these countries, is the main la ...

Hispanic America
,
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
,
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea ( es, Guinea Ecuatorial; french: Guinée équatoriale; pt, Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea ( es, link=no, República de Guinea Ecuatorial, french: link=no, République de Guinée équatoriale, ...

Equatorial Guinea
and
Western Sahara Western Sahara ( '; ; ) is a on the northwest coast and in the region of and . About 20% of the territory is controlled by the self-proclaimed , while the remaining 80% of the territory is and administered by neighboring . Its surface ar ...

Western Sahara
. In most of these countries Spanish is the predominant or official language and the cultures are derived from Spain to different degrees, combined with the local pre-Hispanic culture or other foreign influences. Hispanic culture is a set of customs, traditions, beliefs, and art forms (music, literature, dress, architecture, cuisine, or others) that are generally shared by peoples in Hispanic regions, but which can vary considerably from one country or territory to another. The
Spanish language Spanish ( or , ) is a of the that evolved from colloquial spoken in the . Today, it is a with nearly 500 million native speakers, mainly in the Americas and Spain. It is the world's after Mandarin Chinese, and the world's overall after , ...

Spanish language
is the main cultural element shared by Hispanic peoples.


Terminology

The term ''Hispanic'' derives from Latin ''Hispanicus'', the adjectival derivation of Latin (and Greek) ''Hispania'' (that is, the
Iberian peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a peni ...

Iberian peninsula
), ultimately probably of Celtiberian origin. Also
etymology of "Spain"
on the same site.
In English the word is attested from the 16th century (and in the late 19th century in American English). The words ''Spain'', ''Spanish'', and ''Spaniard'' are of the same etymology as ''Hispanus'', ultimately. ''Hispanus'' was the Latin name given to a person from Hispania during . The ancient Roman
Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testame ...

Hispania
, which roughly comprised what is currently called the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a peni ...

Iberian Peninsula
, included the contemporary states of
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
,
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
, parts of
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Ame ...

France
,
Andorra Andorra (, ; ), officially the Principality of Andorra ( ca, Principat d'Andorra), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French ( ...

Andorra
, and the
British Overseas Territory The British Overseas Territories (BOTs), also known as United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs), are fourteen territories all with a constitutional and historical link with the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and N ...
of
Gibraltar ) , anthem = "God Save the Queen" , song = "Gibraltar Anthem" , image_map = Gibraltar location in Europe.svg , map_alt = Location of Gibraltar in Europe , map_caption = United Kingdom shown in pale green , mapsize = 290px , image_map2 = ...

Gibraltar
. In English, the term ''Hispano-Roman'' is sometimes used. The Hispano-Romans were composed of people from many different
indigenous tribes Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples *Indigenous (ecology), presence in a region as the result of only natural processes, with no human intervention *Indigenous (band), an American blues-rock band *Indigenous (horse), a Hong Kong racehorse ...
, in addition to
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
colonists. Some famous ''Hispani'' (plural of ''Hispanus'') and ''Hispaniensis'' were the emperors
Trajan Trajan ( ; la, Caesar Nerva Trajanus; 18 September 539/11 August 117) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors use ...

Trajan
,
Marcus Aurelius Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ( ; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was a Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a vari ...

Marcus Aurelius
,
Hadrian Hadrian (; la, Caesar Traianus Hadrianus ; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He was born into a Roman Italo-Hispanic family, which settled in Spain from the Italian city of Atri, Abruzzo, Atri in Picenum. Hi ...

Hadrian
,
Theodosius I Theodosius I ( grc-gre, Θεοδόσιος ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also called Theodosius the Great, was Roman emperor from 379 to 395. During his reign, he faced and overcame a war against the Goths and two civil wars, and ...

Theodosius I
and
Magnus Maximus Magnus Maximus (; cy, Macsen Wledig ; 28 August 388) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. ...
, the poets
Marcus Annaeus Lucanus Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (3 November 39 AD – 30 April 65 AD), better known in English as Lucan (), was a Roman poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may ...
,
Martial Marcus Valerius Martialis (known in English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has ...

Martial
and
Prudentius Aurelius Prudentius Clemens () was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in th ...
, the philosophers
Seneca the Elder Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Elder (; c. 54 BC – c. 39 AD), also known (less correctly) as Seneca the Rhetorician, was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century B ...
and
Seneca the Younger Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Younger (; AD65), usually known as Seneca, was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', ...
, and the usurper
Maximus of Hispania Maximus, also called Maximus Tyrannus, was a Roman usurper Roman usurpers were individuals or groups of individuals who obtained or tried to obtain power by force and without Legitimacy (political), legitimate legal authority. Usurpation was endem ...
. A number of these men, such as Trajan, Hadrian and others, were in fact descended from Roman colonial families. Here follows a comparison of several terms related to ''Hispanic'': * ''Hispania'' was the name of the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a peni ...

Iberian Peninsula
/Iberia from the 3rd century BC to the 8th AD, both as a
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
province and immediately thereafter as a
Visigothic kingdom The Visigothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of the Goths ( la, Regnum Gothorum), was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries. One of the Germanic peoples, Germanic s ...

Visigothic kingdom
, 5th–8th century. * ''Hispano-Roman'' is used to refer to the culture and people of Hispania. ** ''Hispanic'' is used to refer to modern Spain, to the Spanish language, and to the Spanish-speaking nations of the world, particularly the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th ...

Americas
, Pacific Islands and Asia, such as the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
. * ''Spanish'' is used to refer to the people, nationality, culture, language and other things of Spain. * ''Spaniard'' is used to refer to the people of Spain. ''Hispania'' was divided into two provinces:
Hispania Citerior Hispania Citerior (English: "Hither Iberia", or "Nearer Iberia") was a Roman province in Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5t ...
and
Hispania Ulterior Hispania Ulterior (English: "Further Hispania", or occasionally "Thither Hispania") was a region of Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Ancient Rome, Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces. Under the Roman Republic, Hispania was div ...
. In 27 B.C, Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces,
Hispania Baetica Hispania Baetica, often abbreviated Baetica, was one of three Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Roma ...

Hispania Baetica
and
Hispania Lusitania Lusitania (; ) or Hispania Lusitana was an ancient Iberian Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Roman ...
, while Hispania Citerior was renamed
Hispania Tarraconensis Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman R ...
. This division of Hispania explains the usage of the singular and plural forms (Spain, and The Spains) used to refer to the peninsula and its kingdoms in the Middle Ages. Before the marriage of Queen
Isabella I of Castile Isabella I ( es, Isabel I, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) was Queen of Castile This is a list of kings and queens of the Kingdom and Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that fo ...
and King
Ferdinand II of Aragon Ferdinand II of Aragon ( an, Ferrando; ca, Ferran; eu, Errando; es, Fernando; 10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), also called ''Ferdinand the Catholic'', was King of Aragon from 1479, King of Sicily (as Ferdinand II) from 1469, List of monar ...
in 1469, the four Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula—the Kingdom of
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
, the
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
, the
Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Kingdom of Castile, Castile and Kin ...

Crown of Castile
, and the
Kingdom of Navarre ) , religion = , common_languages = , title_leader = Monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity) ...
—were collectively called The Spains. This revival of the old Roman concept in the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
appears to have originated in , and was first documented at the end of the 11th century. In the
Council of Constance The Council of Constance was a 15th-century ecumenical council An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matte ...
, the four kingdoms shared one vote. The word '' Lusitanian'', relates to Lusitania or Portugal, also in reference to the
Lusitanians The Lusitanians (or la, Lusitani) were an Indo-European speaking people living in the west of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** ...
, possibly one of the first
Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation ...
tribes to settle in Europe. From this tribe's name had derived the name of the
Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Each province was ruled ...
of
Lusitania Lusitania (; ) or Hispania Lusitana was an ancient Iberian Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Roma ...

Lusitania
, and ''
Lusitania Lusitania (; ) or Hispania Lusitana was an ancient Iberian Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Roma ...
'' remains the name of Portugal in Latin. The terms ''Spain'' and ''the Spains'' were not interchangeable. Spain was a geographic territory, home to several kingdoms (Christian and Muslim), with separate governments, laws, languages, religions, and customs, and was the historical remnant of the Hispano-Gothic unity. Spain was not a political entity until much later, and when referring to the Middle Ages, one should not be confounded with the nation-state of today. The term ''The Spains'' referred specifically to a collective of juridico-political units, first the Christian kingdoms, and then the different kingdoms ruled by the same king. Illustrative of this fact is the historical ecclesiastical title of Primate of the Spains, traditionally claimed by the
Archbishop of Braga In many Christian Denominations Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Te ...
, a Portuguese prelate. With the '' Decretos de Nueva Planta'',
Philip VPhilip V may refer to: * Philip V of Macedon (221–179 BC) * Philip V of France (1293–1322) * Philip II of Spain, also Philip V, Duke of Burgundy (1526–1598) * Philip V of Spain (1683–1746) {{hndis, Philip 06 ...

Philip V
started to organize the fusion of his kingdoms that until then were ruled as distinct and independent, but this unification process lacked a formal and juridic proclamation. Although colloquially and literally the expression "King of Spain" or "King of the Spains" was already widespread, it did not refer to a unified nation-state. It was only in the constitution of 1812 that was adopted the name ''Españas'' (Spains) for the Spanish nation and the use of the title of "king of the Spains". The constitution of 1876 adopts for the first time the name "Spain" for the Spanish nation and from then on the kings would use the title of "king of Spain". The expansion of the
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
between 1492 and 1898 brought thousands of Spanish migrants to the conquered lands, who established settlements, mainly in the Americas, but also in other distant parts of the world (as in the Philippines, the lone Spanish territory in Asia), producing a number of multiracial populations. Today, the term ''Hispanic'' is typically applied to the varied populations of these places, including those with Spanish ancestry. Because of their historical, linguistic, and cultural ties with Spain, Filipinos can be considered Hispanic.


Definitions in ancient Rome

The Latin gentile adjectives that belong to Hispania are ''Hispanus, Hispanicus,'' and ''Hispaniensis.'' A Hispanus is someone who is a native of Hispania with no foreign parents, while children born in Hispania of Roman parents were ''Hispanienses''. ''Hispaniensis'' means 'connected in some way to Hispania', as in "Exercitus Hispaniensis" ('the Spanish army') or "mercatores Hispanienses" ('Spanish merchants'). ''Hispanicus'' implies 'of' or 'belonging to' Hispania or the Hispanus or of their fashion as in "gladius Hispanicus". The gentile adjectives were not ethnolinguistic but derived primarily on a geographic basis, from the toponym Hispania as the people of Hispania spoke different languages, although Titus Livius (
Livy Titus Livius (; 59 BC – AD 17), known in English as Livy ( ), was a Ancient Rome, Roman historian. He wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people, titled , covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditiona ...
) said they could all understand each other, not making clear if they spoke dialects of the same language or were polyglots. The first recorded use of an
anthroponym Anthroponymy (also anthroponymics or anthroponomastics, from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Age ...
derived from the toponym Hispania is attested in one of the five fragments, of
Ennius Quintus Ennius (; c. 239 – c. 169 BC) was a writer and poet who lived during the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relatio ...
in 236 B.C. who wrote "Hispane, non Romane memoretis loqui me" ("Remember that I speak like a Spaniard not a Roman") as having been said by a native of Hispania.


Definitions in Portugal and Spain

Technically speaking, persons from Portugal or of Portuguese extraction are referred to as Lusitanians. In Portugal, Hispanic refers to something related to ancient Spain or the Spanish language and culture. Portugal and Spain do not have exactly the same definition for the term Hispanic, but they do share the etymology for the word (pt: ''hispânico'', es: ''hispánico''). The
Royal Spanish Academy The Royal Spanish Academy ( es, Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE) is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language Spanish ( or , ) is a Romance language The Ro ...
(Spanish: Real Academia Española, RAE), the official royal institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language defines the terms "Hispano" and "Hispánico" (which in Spain have slightly different meanings) as: Hispano: * From Spain * Belonging or relative to Spain * Spanish, as applied to a person * Of or pertaining to
Hispanic America Hispanic America (: ''Hispanoamérica'' or ''América Hispana'') (usually known as Spanish America ( es, América española)) is the portion of the comprising the of North, Central, and South America. In all of these countries, is the main la ...

Hispanic America
* Of or pertaining to the population of Hispanic American origin who live in the United States of America * A person of this origin who lives in the United States of America * People from the
Republic of the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republi ...
*Belonging or relative to Spain and Spanish-speaking countries The modern term to identify Portuguese and Spanish territories under a single nomenclature is "Iberian", and the one to refer to cultures derived from both countries in the Americas is "Iberian-American". These designations can be mutually recognized by people in Portugal and Brazil, unlike "Hispanic", which is totally void of any self-identification in those countries, and quite to the contrary, serves the purpose of marking a clear distinction in relation to neighboring countries' culture. In Spanish, the term "hispano" as in "hispanoamericano", refers to the people of Spanish origin who live in the Americas; it also refers to a relationship to Hispania or to the Spanish language. There are people in Hispanic America that are not of Spanish origin, as the original people of these areas are Amerindians.


Definitions in the United States

Both ''Hispanic'' and ''Latino'' are widely used in American English for Spanish-speaking people and their descendants in the United States. While ''Hispanic'' refers to Spanish speakers overall, ''
Latino Latino or Latinos most often refers to: * Latino (demonym), a term used in the United States for people with cultural ties to Latin America * Hispanic and Latino Americans in the United States * The people or cultures of Latin America; ** Latin Am ...
'' refers specifically to people of
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...

Latin America
n descent. ''Hispanic'' can also be used for the people and culture of Spain as well as Latin America. While originally the term ''Hispanic'' referred primarily to the
Hispanos of New Mexico The Hispanos of New Mexico, also known as Neomexicanos ( es, Neomexicano) or Nuevomexicanos, are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shar ...
within the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
,Cobos, Rubén (2003) "Introduction," ''A Dictionary of New Mexico & Southern Colorado Spanish'' (2nd ed.); Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press; p. ix; today, organizations in the country use the term as a broad catchall to refer to persons with a historical and cultural relationship with Spain regardless of race and ethnicity. The United States Census Bureau uses ''Hispanic or Latino'' to refer to ''a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race'' and states that Hispanics or Latinos can be of any race, any ancestry, any ethnicity. Because of the technical distinctions involved in defining "race" vs. "ethnicity," there is confusion among the general population about the designation of Hispanic identity. Currently, the United States Census Bureau defines six race categories: * White or Caucasian * Black or African American * American Indian or Alaska Native * Asian * Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander * Some Other Race According to census reports, of the above races the largest number of Hispanic or Latinos are of the White race, the second largest number come from the Native American/American Indian race who are the indigenous people of the Americas. The inhabitants of Easter Island are Pacific Islanders and since the island belongs to Chile they are theoretically Hispanic or Latino. Because Hispanic roots are considered aligned with a European ancestry (Spain/Portugal), Hispanic ancestry is defined solely as an ''ethnic'' designation (similar to being Norse or Germanic). Therefore, a person of Hispanic descent is typically defined using both race and ethnicity as an identifier—i.e., Black-Hispanic, White-Hispanic, Asian-Hispanic, Amerindian-Hispanic or "other race" Hispanic. A 1997 notice by the U.S.
Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). OMB's most prominent function is to produce the president's budget, but it also examines agency programs, poli ...
defined ''Hispanic or Latino'' persons as being "persons who trace their origin or descent to Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Central and South America, and other Spanish cultures." The
United States Census The United States Census (plural censuses or census) is a census A census is the procedure of systematically enumerating, and acquiring and recording information about the members of a given Statistical population, population. This term is used ...
uses the
ethnonym An ethnonym (from the el, ἔθνος 'nation' and 'name') is a name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing, either uniquely, or within a given ...
s ''Hispanic or Latino'' to refer to "a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Hispanic culture or origin regardless of race." The
2010 Census2010 census may refer to: * 2010 Chinese Census * 2010 Dominican Republic Census * 2010 Indonesian census * 2010 Malaysian Census * 2010 Russian Census * 2010 Turkish census * 2010 United States Census * 2010 Zambian census {{Disambiguation ...
asked if the person was "Spanish/Hispanic/Latino". The
United States Census The United States Census (plural censuses or census) is a census A census is the procedure of systematically enumerating, and acquiring and recording information about the members of a given Statistical population, population. This term is used ...
uses the ''Hispanic or Latino'' to refer to "a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race." The Census Bureau also explains that " igin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino or Spanish may be of any race." The U.S. Department of Transportation defines ''Hispanic'' as, "persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin, regardless of race." This definition has been adopted by the
Small Business Administration The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is a United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. government) is the Federation#Federal governments, national government of the United ...
as well as by many federal, state, and municipal agencies for the purposes of awarding government contracts to minority owned businesses. The
Congressional Hispanic Caucus The Congressional Hispanic Caucus (CHC) is an organization of 38 Democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ' ...
and the
Congressional Hispanic Conference The Congressional Hispanic Conference (CHC) is a Republican sponsored caucus in the United States Congress The United States Congress or U.S. Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States and consi ...

Congressional Hispanic Conference
include representatives of Spanish and Portuguese, Puerto Rican and Mexican descent. The
Hispanic Society of America The Hispanic Society of America is a museum and reference library for the study of the arts and cultures of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo d ...
is dedicated to the study of the arts and cultures of
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
,
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
, and
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...

Latin America
. The Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, proclaimed champions of Hispanic success in higher education, is committed to Hispanic educational success in the U.S., Puerto Rico, Ibero-America, Spain and Portugal. The U.S.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is a federal agency that was established via the Civil Rights Act of 1964 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 () is a landmark civil rights and United States labor law, labor law in the Un ...
encourages any individual who believes that he or she is Hispanic to self-identify as Hispanic. The
United States Department of Labor The United States Department of Labor (DOL) is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government, responsible for occupational safety and health Occupational safety and health (OSH), also commonly referred to as occupational health ...
Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs The Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) is part of the U.S. Department of Labor. OFCCP is responsible for ensuring that employers doing business with the Federal government comply with the laws and regulations requiring nondisc ...
encourages the same self-identification. As a result, individuals with origins to part of the
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
may self-identify as Hispanic, because an employer may not override an individual's self-identification. The 1970 Census was the first time that a "Hispanic" identifier was used and data collected with the question. The definition of "Hispanic" has been modified in each successive census. In a recent study, most Spanish-speakers of Spanish or Hispanic American descent do not prefer the term ''Hispanic'' or ''Latino'' when it comes to describing their identity. Instead, they prefer to be identified by their country of origin. When asked if they have a preference for either being identified as ''Hispanic'' or ''Latino'', the Pew study finds that "half (51%) say they have no preference for either term." A majority (51%) say they most often identify themselves by their family's country of origin, while 24% say they prefer a pan-ethnic label such as Hispanic or Latino. Among those 24% who have a preference for a pan-ethnic label, "'Hispanic' is preferred over 'Latino' by more than a two-to-one margin—33% versus 14%." 21% prefer to be referred to simply as "Americans."


Hispanicization

Hispanicization is the process by which a place or a person absorbs characteristics of Hispanic society and culture. Modern hispanization of a place, namely in the United States, might be illustrated by Spanish-language media and businesses. Hispanization of a person might be illustrated by speaking Spanish, making and eating Hispanic American food, listening to Spanish language music or participating in Hispanic festivals and holidays - Hispanization of those outside the Hispanic community as opposed to assimilation of Hispanics into theirs. One reason that some people believe the assimilation of Hispanics in the U.S. is not comparable to that of other cultural groups is that
Hispanic and Latino Americans Hispanic and Latino Americans ( es, Estadounidenses hispanos y latinos; pt, Estadunidenses hispânicos e latinos) are Americans of Spanish people, Spanish or Latin Americans, Latin American ancestry. More broadly, these demographics include ...
have been living in parts of North America for centuries, in many cases well before the English-speaking culture became dominant. For example,
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
,
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambigu ...

Texas
,
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain West The Mountain West Conference (MW) is one of the collegiate athletic conferences affiliated with the National Collegiate Athletic Association The National Collegiate Athletic ...

Colorado
,
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Greater Albuquerque , OfficialLang = None , Languages = English English usually refer ...

New Mexico
(1598),
Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state, state in the Southwestern United States, Southwestern region of the United States. It is also usually considered part of the Mountain States, Mountain states. It is th ...

Arizona
,
Nevada Nevada (, ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

Nevada
,
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...

Florida
and
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit=Free Associated State of Puerto Rico) is a Caribbean island and Unincorporated ...

Puerto Rico
have been home to Spanish-speaking peoples since the 16th century, long before the U.S. existed. These and other Spanish-speaking territories were part of the
Viceroyalty of New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España, ), or Kingdom of New Spain, was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as t ...
, and later
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
(with the exception of Florida and Puerto Rico), before these regions joined or were taken over by the United States in 1848(Puerto Rico was in 1898). Some cities in the U.S. were founded by Spanish settlers as early as the 16th century, prior to the creation of the
Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. Founded in the 17th and 18th centuries, th ...
. For example, San Miguel de Gualdape,
Pensacola Pensacola () is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle The Florida Panhandle (also West Florida and Northwest Florida) is the northwestern part of the U.S. state of Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeas ...
and
St. Augustine, Florida St. Augustine ( es, San Agustín) is a city in the Southeastern United States The southeastern United States, also referred to as the American Southeast or simply the Southeast, is broadly the eastern portion of the southern United States ...
were founded in 1526, 1559 and 1565 respectively.
Santa Fe, New Mexico Santa Fe ( ; , Spanish language, Spanish for 'Holy Faith'; tew, Oghá P'o'oge; tiw, Hulp'ó'ona, label=Tiwa language, Northern Tiwa; nv, Yootó) is the capital of the U.S. state of New Mexico. With a population of 84,683 as of 2019, it is the L ...

Santa Fe, New Mexico
was founded in 1604, and Albuquerque was established in 1660.
El Paso El Paso (; "the pass") is a city and the county seat of El Paso County, Texas, United States, in the far western part of the state. The 2019 population estimate for the city from the 2010 United States Census, U.S. Census was 681,728, making it ...

El Paso
was founded in 1659,
San Antonio ("Cradle of Freedom") , image_map = Bexar SanAntonio.svg , mapsize = 220px , map_caption = Location within Bexar County , pushpin_map = Texas#USA#North America , pushpin_relief ...

San Antonio
in 1691,
Laredo, Texas Laredo ( ; ) is a city in and the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Tow ...
in 1755,
San Diego San Diego ( , ; ) is a city in the U.S. state of California on the coast of the Pacific Ocean and immediately adjacent to the Mexico–United States border, Mexican border. With a 2020 population of 1,386,932, San Diego is the List of United ...

San Diego
in 1769,
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (dis ...

San Francisco
in 1776,
San Jose, California San Jose, officially San José (; ; ), is the largest city in Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of Califor ...
in 1777,
New Iberia, Louisiana New Iberia (french: Nouvelle-Ibérie; es, Nueva Iberia) is the largest city and parish seat of, Iberia Parish, Louisiana, United States. It is located southeast of Lafayette. In 1900, 6,815 people lived in New Iberia; in 1910, 7,499; and in ...

New Iberia, Louisiana
in 1779, and
Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; xgf, Tovaangar; es, Los Ángeles, , ), commonly referred to by the initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be u ...

Los Angeles
in 1781. Therefore, in many parts of the U.S., the Hispanic cultural legacy predates English/British influence. For this reason, many generations have largely maintained their cultural traditions and
Spanish language Spanish ( or , ) is a of the that evolved from colloquial spoken in the . Today, it is a with nearly 500 million native speakers, mainly in the Americas and Spain. It is the world's after Mandarin Chinese, and the world's overall after , ...

Spanish language
well before the United States was created. However, Spanish-speaking persons in many Hispanic areas in the U.S. amounted to only a few thousand people when they became part of the United States; a large majority of current Hispanic residents are descended from Hispanics who entered the United States in the mid-to-late 20th and early 21st centuries. Language retention is a common index to assimilation; according to the 2000 census, about 75% of all Hispanics spoke Spanish in the home. Spanish language retention rates vary geographically; parts of Texas and New Mexico have language retention rates over 90%, whereas in parts of Colorado and California, retention rates are lower than 30%. The degree of retention of Spanish as the native language is based on recent arrival from countries where Spanish is spoken. As is true of other immigrants, those who were born in other countries still speak their native language. Later generations are increasingly less likely to speak the language spoken in the country of their ancestors, as is true of other immigrant groups.


Spanish-speaking countries and regions

Today, Spanish is among the of the world. During the period of the
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
from 1492 and 1898, many people migrated from Spain to the conquered lands. The
Spaniard ** ** * gl, españois * oc, espanhòls . , native_name_lang = , tablehdr = Spanish diaspora, Diaspora , regions = 41,539,400 Spaniards, or Spanish people, are a predominantly Romance peoples, Romance-speaking ethn ...

Spaniard
s brought with them the Castilian language and culture, and in this , created a global empire with a diverse population. Culturally, Spaniards (those living in Spain) are typically European, but they also have small traces of many peoples from the rest of Europe, such as for example, old Germania, Scandinavia, France, the Mediterranean, the Near East and northern Africa.


Language and ethnicities in Spanish-speaking areas around the world


Areas with Hispanic cultural influence


Culture

The
Miguel de Cervantes Prize The Miguel de Cervantes Prize ( es, Premio de Literatura en Lengua Castellana Miguel de Cervantes) is awarded annually to honour the lifetime achievement of an outstanding writer in the Spanish language. History The prize was established in 1975 b ...
is awarded to Hispanic writers, whereas the
Latin Grammy Award The Latin Grammy Awards are an award by The Latin Recording Academy pt, Academia Latina da Gravação , image = TLRA-LOGO.png , image_border = , size = 250px , caption = , map = , msize = , mcaption ...
recognizes Hispanic musicians, and the Platino Awards as given to outstanding Hispanic films.


Music

Folk and popular dance and music also varies greatly among Hispanics. For instance, the music from Spain is a lot different from the
Hispanic America Hispanic America (: ''Hispanoamérica'' or ''América Hispana'') (usually known as Spanish America ( es, América española)) is the portion of the comprising the of North, Central, and South America. In all of these countries, is the main la ...

Hispanic America
n, although there is a high grade of exchange between both continents. In addition, due to the high national development of the diverse
nationalities and regions of Spain Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = ...
, there is a lot of music in the (
Catalan Catalan may refer to: Catalonia From, or related to Catalonia: * Catalan language, a Romance language * Catalans, an ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia * Països Catalans, territories where Catalan is spoken * C ...
,
GalicianGalician may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Galicia (Spain) ** Galician language ** Galician people ** Gallaeci, a large Celtic tribal federation who inhabited Gallaecia (currently Galicia (Spain) * Something of, from, or related to ...
and
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a Basque culture, common culture and shared genetic ancestry to th ...
, mainly). See, for instance, Music of Catalonia or Rock català, Music of Galicia, Cantabria and Asturias, and
Basque music Basque music refers to the music made in the , reflecting traits related to its society/tradition, and devised by people from that territory. While traditionally more closely associated to rural based and Basque language music, the growing divers ...
.
Flamenco Flamenco (), in its strictest sense, is an art form based on the various folkloric music traditions of southern Spain, developed within the Gitanos, gitano subculture of the region of Andalusia, but also having a historical presence in Extremad ...

Flamenco
is also a very popular music style in Spain, especially in
Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name ...
. Spanish ballads "romances" can be traced in Argentina as "milongas", same structure but different scenarios. On the other side of the ocean, Hispanic America is also home to a wide variety of music, even though ''Latin'' music is often erroneously thought of, as a single genre. Hispanic Caribbean music tends to favor complex polyrhythms of African origin.
Mexican music The music of Mexico is very diverse and features a wide range of musical genres and performance styles. It has been influenced by a variety of cultures, most notably the culture of the indigenous people of Mexico and Culture of Europe#Art, Europe. ...
shows combined influences of mostly European and Native American origin, while traditional Northern Mexican music — norteño and
banda Banda may refer to: People * Banda (surname) *Banda Prakash (born 1954), Indian politician *Banda Kanakalingeshwara Rao (1907–1968), Indian actor *Banda Karthika Reddy (born 1977), Indian politician *Banda Singh Bahadur (1670–1716), Sikh warr ...
polka The polka is originally a Czech people, Czech dance and musical genre, genre of dance music familiar throughout all of Europe and the Americas. It originated in the middle of the nineteenth century in Bohemia, now part of the Czech Republic. The ...

polka
, has influence from polka music brought by
Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both ...

Central Europe
an settlers to
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
which later influenced western music. The music of Hispanic Americans — such as
tejano music Tejano music ( es, música tejana), also known as Tex-Mex music, is a popular music style fusing Mexican and US influences. Typically, Tejano combines Mexican-Spanish vocal styles with dance rhythms from Czech and German genres -particularly pol ...
— has influences in
rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition and the way in w ...
,
jazz Jazz is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human s ...
,
R&B Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African-American communities in the 1940s. The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African ...
,
pop Pop or POP may refer to: Places * Gregorio Luperón International Airport (IATA code POP), Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic * Pop, a tributary of the river Jijia in eastern Romania * Poppleton railway station (station code), York, England People ...
, and
country music Country (also called country and western) is a genre of popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be enjoyed and performed b ...

country music
as well as traditional Mexican music such as
Mariachi Mariachi (, , ) is a genre of regional Mexican Regional Mexican is a Latin music Latin music (Portuguese language, Portuguese and es, música latina) is a term used by the music industry as a catch-all genre for various styles of music from Mu ...

Mariachi
. Meanwhile, native
Andean The Andes, Andes Mountains or Andean Mountains ( es, Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America South America is a continent e ...

Andean
sounds and melodies are the backbone of Peruvian and Bolivian music, but also play a significant role in the popular music of most South American countries and are heavily incorporated into the folk music of Ecuador and Chile and the tunes of Colombia, and again in Chile where they play a fundamental role in the form of the greatly followed nueva canción. In U.S. communities of immigrants from these countries it is common to hear these styles.
Rock en Español Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition and the way in w ...
, Latin hip-hop, Salsa, Merengue, Bachata,
Cumbia Cumbia refers to a number of musical rhythms and folk dance traditions of Latin America Latin America is the portion of the Americas comprising countries and regions where Romance languages—languages that derived from Latin—such as Spanish la ...

Cumbia
and
Reggaeton Reggaeton (, ), also known as reggaetón and reguetón (), is a music style that originated in Puerto Rico during the mid-1990s. It has evolved from dancehall and has been influenced by American Hip hop music, hip hop, Latin American music, La ...
styles tend to appeal to the broader Hispanic population, and varieties of Cuban music are popular with many Hispanics of all backgrounds.


Literature

Spanish-language literature and folklore is very rich and is influenced by a variety of countries. There are thousands of writers from many places, and dating from the Middle Ages to the present. Some of the most recognized writers are (Spain),
Lope de Vega Félix Lope de Vega y Carpio ( , ; 25 November 156227 August 1635) was a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other p ...

Lope de Vega
(Spain), (Spain),
Jose Rizal Jose is the English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the Worl ...

Jose Rizal
(Philippines),
Carlos Fuentes Carlos Fuentes Macías (; ; November 11, 1928 – May 15, 2012) was a Mexican novelist and essayist. Among his works are ''The Death of Artemio Cruz'' (1962), ''Aura (Fuentes), Aura'' (1962), ''Terra Nostra (novel), Terra Nostra'' (1975), ''The O ...

Carlos Fuentes
(Mexico),
Octavio Paz Octavio Paz Lozano (March 31, 1914 – April 19, 1998) was a Mexican poet and diplomat. For his body of work, he was awarded the 1977 Jerusalem Prize, the 1981 Miguel de Cervantes Prize, the 1982 Neustadt International Prize for Literature, and ...

Octavio Paz
(Mexico),
Miguel Ángel Asturias Miguel Ángel Asturias Rosales (; October 19, 1899 – June 9, 1974) was a Nobel Prize-winning Guatemala Guatemala ( ; ), officially the Republic of Guatemala ( es, República de Guatemala, links=no), is a country in Central America ...
(Guatemala),
George Santayana Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás, known in English as George Santayana (; December 16, 1863 – September 26, 1952), was a philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the st ...

George Santayana
(US),
José Martí José Julián Martí Pérez (; January 28, 1853 – May 19, 1895) was a Cuban poet, philosopher, essayist, journalist, translator, professor, and publisher, who is considered a Hero of the Republic of Cuba, Cuban national hero because of his rol ...
(Cuba), Sabine Ulibarri (US),
Federico García Lorca Federico del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús García Lorca (; 5 June 1898 – 19 August 1936), known as Federico García Lorca ( ), was a Spanish poet, playwright, and theatre director. García Lorca achieved international recognition as an emblema ...
(Spain),
Miguel de Unamuno Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo (29 September 1864 – 31 December 1936) was a Spanish essay An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument, but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of a letter, a pape ...
(Spain),
Gabriel García Márquez Gabriel García Márquez (; 6 March 1927 – 17 April 2014) was a Colombian novelist, short-story writer, screenwriter, and journalist, known affectionately as Gabo or Gabito throughout Latin America. Considered one of the most significant au ...
(Colombia),
Rafael Pombo José Rafael de Pombo y Rebolledo (November 7, 1833 – May 5, 1912) was a Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia (), is a country in South America with Insular region of Colombia, territories in North America. Colombi ...
(Colombia), Horacio Quiroga (Uruguay), Rómulo Gallegos (Venezuela), Luis Rodriguez Varela (Philippines), Rubén Darío (Nicaragua), Mario Vargas Llosa (Peru), Cristina Peri Rossi (Uruguay), Luisa Valenzuela (Argentina), Roberto Quesada (Honduras), Julio Cortázar (Argentina), Pablo Neruda (Chile), Gabriela Mistral (Chile), Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina), Pedro Henríquez Ureña (Dominican Republic), Ernesto Sabato (Argentina), Juan Tomás Ávila Laurel (Equatorial Guinea), Ciro Alegría (Peru), Joaquin Garcia Monge (Costa Rica), Juan León Mera (Ecuador) and Jesus Balmori (Philippines).


Sports

In the majority of the Hispanic countries, association football is the most popular sport. The men's national teams of Argentina, Uruguay and Spain have won the FIFA World Cup a total five times. The Spanish La Liga is one of the most popular in the world, known for FC Barcelona and Real Madrid. Meanwhile, the Argentine Primera División and Mexican Primera División are two of the strongest leagues in the Americas. However, baseball is the most popular sport in some Central American and Caribbean countries (especially Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela), as well as in the diaspora in the United States. Notable Hispanic teams in early baseball are the All Cubans, Cuban Stars (West), Cuban Stars and New York Cubans. The Hispanic Heritage Baseball Museum recognizes Hispanic baseball personalities. Nearly 30 percent (22 percent foreign-born Hispanics) of MLB players today have Hispanic heritage. Several Hispanic sportspeople have been successful worldwide, such as Diego Maradona, Alfredo di Stefano, Lionel Messi, Diego Forlán (association football), Juan Manuel Fangio, Juan Pablo Montoya, Eliseo Salazar, Fernando Alonso, Marc Gené, Carlos Sainz Sr. and Carlos Sainz Jr. (auto racing), Ángel Nieto, Dani Pedrosa, Jorge Lorenzo, Marc Márquez, Marc Coma, Nani Roma (motorcycle racing), Emanuel Ginóbili, Pau Gasol, Marc Gasol (basketball), Julio César Chávez, Saúl Álvarez, Carlos Monzón (boxing), Miguel Indurain, Alberto Contador, Santiago Botero, Rigoberto Urán, Nairo Quintana (cycling), Roberto de Vicenzo, Ángel Cabrera, Sergio García, Severiano Ballesteros, José María Olazábal (golf), Luciana Aymar (field hockey), Rafael Nadal, Marcelo Ríos, Guillermo Vilas, Gabriela Sabatini, Juan Martín del Potro (tennis). Notable Hispanic sports television networks are ESPN Deportes, Fox Deportes and TyC Sports.


Religion

The Spanish and the Portuguese took the Roman Catholic faith to their colonies in the Americas, Africa, and Asia; Roman Catholicism remains the predominant religion amongst most Hispanics. A small but growing number of Hispanics belong to a Protestantism, Protestant denomination. Hispanic Christians form the List of contemporary ethnic groups, largest ethno-linguistic group among Christians in the world, about 18% of the Christianity by country, world's Christian population are Hispanic (around 430 millions). In the United States, some 65% of Hispanics and Latinos report themselves Catholic and 21% Protestant, with 13% having no affiliation. A minority among the Roman Catholics, about one in five, are charismatic Christianity, charismatics. Among the Protestant, 85% are "Born again (Christianity), Born-again Christians" and belong to Evangelicalism, Evangelical or Pentecostalism, Pentecostal churches. Among the smallest groups, less than 4%, are Jewish.


Christianity

Among the Spanish-speaking Catholics, most communities celebrate their homeland's patron saint, dedicating a day for this purpose with festivals and religious services. Some Spanish-speakers in Latin America syncretize Roman Catholicism and African or Native American rituals and beliefs. Such is the case of Santería, popular with Afro-Cubans, which combines old African beliefs in the form of Roman Catholic saints and rituals. Other syncretistic beliefs include Spiritism and Curandero, Curanderismo.


Islam

While a tiny minority, there are some Muslims in Latin America, in the US, and in the Philippines. Those in the Philippines live predominantly in Bangsamoro.


Judaism

There are also Spanish-speaking Jews, most of whom are the descendants of Ashkenazi Jews who migrated from Europe (German Jews, Russian Jews, Polish Jews, etc.) to Hispanic America, particularly Argentina, Uruguay, Peru and Cuba (Argentina is host to the third-largest Jewish population in the Western Hemisphere, after the United States and Canada) in the 19th century and following World War II. Many Spanish-speaking Jews also originate from the small communities of reconverted descendants of anusim — those whose Spanish Sephardi Jews, Sephardi Jewish ancestors long ago hid their Jewish ancestry and beliefs in fear of persecution by the Spanish Inquisition in the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a peni ...

Iberian Peninsula
and Ibero-America. The Spanish Inquisition led to many forced conversions of Spanish Jews. Genetic studies on the (male) Y chromosome, Y-chromosome conducted by the University of Leeds in 2008 appear to support the idea that the number of forced conversions have been previously underestimated significantly. They found that twenty percent of Spanish males have Y-chromosomes associated with Sephardic Jewish ancestry. This may imply that there were more forced conversions than was previously thought. There are also thought to be many Catholic-professing descendants of marranos and Spanish-speaking Crypto-Judaism, crypto-Jews in the Southwestern United States and scattered through Hispanic America. Additionally, there are Sephardic Jews who are descendants of those Jews who fled Spain to Turkey, Syria, and North Africa, some of whom have now migrated to Hispanic America, holding on to some Spanish/Sephardic customs, such as the Judaeo-Spanish, Ladino language, which mixes Spanish, Hebrew, Arabic and others, though written with Hebrew and Latin characters. Slavery, Ladinos were also African slaves captive in Spain held prior to the colonial period in the Americas. (See also History of the Jews in Latin America, History of the Jews in Hispanic America and List of Latin American Jews, List of Hispanic American Jews.)


See also

*
Spanish language Spanish ( or , ) is a of the that evolved from colloquial spoken in the . Today, it is a with nearly 500 million native speakers, mainly in the Americas and Spain. It is the world's after Mandarin Chinese, and the world's overall after , ...

Spanish language
** Hispanophone ** Languages of Spain ** Spanish language in the Americas ** Spanish language in the United States ** Chavacano * Latin Americans ** Afro-Latin American ** Amerindians ** Asian Latin American ** Criollo people ** Mestizo ** Mulatto ** White Latin American ** Isleño Americans ** Black Hispanic and Latino Americans, Black Latino American ** White Hispanic and Latino Americans, White Latino American ** Hispanic Heritage Sites (U.S. National Park Service) ** Hispanic Paradox, Latino Paradox ** Cuban-American lobby *
Lusitanians The Lusitanians (or la, Lusitani) were an Indo-European speaking people living in the west of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** ...
* Panhispanism ** Hispanism ** Flag of the Hispanic People ** Hispanophobia * Culture of Spain * Spanish Filipino ** Chavacano ** Philippine Spanish ** Hispanic influence on Filipino culture * Emancipados * Fernandinos * Ibero-America (
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a peni ...

Iberian Peninsula
)
* Latin Union * Hispanos


Notes


References

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External links

* {{Use dmy dates, date=April 2017 Hispanic and Latino, Spanish diaspora Hispanidad Latin American people Latin America la:Hispanicus Historical definitions of race