Himachal Pradesh (; "snow-laden province") is a state
in the northern part of India. Situated in the Western Himalayas
, it is one of the eleven mountain states
and is characterized by an extreme landscape featuring several peaks
and extensive river systems
. Himachal Pradesh shares borders with the Union territories
of Jammu and Kashmir
to the north, and the states of Punjab
to the west, Haryana
to the southwest, and Uttarakhand
and Uttar Pradesh
to the south. The state shares an international border to the east with the Tibet Autonomous Region
The predominantly mountainous region comprising the present-day Himachal Pradesh has been inhabited since pre-historic times having witnessed multiple waves of human migrations from other areas. Through its history, the region was mostly ruled by local kingdoms some of which accepted the suzerainty of larger empires. Prior to India's independence from the British, Himachal comprised the hilly regions of Punjab Province
of British India
. After independence, many of the hilly territories were organized as the Chief Commissioner's province of Himachal Pradesh which later became a union territory. In 1966, hilly areas of neighboring Punjab
state were merged into Himachal and it was ultimately granted full statehood in 1971.
Himachal Pradesh is spread across valleys with many perennial rivers flowing through them. Around 90% of the state's population lives in rural areas. Agriculture, horticulture, hydropower and tourism are important constituents of the state's economy. The hilly state is almost universally electrified with 99.5% of the households having electricity
as of 2016. The state was declared India's second open-defecation
-free state in 2016. According to a survey of CMS – India Corruption Study 2017, Himachal Pradesh is India's least corrupt state.
Tribes such as the Koli
, Hali, Dagi, Dhaugri, Dasa
, and Kirat
inhabited the region from the prehistoric era. The foothills of the modern state of Himachal Pradesh were inhabited by people from the Indus valley civilisation
which flourished between 2250 and 1750 BCE.
The Kols and Mundas
are believed to be the original inhabitants to the hills of present-day Himachal Pradesh followed by the Bhotas
During the Vedic period
, several small republics known as ''Janapada'' existed which were later conquered by the Gupta Empire
. After a brief period of supremacy by King Harshavardhana
, the region was divided into several local powers headed by chieftains, including some Rajputs
principalities. These kingdoms enjoyed a large degree of independence and were invaded by Delhi Sultanate
a number of times.
at the beginning of the 11th century. Timur
and Sikander Lodi
also marched through the lower hills of the state and captured a number of forts and fought many battles.
Several hill states acknowledged Mughal
suzerainty and paid regular tribute to the Mughals.
The Kingdom of Gorkha
conquered many kingdoms and came to power in Nepal
They consolidated their military power and began to expand their territory.
Gradually, the Kingdom of Nepal
. Under the leadership of Amar Singh Thapa
, the Nepali army laid siege to Kangra. They managed to defeat Sansar Chand Katoch
, the ruler of Kangra, in 1806 with the help of many provincial chiefs. However, the Nepali army could not capture Kangra fort which came under Maharaja Ranjeet Singh
in 1809. After the defeat, they expanded towards the south of the state. However, Raja Ram Singh, Raja of Siba State, captured the fort of Siba from the remnants of Lahore Darbar in Samvat 1846,
during the First Anglo-Sikh War
They came into direct conflict with the British along the ''tarai
'' belt after which the British expelled them from the provinces of the Satluj
The British gradually emerged as the paramount power in the region.
In the revolt of 1857, or first Indian war of independence
, arising from a number of grievances against the British,
the people of the hill states were not as politically active as were those in other parts of the country.
They and their rulers, with the exception of Bushahr, remained more or less inactive.
Some, including the rulers of Chamba
, Bhagal and Dhami, rendered help to the British government during the revolt.
The British territories came under the British Crown after Queen Victoria
's proclamation of 1858. The states of Chamba
and Bilaspur made good progress in many fields during the British rule.
During World War I, virtually all rulers of the hill states remained loyal and contributed to the British war effort, both in the form of men and materials. Among these were the states of Kangra
, Jaswan, Datarpur, Guler, Rajgarh
, Chamba, Suket, Mandi, and Bilaspur.
After independence, the Chief Commissioner's Province of Himachal Pradesh was organised on 15 April 1948 as a result of the integration of 28 petty princely states (including feudal princes and ''zaildars'') in the promontories of the western Himalayas
. These were known as the Simla Hills States and four Punjab southern hill states under the Himachal Pradesh (Administration) Order, 1948 under Sections 3 and 4 of the Extra-Provincial Jurisdiction Act, 1947 (later renamed as the Foreign Jurisdiction Act, 1947 vide A.O. of 1950). The State of Bilaspur was merged into Himachal Pradesh on 1 July 1954 by the Himachal Pradesh and Bilaspur (New State) Act, 1954.
Himachal became a Part 'C' state on 26 January 1950 with the implementation of the Constitution of India
and the Lieutenant Governor was appointed. The Legislative Assembly was elected in 1952. Himachal Pradesh became a union territory
on 1 November 1956.
Some areas of Punjab State, namely, Simla, Kangra, Kullu and Lahul and Spiti Districts, Nalagarh Tehsil of Ambala District
, Lohara, Amb and Una Janungo circles, some area of Santokhgarh Kanungo circle and some other specified area of Una Tehsil of Hoshiarpur District
, besides some parts of Dhar Kalan Kanungo circle of Pathankot District—were merged with Himachal Pradesh on 1 November 1966 on enactment by Parliament of the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966
. On 18 December 1970, the State of Himachal Pradesh Act was passed by Parliament, and the new state came into being on 25 January 1971. Himachal became the 18th state of the Indian Union with Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar
as its first chief minister.
Geography and climate
Himachal is in the western Himalayas
. Covering an area of ,
it is a mountainous state. Most of the state lies on the foothills of the Dhauladhar
Range. At 7,025 m, Shilla Peak
is the highest mountain peak in the state of Himachal Pradesh.
system of Himachal is composed both of rivers and glacier
s. Himalayan rivers criss-cross the entire mountain chain.
Himachal Pradesh provides water to both the Indus
and Ganges basins
The drainage systems of the region are the Chandra Bhaga or the Chenab
, the Ravi
, the Beas
, the Sutlej
, and the Yamuna
. These rivers are perennial
and are fed by snow and rainfall. They are protected by an extensive cover of natural vegetation.
Due to extreme variation in elevation, great variation occurs in the climatic conditions of Himachal. The climate varies from hot and subhumid tropical in the southern tracts to, with more elevation, cold, alpine, and glacial in the northern and eastern mountain ranges.
The state's winter capital, Dharamsala
receives very heavy rainfall, while areas like Lahaul and Spiti
are cold and almost rainless. Broadly, Himachal experiences three seasons: summer, winter, and rainy season. Summer lasts from mid-April till the end of June and most parts become very hot (except in the alpine
zone which experiences a mild summer) with the average temperature ranging from . Winter lasts from late November till mid-March. Snowfall
is common in alpine tracts .
Flora and fauna
Himachal Pradesh is one of the states that lies in the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR), one of the richest reservoirs of biological diversity in the world. As of 2002, the IHR is undergoing large scale irrational extraction of wild, medicinal herbs, thus endangering many of its high-value gene stock. To address this, a workshop on ‘Endangered Medicinal Plant Species in Himachal Pradesh’ was held in 2002 and the conference was attended by forty experts from diverse disciplines.
According to 2003 Forest Survey of India
report, legally defined forest areas constitute 66.52% of the area of Himachal Pradesh.
Vegetation in the state is dictated by elevation and precipitation
. The state is endowed with a high diversity of medicinal and aromatic plants. Lahaul-Spiti region of the state, being a cold desert, supports unique plants of medicinal value including ''Ferula jaeschkeana
'', ''Hyoscyamus niger
'', ''Lancea tibetica
'', and ''Saussurea
Himachal is also said to be the fruit bowl of the country,
with orchards being widespread. Meadows and pastures are also seen clinging to steep slopes. After the winter season, the hillsides and orchards bloom with wild flowers, while gladiolas, carnations
are carefully cultivated. Himachal Pradesh Horticultural Produce Marketing and Processing Corporation Ltd. (HPMC) is a state body that markets fresh and processed fruits.
Himachal Pradesh has around 463 bird, 77 mammalian, 44 reptile and 80 fish species.
Great Himalayan National Park
, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
and Pin Valley National Park
are the national Park
s located in the state.
The state also has 30 wildlife sanctuaries
and 3 conservation reserves.
The state bird of Himachal Pradesh is the Western tragopan
, locally known as the ''jujurana''. It is one of the rarest living pheasants in the world. The state animal is the Snow leopard
, which is even rarer to find than the ''jujurana''.
The Legislative Assembly of Himachal Pradesh
has no pre-constitution history. The State itself is a post-independence creation. It came into being as a centrally administered territory on 15 April 1948 from the integration of thirty erstwhile princely states.
Himachal Pradesh is governed through a parliamentary system
of representative democracy
, a feature the state shares with other Indian states. Universal suffrage
is granted to residents. The legislature consists of elected members and special office bearers such as the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker who are elected by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker in the Speaker's absence. The judiciary
is composed of the Himachal Pradesh High Court
and a system of lower courts.
is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister
, although the titular head of government is the Governor
. The governor is the head of state
appointed by the President of India
. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the Chief Minister by the governor, and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the governor on the advice of the Chief Minister. The Council of Ministers reports to the Legislative Assembly. The Assembly is unicameral
with 68 Members of the Legislative Assembly
Terms of office run for five years, unless the Assembly is dissolved prior to the completion of the term. Auxiliary authorities known as ''panchayat
s'', for which local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs.
In the assembly elections held in November 2017, the Bharatiya Janata Party
secured an absolute majority, winning 44 of the 68 seats while the Congress won only 21 of the 68 seats. Jai Ram Thakur
was sworn in as Himachal Pradesh's Chief Minister for the first time in Shimla on 27 December 2017.
The state of Himachal Pradesh is divided into 12 districts
which are grouped into three divisions, Shimla, Kangra and Mandi. The districts are further divided into 69 subdivisions, 78 blocks and 145 Tehsils.
The era of planning in Himachal Pradesh started in 1951 along with the rest of India with the implementation of the first five-year plan
. The First Plan allocated 52.7 million to Himachal Pradesh. More than 50% of this expenditure was incurred on transport and communication; while the power sector got a share of just 4.6%, though it had steadily increased to 7% by the Third Plan.
Expenditure on agriculture and allied activities increased from 14.4% in the First Plan to 32% in the Third Plan, showing a progressive decline afterwards from 24% in the Fourth Plan to less than 10% in the Tenth Plan.
Expenditure on energy sector was 24.2% of the total in the Tenth Plan.
The total GDP for 2005–06 was estimated at 254 billion as against 230 billion in the year 2004–05, showing an increase of 10.5%.
The GDP for fiscal 2015–16 was estimated at 1.110 trillion,
which increased to 1.247 trillion in 2016–17, recording growth of 6.8%.
The per capita income increased from 130,067 in 2015–16 to 147,277 in 2016–17.
The state government's advance estimates for fiscal 2017–18 stated the total GDP and per capita income as 1.359 trillion and 158,462, respectively.
As of 2018, Himachal is the 22nd-largest state economy
in India with in gross domestic product
and has the 13th-highest per capita income () among the states and union territories of India
Himachal Pradesh also ranks as the second-best performing state in the country on human development indicators after Kerala
One of the Indian government's key initiatives to tackle unemployment is the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA). The participation of women in the NREGA has been observed to vary across different regions of the nation. As of the year 2009–2010, Himachal Pradesh joined the category of high female participation, recording a 46% share of NREGS (National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme) work days to women. This was a drastic increase from the 13% that was recorded in 2006–2007.
accounts for 9.4% of the net state domestic product.
It is the main source of income and employment in Himachal. About 90% of the population in Himachal depends directly upon agriculture, which provides direct employment to 62% of total workers of state.
The main cereals grown include wheat
with major cropping systems being maize-wheat, rice-wheat and maize-potato-wheat.
are among the other crops grown in the state.
Land husbandry initiatives such as the Mid-Himalayan Watershed Development Project
, which includes the Himachal Pradesh Reforestation Project (HPRP), the world's largest clean development mechanism (CDM) undertaking, have improved agricultural yields and productivity, and raised rural household incomes.
Apple is the principal cash crop of the state grown principally in the districts of Shimla, Kinnaur, Kullu, Mandi, Chamba and some parts of Sirmaur and Lahaul-Spiti with an average annual production of five lakh
tonnes and per hectare production of 8 to 10 tonnes.
The apple cultivation constitute 49 per cent of the total area under fruit crops and 85% of total fruit production in the state with an estimated economy of 3500 crore
Apples from Himachal are exported to other Indian states
and even other countries.
In 2011–12, the total area under apple cultivation was 104,000 hectares, increased from 90,347 hectares in 2000–01.
According to the provisional estimates of Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare
, the annual apple production in Himachal for fiscal 2015–16 stood at 753,000 tonnes, making it India's second-largest apple-producing state after Jammu and Kashmir
is one of the major sources of income generation for the state. The state has an abundance of hydropower resources because of the presence of various perennial rivers. Many high-capacity hydropower plants have been constructed which produce surplus electricity that is sold to other states, such as Delhi
and West Bengal
The income generated from exporting the electricity to other states is being provided as subsidy to the consumers in the state.
The rich hydropower resources of Himachal have resulted in the state becoming almost universally electrified with around 94.8% houses receiving electricity as of 2001, as compared to the national average of 55.9%.
Himachal's hydro-electric power production is however yet to be fully utilised.
The identified hydroelectric potential for the state is 27,436 MW in five river basins
while the hydroelectric capacity in 2016 was 10,351 MW.
Tourism in Himachal Pradesh is a major contributor to the state's economy and growth. The Himalayas
attracts tourists from all over the world. Hill stations like Shimla
are popular destinations for both domestic and foreign tourists. The state also has many important Hindu pilgrimage sites
with prominent temples like Naina Devi
Temple, Bajreshwari Mata Temple
, Jwala Ji
, Chamunda Devi
Temple, Baijnath Temple
, Bhimakali Temple
, Bijli Mahadev
Temple. Manimahesh Lake
situated in the Bharmour
region of Chamba district is the venue of an annual Hindu pilgrimage trek held in the month of August which attracts lakhs of devotees. The state is also referred to as "Dev Bhoomi" (literally meaning ''Abode of Gods'') due to its mention as such in ancient Hindu texts and occurrence of a large number of historical temples in the state.
Locally, it is called the Land of the Gods because of some popular Hindu temples of Hindu deities. Although neighbouring state Uttarakhand is famous as the land of the gods because of the major Hindu shrines like Badrinath( One of the Char Dham), Kedarnath, Adi- Kailasha, Origin of holy rivers like Ganges, Yamuna, Holy city Haridwar, Rishikesh etc.
Himachal is also known for its adventure tourism activities like ice skating
in Shimla, paragliding
in Bir Billing and Solang valley, rafting
in Kullu, skiing
in Manali, boating in Bilaspur and trekking
, horse riding
in different parts in the state. Shimla
, the state's capital, is home to Asia's only natural ice-skating
rink. Spiti Valley in Lahaul and Spiti District situated at an altitude of over 3000 metres with its picturesque landscapes is an important destination for adventure seekers. The region also has some of the oldest Buddhist Monasteries in the world
Himachal hosted the first Paragliding World Cup
in India from 24 to 31 October in 2015.
The venue for the paragliding world cup was Bir Billing, which is 70 km from the tourist town Macleod Ganj
, located in the heart of Himachal in Kangra District. Bir Billing is the centre for aero sports in Himachal and considered as best for paragliding.
Buddhist monasteries, trekking to tribal villages and mountain biking are other local possibilities.
Himachal has three Domestic Airports in Kangra, Kullu and Shimla districts. The air routes connect the state with Delhi
is in Kullu
district, around from district headquarters.
is in Kangra district, around from district headquarters at Dharamshala
, which is around 10 kilometres from Kangra
is around west of the city.
The only broad-gauge railway line in the whole state connects –Una Himachal railway station
to in Punjab
and runs all the way to Daulatpur, Himachal Pradesh
. It is an electrified track since 1999.
* - Hamirpur
rail project via Dhundla
* Bhanupali (Punjab) – Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh
Himachal is known for its narrow-gauge railway
s. One is the Kalka-Shimla Railway
, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
, and another is the Pathankot–Jogindernagar line
The total length of these two tracks is . The Kalka-Shimla Railway passes through many tunnels and Bridgies, while the Pathankot–Jogindernagar meanders through a maze of hills and valleys. The total route length of the operational railway network in the state is .
Roads are the major mode of transport in the hilly terrains. The state has road network of ,
including eight National Highways
(NH) that constitute and 19 State Highways
with a total length of .
has the highest road density in the country.
Some roads are closed during winter and monsoon
seasons due to snow and landslide
s. The state-owned Himachal Road Transport Corporation
with a fleet of over 3,100, operates bus services connecting important cities and towns with villages within the state and also on various interstate routes. In addition, around 5,000 private buses ply in the state.
Himachal Pradesh has a total population of 6,864,602 including 3,481,873 males and 3,382,729 females according to the Census of India 2011. It has only 0.57 per cent of India's total population, recording a growth of 12.81 per cent.
The scheduled caste
s and scheduled tribe
s account for 25.19 per cent and 5.71 per cent of the population, respectively.
The sex ratio stood at 972 females per 1,000 males, recording a marginal increase from 968 in 2001.
The child sex ratio increased from 896 in 2001 to 909 in 2011.
The total fertility rate (TFR) per woman in 2015 stood at 1.7, one of the lowest in India.
In the census, the state is placed 21st on the population chart, followed by Tripura
at 22nd place.
was top-ranked with a population strength of 1,507,223 (21.98%), Mandi District
999,518 (14.58%), Shimla District
813,384 (11.86%), Solan District
576,670 (8.41%), Sirmaur District
530,164 (7.73%), Una District
521,057 (7.60%), Chamba District
518,844 (7.57%), Hamirpur district
454,293 (6.63%), Kullu District
437,474 (6.38%), Bilaspur district
382,056 (5.57%), Kinnaur District
84,298 (1.23%) and Lahaul Spiti
The life expectancy
at birth in Himachal Pradesh increased significantly from 52.6 years in the period from 1970 to 1975 (above the national average of 49.7 years) to 72.0 years for the period 2011–15 (above the national average of 68.3 years). The infant mortality rate
stood at 40 in 2010, and the crude birth rate
has declined from 37.3 in 1971 to 16.9 in 2010, below the national average of 26.5 in 1998. The crude death rate
was 6.9 in 2010.
Himachal Pradesh's literacy rate has almost doubled between 1981 and 2011 (see table to right). The state is one of the most literate states of India
with a literacy rate of 83.78% as of 2011.
is the official language of Himachal Pradesh and is spoken by the majority of the population as a lingua franca
is the additional official language of the state,
though it is largely restricted to educational and symbolic use.
Most of the population, however, speak natively one or another of the Western Pahari languages
(locally also known as ''Himachali'' or just ''Pahari''), a subgroup of the Indo-Aryan languages
that includes Bhattiyali
, Mahasu Pahari
, Pahari Kinnauri
, and Sirmauri
. Additional Indo-Aryan languages spoken include Punjabi
(native to 4.4% of the population), Nepali
, Lahul Lohar
, and others. In parts of the state there are speakers of Tibeto-Burman languages
(0.12%), Bhoti Kinnauri
, Chitkuli Kinnauri
(or Gahri), Jangshung
, Spiti Bhoti
, and Tukpa
Hinduism is the major religion in Himachal Pradesh. More than 95% of the total population adheres to the Hindu faith and majorly follows Shaivism
traditions, the distribution of which is evenly spread throughout the state.
Himachal Pradesh has the highest proportion of Hindu population among all the states and union territories in India.
Other religions that form a small percentage are Islam
. Muslims are mainly concentrated in Sirmaur
districts where they form 2.53-6.27% of the population.
Sikhs mostly live in towns and cities and constitute 1.16% of the state population. The Buddhists, who constitute 1.15%, are mainly natives and tribals from Lahaul and Spiti
, where they form a majority of 62%, and Kinnaur
, where they form 21.5%.
Himachal Pradesh was one of the few states that had remained largely untouched by external customs, largely due to its difficult terrain. With remarkable economic and social advancements, the state has changed rapidly.
Himachal Pradesh is a multireligious, multicultural as well as a multilingual state like other Indian states. Western Pahari
languages also known as Himachali languages are widely spoken in the state. Some of the most commonly spoken individual languages are Kangri
communities residing in Himachal include the ''Brahmin
'', ''Kannets'', ''Rathis'' and ''Kolis
The tribal population of the state consists mainly of ''Gaddis
s'' and ''Lahaula
Himachal is well known for its handicrafts. The carpets, leather works, Kullu shawl
s, Kangra painting
s, Chamba Rumal
, embroidered grass footwear (''Pullan chappal''), silver jewellery, metal ware, knitted woolen socks, ''Pattoo'', basketry of cane and bamboo (''Wicker'' and ''Rattan'') and woodwork are among the notable ones.
Of late, the demand for these handicrafts has increased within and outside the country.
Himachali caps of various colour bands are also well-known local art work, and are often treated as a symbol of the Himachali identity. The colour of the Himachali caps has been an indicator of political loyalties in the hill state for a long period of time with Congress party
leaders like Virbhadra Singh
donning caps with green band and the rival BJP
leader Prem Kumar Dhumal
wearing a cap with maroon band.
The former has served six terms as the Chief Minister
of the state while the latter is a two-time Chief Minister. Local music and dance also reflects the cultural identity of the state. Through their dance and music, the Himachali people entreat their gods during local festivals and other special occasions.
Apart from national fairs and festivals, there are regional fairs and festivals, including the temple fairs in nearly every region that are of great significance to Himachal Pradesh.
The Kullu Dussehra
festival is nationally known. The day-to-day cuisine of ''Himachalis'' is similar to the rest of northern India with Punjabi
s (''Dāl''), rice
(''Chāwal'' or ''Bhāț''), vegetable
s (''Sabzī'') and chapati
(wheat flatbread) form the staple food of the local population.
Non-vegetarian food is more preferred and accepted in Himachal Pradesh than elsewhere in India, partly due to the scarcity of fresh vegetables on the hilly terrain of the state.
Himachali specialities include ''Siddu'', ''Babru'', ''Khatta'', ''Mhanee'', ''Channa Madra'', ''Patrode'', ''Mah Ki Dal'', ''Chamba-Style Fried Fish'', ''Kullu Trout'', ''Chha Gosht'', ''Pahadi Chicken'', ''Sepu Badi'', ''Auriya Kaddu'', ''Aloo Palda'', ''Pateer'', ''Makki Ki Roti
'' and ''Sarson Ka Saag
, ''Bhagjery'' and ''Chutney
'' of Til.
At the time of Independence, Himachal Pradesh had a literacy rate of 8% – one of the lowest in the country.
By 2011, the literacy rate surged to 82.8%,
making Himachal one of the most-literate states in the country. There are over 10,000 primary schools, 1,000 secondary schools and more than 1,300 high schools in the state.
In meeting the constitutional obligation to make primary education compulsory, Himachal became the first state in India to make elementary education accessible to every child.
Himachal Pradesh is an exception to the nationwide gender bias in education levels. The state has a female literacy rate of around 76%. In addition, school enrolment and participation rates for girls are almost universal at the primary level. While higher levels of education do reflect a gender-based disparity, Himachal is still significantly ahead of other states at bridging the gap.
District in particular stands out for high literacy rates across all metrics of measurement.
The state government has played an instrumental role in the rise of literacy in the state by spending a significant proportion of the state's GDP on education. During the first six five-year plans, most of the development expenditure in education sector was utilised in quantitative expansion, but after the seventh five-year-plan the state government switched emphasis on qualitative improvement and modernisation of education.
In an effort to raise the number of teaching staff at primary schools they appointed over 1000 teacher aids through the Vidya Upasak Yojna in 2001.
The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is another HP government initiative that not only aims for universal elementary education but also encourages communities to engage in the management of schools.
The Rashtriya Madhayamic Shiksha Abhiyan launched in 2009, is a similar scheme but focuses on improving access to quality secondary education.
The standard of education in the state has reached a considerably high level as compared to other states in India
with several reputed educational institutes for higher studies. The Baddi University of Emerging Sciences and Technologies
, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi
, Indian Institute of Management Sirmaur
, Himachal Pradesh University
in Shimla, Central University of Himachal Pradesh, Dharamsala, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur
, Indian Institute of Information Technology Una
, Alakh Prakash Goyal University
, Maharaja Agrasen University
, Himachal Pradesh National Law University
are some of the notable universities in the state. Indira Gandhi Medical College
and Hospital in Shimla, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College
, Rajiv Gandhi Government Post Graduate Ayurvedic College in Paprola and Homoeopathic Medical College & Hospital in Kumarhatti are the prominent medical institutes in the state. Besides these, there is a Government Dental College in Shimla which is the state's first recognised dental institute.
The state government has also decided to start three major nursing colleges to develop the healthcare system of the state.
CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwavidyalya Palampur
is one of the most renowned hill agriculture institutes in the world. Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry
has earned a unique distinction in India for imparting teaching, research and extension education in horticulture, forestry and allied disciplines. Further, state-run Jawaharlal Nehru Government Engineering College
was inaugurated in 2006 at Sundernagar
Himachal Pradesh also hosts a campus of the prestigious fashion college, National Institute of Fashion Technology
(NIFT) in Kangra
Kinnaur Kailash.jpg|Sunrise in Himachal Pradesh, at Kinnaur Kailash.
Sunshine on a snowy mountain at Himachal Pradesh.jpg|Sunshine on a snowy mountain at Himachal Pradesh.
Kalpa Himachal.jpg|Kalpa, a typical town in Himachal Pradesh.
Snowy mountain range in sky.jpg|Snowy mountain range appears to be in sky.
Source: ''Department of Information and Public Relations.''
* Outline of Himachal Pradesh
Statistics and Data, Planning Department, Government of Himachal Pradesh
The Official Site of Himachal PradeshThe Official Tourism Site of Himachal Pradesh, India
; General information
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