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The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
. It includes the cities of
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ),Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inland ...

Mecca
,
Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, ), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam and the Capital city, capital of the Me ...

Medina
,
Jeddah Jeddah ( ), also spelled Jedda, Jiddah or Jidda ( ; ar, جِدَّة, Jidda, ), is a city in the Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia (''Shahada ...

Jeddah
, Tabuk,
Yanbu Yanbu ( ar, ينبع, lit=Spring, translit=Yanbu'), also known simply as Yambu or Yenbo, is a city in the Al Madinah Province The Medina State ( ar, مِنْطَقَة ٱلْمَدِيْنَة ٱلْمُنَوَّرَة, Minṭaqat Al-Madīnah ...
and
Taif Taif ( ar, اَلطَّائِفُ, translit=aṭ-Ṭāʾif, lit=The circulated or encircled) is a city and governorate in the Makkah Province of Saudi Arabia. Located at an elevation of in the slopes of the Hejaz Mountains, which themselves are pa ...
. It is also known as the "Western Province" in
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
.Mackey, p. 101. "The Western Province, or the Hejaz .. It is bordered in the west by the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر, translit=al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar; or ; Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a North ...

Red Sea
, in the north by
Jordan Jordan ( ar, الأردن; tr. ' ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,; tr. ') is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In ge ...

Jordan
, in the east by the
Najd Najd ( ar, نَجْدٌ, ), or the Nejd, forms the geographic center of Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia ...

Najd
, and in the south by the
'Asir Region The ʿAsir Region ( ar, عَسِيرٌ, ʿAsīr, lit=difficult) is a region of Saudi Arabia located in the southwest of the country that is named after the ʿAsīr tribe. It has an area of and an estimated population of 2,211,875 (2017). It sha ...
. Its largest city is
Jeddah Jeddah ( ), also spelled Jedda, Jiddah or Jidda ( ; ar, جِدَّة, Jidda, ), is a city in the Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia (''Shahada ...

Jeddah
, the second largest city in Saudi Arabia, with
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ),Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inland ...

Mecca
and
Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, ), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam and the Capital city, capital of the Me ...

Medina
being the fourth and fifth largest cities respectively in the country. The Hejaz is the most cosmopolitan region in the
Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...
. The Hejaz is significant for being the location of the Islamic
holy cities A holy city is a city important to the history or faith of a specific religion. Such cities may also contain at least one headquarters complex (often containing a religious edifice, seminary, shrine, residence of the leading cleric of the religion ...
of Mecca and Medina, the first and second
holiest sites in Islam The four holiest sites in Islam are: the Kaaba (inside the Masjid al-Haram) in Mecca as the holiest of the four, followed by Al-Masjid an-Nabawi in Medina, the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem and the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus; these sites are accep ...
, respectively. As the site of the two holiest sites in Islam, the Hejaz has significance in the
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
and Islamic historical and political landscape. The region of Hejaz is the most populated region in Saudi Arabia, Arabic is the predominant language as in the rest of Saudi Arabia, with
Hejazi Arabic Hejazi Arabic or Hijazi Arabic ( ar, حجازي, ḥijāzī), also known as West Arabian Arabic, is a variety of Arabic Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety Algebraic varieties are the central objects ...
being the most widely spoken dialect in the region. Hejazis are of ethnically diverse origins. The region, according to Islamic tradition, is the birthplace of the Islamic prophet
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...
, who was born in Mecca, which is locally considered to have been founded by the
Islamic prophets Prophets in Islam ( ar, الأنبياء في الإسلام, translit=al-ʾAnbiyāʾ fī al-ʾIslām) are individuals to serve as examples of ideal human behavior and to spread God's message on Earth. Some prophets are categorized as messenger ...
Abraham Abraham, ''Ibrāhīm''; el, Ἀβραάμ, translit=Abraám, name=, group= (originally Abram) is the common patriarch of the Abrahamic religions, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In Judaism, he is the founding father of the covenan ...
and
Ishmael Ishmael ''Ismaḗl''; Classical/Qur'anic Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of ...
, and matriarch
Hagar Hagar ( he, הָגָר, ''Hāgār'', of uncertain origin; ar, هَاجَر ''Hājar''; gr, Ἁγάρ, ''Hagár''; la, Agar) is a biblical figure. According to the Book of Genesis The Book of Genesis,, "''Bərēšīṯ''", "In hebeginn ...
. The area became part of his empire through the
early Muslim conquests The early Muslim conquests ( ar, الفتوحات الإسلامية, ''al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya''), also referred to as the Arab conquests and the early Islamic conquests began with the Prophets of Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7 ...
, and it formed part of successive caliphates, first the
Rashidun Caliphate The Rashidun Caliphate ( ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ, al-Khilāfah ar-Rāšidah) was the first of the four major caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an ...
, followed by the
Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; , ; ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْأُمَوِيَّة, al-Khilāfah al-ʾUmawīyah) was the second of the four major caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under ...
, and finally the
Abbasid Caliphate The Abbasid Caliphate ( or ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّةُ, ') was the third caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the tit ...

Abbasid Caliphate
. The
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
held partial control over the area; after its dissolution, an independent
Kingdom of Hejaz The Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz ( ar, المملكة الحجازية الهاشمية, ''Al-Mamlakah al-Ḥijāziyyah Al-Hāshimiyyah'') was a state in the Hejaz region in the Middle East (modern-day western Saudi Arabia), the western portion of ...
existed briefly in 1925 before being conquered by the neighbouring
Sultanate of Nejd The Sultanate of Nejd ( ar, سلطنة نجد, ') was the third iteration of the Third Saudi State, from 1921 to 1926. It was a monarchy led by the House of Saud. This version of the Third Saudi State was created when Abdul Aziz ibn Saud, Em ...
, creating the
Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd The Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd ( ar, مملكة الحجاز ونجد, '), initially the Kingdom of Hejaz and Sultanate of Nejd (, '), was a dual monarchy ruled by Abdulaziz following the victory of the House of Saud, Saudi Sultanate of Nejd ove ...
. In September 1932, the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd joined the Saudi dominions of
Al-HasaAl-Ahsa or Al-Hasa may refer to: * Al-Ahsa Governorate, a governorate in Saudi Arabia * Al-Ahsa Oasis, an oasis region in eastern Saudi Arabia * Hofuf, also known as Al-Ahsa, an urban center in the Al-Ahsa Oasis * Al-Ahsa International Airport, Hofu ...
and
Qatif Qatif or Al-Qatif ( ar, ٱلْقَطِيف ''Al-Qaṭīf'') is a governorate and urban area located in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia (''Shahada The ''Shahada'' ( ar, ٱلشَّهَادَةُ ' , "the testimony"), also spelled Shaha ...

Qatif
, creating the unified Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


Etymology

The name of the region is derived from a verb ''ḥajaza'' (), from the Arabic root ''ḥ-j-z'' (), meaning "to separate," and it is so called as it separates the land of the
Najd Najd ( ar, نَجْدٌ, ), or the Nejd, forms the geographic center of Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia ...

Najd
in the east from the land of in the west.


History


Prehistoric and ancient times

One or possibly two
megalith A megalith is a large Rock (geology), stone that has been used to construct a prehistoric structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. There are over 35,000 in Europe alone, located widely from Sweden to the Mediterranean ...

megalith
ic
dolmen A dolmen () is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb A megalith is a large pre-historic stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. There are over 35,000 in Europe alone, l ...

dolmen
have been found in Hejaz. The Hejaz includes both the '' Mahd adh-Dhahab'' ("Cradle of the Gold") () and a water source, now dried out, that used to flow north east to the Persian Gulf via the Wādi Al-Rummah and Wādi Al-Bātin system. Archaeological research led by of
Boston University Boston University (BU) is a Private university, private research university in Boston, Massachusetts. The university is nonsectarian but has a historical affiliation with the United Methodist Church. It was founded in 1839 by Methodists with ...
and the University of Qassim indicates that the river system was active and 2500–3000 BCE. The northern part of the Hejaz was part of the
Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Each province was ruled ...
of
Arabia Petraea Arabia Petraea or Petrea, also known as Rome's Arabian Province ( la, Provincia Arabia; ar, العربية البترائية; grc, ἐπαρχία Πετραίας Αραβίας) or simply Arabia, was a frontier Roman province, province of ...

Arabia Petraea
.


Era of Saleh

Saudi Arabia's and Hejaz's first
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
that was recognized by the
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an ...
is that of
Al-HijrAl Hijr may refer to: * Al-Hijr (sūrah), the 15th chapter of the Quran * Mada'in Saleh, a pre-Islamic archaeological site, occasionally called Al-Hijr, or Hegra * The area inside the hatim, a low semi-circular wall opposite, but not connected to, t ...
. The name "Al-Ḥijr" ("The Land of Stones" or "The Rocky Place") occurs in the
Qur'an The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, believed by Muslims to be a revelation in Islam, revelation from God in Islam, God (''Allah''). It is widely rega ...

Qur'an
, and the site is known for having structures carved into rocks, similar to
Petra The Positron-Electron Tandem Ring Accelerator (PETRA) is one of the particle accelerator A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel electric charge, charged particles to very high speeds and energies, and to ...

Petra
. Construction of the structures is credited to the people of
Thamud The Thamūd ( ar, ثَمُوْد) were an ancient Arabian tribe or tribal confederation that occupied the northwestern Arabian peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , ...
. The location is also called "Madā’in Ṣāliḥ" ("Cities of Saleh"), as it is speculated to be the city in which the
Islamic prophet Prophets in Islam ( ar, الأنبياء في الإسلام, translit=al-ʾAnbiyāʾ fī al-ʾIslām) are individuals in Islam who are believed to spread God In monotheism, monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, c ...
Saleh Saleh () or Salih (; ar, صَالِحٌ, Ṣāliḥ, lit=Pious) is a Prophet In religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, world ...

Saleh
was sent to the people of Thamud. After the disappearance of Thamud from Mada'in Saleh, it came under the influence of other people, such as the
Nabataeans The Nabataeans, also Nabateans (; Nabataean Aramaic Nabataean Aramaic was the Western Aramaic The Western Aramaic languages represent a specific group of Aramaic languages, once spoken widely throughout the ancient Levant The Levant ( ...
, whose capital was Petra. Later, it would lie in a route used by Muslim Pilgrims going to Mecca.


Era of Abraham and Ishmael

According to Arab and Islamic sources, the civilization of Mecca started after Ibrāhīm (Abraham) brought his son Ismāʿīl (Ishmael) and wife Hājar (Hagar) here, for the latter two to stay. Some people from the
Yemen ) , image_map = Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a Sanaa ( ar, صَنْعَاء, ' , Yemeni Arabic: ; Old South Arabian: 𐩮 ...

Yemen
i tribe of
Jurhum Jurhum ( ar, جرهم, Jurhum; also Banu Jurhum or The second Jurhum) historically referred to as Gorrhamite by the Greeks, was an old Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233 The international standard are techn ...
settled with them, and Isma'il reportedly married two women, one after divorcing another, at least one of them from this tribe, and helped his father to construct or re-construct the ''
Ka'bah The Kaaba (, ), also spelled Ka'bah or Kabah, sometimes referred to as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah ( ar, ٱلْكَعْبَة ٱلْمُشَرَّفَة, lit=Honored Ka'bah, links=no, translit=al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah), is a building at the cen ...
'' ('Cube'), which would have social, religious, political and historical implications for the site and region. For example, in Arab or Islamic belief, the tribe of
Quraysh The Quraysh ( ar, قُرَيْشٌ, ) were a grouping of Arab clans that historically inhabited and controlled the city of Mecca and its Ka'ba. The Islamic prophet Muhammad was born into the Banu Hashim, Hashim clan of the tribe. Despite this, ...
would descend from Isma'il Ibrahim, be based in the vicinity of the Ka'bah, and include Muhammad ibn
Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib Abdullah ibn Abd al-Muttalib (; ar, عَبْد ٱللَّٰه ٱبْن عَبْد ٱلْمُطَّلِب, ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib; -570) was the father of the Islamic prophet Prophets in Islam ( ar, الأنبياء في ا ...
ibn
Hashim ibn Abd Manaf Hāshim ibn ‘Abd Manāf ( ar, هاشم ٱبن عبد مناف, Hāshim ibn ʿAbd Manāf; ), born ‘Amr al-ʿUlā ( ar, عمرو ٱلعلا), was the great-grandfather of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the progenitor of the ruling Banu Hashim ...
. From the Period of '' Jāhiliyyah'' ('Ignorance') to the days of Muhammad, the often-warring Arab tribes would cease their hostilities during the time of
Pilgrimage A pilgrimage is a journey, often into an unknown or foreign place, where a person goes in search of new or expanded meaning about their self, others, nature, or a higher good, through the experience. It can lead to a personal transformation, aft ...
, and go on pilgrimage to Mecca, as inspired by Ibrāhim. It was during such an occasion that Muhammad met some Medinans who would allow him to
migrate Migration, migratory, or migrate may refer to: Human migration * Human migration, physical movement by humans from one region to another ** International migration, when peoples cross state boundaries and stay in the host state for some minimum len ...
to Medina, to escape persecution by his opponents in Mecca.


Era of Muhammad

As the land of Mecca and Medina, the Hejaz was where Muhammad was born, and where he founded a Monotheistic ''Ummah'' of followers, bore
patience ''Patience'', Hans_Sebald_Beham.html"_;"title="engraving_by_Hans_Sebald_Beham">engraving_by_Hans_Sebald_Beham,_1540 Patience_(or_wikt:forbearance#English.html" "title="Hans_Sebald_Beham,_1540.html" ;"title="Hans_Sebald_Beham.html" ;"title="engr ...
with his foes or struggled against them, migrated from one place to another, preached or implemented his beliefs, lived and died. Given that he had both followers and enemies here, a number of battles or
expeditions Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and the nat ...
were carried out in this area, like those of ''
Al-Aḥzāb Section from verses 73 of Sura al-Ahzab Al-Ahzab ( ar, الأحزاب, ; the confederates, George Sale translation "the clans", "the coalition", "the combined forces") is the 33rd chapter ('' sūrah'') of the Quran The Quran (, ; ar, ...
'' ("The Confederates"), and Ḥunayn. They involved both Meccan companions, such as
Hamzah ibn Abdul-Muttalib Ḥamzah ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ( ar, حَمْزَة ٱبْن عَبْد ٱلْمُطَّلِب; 568 – 625)Muhammad ibn Saad. ''Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabair'' vol. 3. Translated by Bewley, A. (2013). ''The Companions of Badr''. London: ...
,
Ubaydah ibn al-Harith Ubaydah ibn al-Harith ( ar, عبيدة بن الحارث) (562 – 13 March 624) was a cousin and a sahaba, companion of Muhammad''. Ubaydah was the son of Al-Harith ibn Abd al Muttalib,.Muhammad ibn Ishaq, ''Sirat Rasul Allah''. Translated by Gu ...
and
Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas Saʿd ibn Abī Waqqās ( ar, سعد بن أبي وقاص), also known as Saʿd ibn Malik, was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet. Saʿd was reportedly the seventh person to embrace Islam, which he did at the age of seventeen. He is ...
, and Medinan companions.Witness Pioneer "Pre-Badr Missions and Invasions"
/ref> The Hejaz fell under Muhammad's influence as he emerged victorious over his opponents, and was thus a part of his empire.Holt (1977), p. 57Lapidus (2002), pp. 31–32


Subsequent history

Due to the presence of the two holy cities in the Hejaz, the region was ruled by numerous empires. The Hejaz was at the center of the
Rashidun Caliphate The Rashidun Caliphate ( ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ, al-Khilāfah ar-Rāšidah) was the first of the four major caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an ...
, in particular whilst its capital was Medina from 632 to 656
ACE An ace is a playing card A playing card is a piece of specially prepared , heavy paper, thin cardboard, , cotton-paper blend, or thin plastic that is marked with distinguishing motifs. Often the front (face) and back of each card has a to ...
. The region was then under the control of regional powers, such as
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
and the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
, throughout much of its later history. After the Ottomans lost control of it, Hejaz became an independent state.


Brief independence

After the end of the of Ottoman suzerainty and control in Arabia, in 1916, became the leader of an independent State of Hejaz. In 1924, Ali bin Hussein succeeded as the King of Hejaz. Then Ibn Saud succeeded Hussein as the King of Hejaz and Nejd. Ibn Saud ruled the two as separate units, known as the
Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd The Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd ( ar, مملكة الحجاز ونجد, '), initially the Kingdom of Hejaz and Sultanate of Nejd (, '), was a dual monarchy ruled by Abdulaziz following the victory of the House of Saud, Saudi Sultanate of Nejd ove ...
from 1926 to 1932.


In modern Saudi Arabia

On 23 September 1932, the two kingdoms of the Hejaz and Nejd were united as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The day is a national holiday called Saudi National Day.


Culture


Religion

The cultural setting of Hejaz is greatly influenced by
Islamic culture Islamic culture and Muslim culture refer to cultural practices which are common to historically Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", ...
. Hejaz contains Makkah and Madinah where Islam was firstly established. Moreover, Qur’an is considered the constitution of Saudi Arabia and the Islamic law "sharia’" is the main legal source. In Saudi Arabia, Islam is not just adhered politically by the government but also it has a great influence on the people's culture and everyday life. The society is in general deeply religious, conservative, traditional, and family-oriented. Many attitudes and traditions are centuries-old, derived from Arab civilization and Islamic heritage.


Cuisine

Hejazi cuisine has mostly Arabian dishes like rest of Saudi Arabia. Grilled meat dishes such as
shawarma Shawarma (; ar, شاورما) is a popular Levantine Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In moder ...

shawarma
and
kebab Kebab is a cooked meat dish (food), dish, with its origins in Middle Eastern cuisine, Middle Eastern cuisines. Many variants are popular around the world. In most Anglosphere, English-speaking countries, a ''kebab'' may be the classic shish keb ...

kebab
are well-known in Hejaz. Some dishes are native to the Hejaz, like
Saleeg Saleeg ( ar, سليق ) is a white-rice dish, cooked with broth (chicken or other meat) and milk. It originates in region in the west of , where it is commonly regarded as a of the region. The dish is very popular in the city of . Saleeg origin ...
. The Hejazi dishes are known for their spice.


Geography

The region is located along the Red Sea Rift. It is also known for its darker, more
volcanic A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object A planet is an astronomical body orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an physical body, object, such as the trajectory of a planet ar ...

volcanic
sand Sand is a granular material composed of finely divided rock (geology), rock and mineral particles. Sand has various compositions but is defined by its grain size. Sand grains are smaller than gravel and coarser than silt. Sand can also refer ...

sand
. Depending on the previous definition, the Hejaz includes some of the mountains of the Sarat range, which topographically separate the Najd from Tehamah.
Bdellium Bdellium , also bdellion, is a semi-transparent oleo-gum resin extracted from '' Commiphora wightii'' of India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely ...
plants are also abundant in the Hejaz. Saudi Arabia, and in particular the Hejaz, is home to more than 2000 dormant volcanoes. Lava fields in the Hejaz, known locally by their Arabic name of ''ḥarrāt'' (, singular: ''ḥarrah'' ()), form one of Earth's largest
alkali basalt In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo dur ...
regions, covering some , an area greater than the state of
Missouri Missouri is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Missouri
.


Flags

File:Flag of Afghanistan pre-1901.svg, Flag of the
Rashidun Caliphate The Rashidun Caliphate ( ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ, al-Khilāfah ar-Rāšidah) was the first of the four major caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an ...
(632–661) File:WhiteFlag.png, Flag of the
Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; , ; ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْأُمَوِيَّة, al-Khilāfah al-ʾUmawīyah) was the second of the four major caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under ...
(661–750) File:BlackFlag.svg, Flag of the
Abbasid Caliphate The Abbasid Caliphate ( or ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّةُ, ') was the third caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the tit ...

Abbasid Caliphate
(750–1258) File:Fatimid flag.svg, Flag of the
Fatimid Caliphate The Fatimid Caliphate ( ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْفَاطِمِيَّة , al-Ḫilāfa al-Fāṭimiyya) was an Ismaili Shia Ismāʿīlism ( ar, الإسماعيلية, ''al-ʾIsmāʿīlīyah''; fa, اسماعیلیان, ''E ...

Fatimid Caliphate
(909–1171) File:Flag of Ayyubid Dynasty.svg, Flag of the
Ayyubid dynasty The Ayyubid dynasty ( ar, الأيوبيون '; Kurdish languages, Kurdish: ئەیووبیەکان Eyûbiyan) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurds, Kurdish origin, founded by Saladin and centered in Egypt in the Middle Ages, Egypt, ruling over t ...

Ayyubid dynasty
(1171–1254) File:Mameluke Flag.svg, Flag of the Mamluk Sultanate (1254–1517) File:Ottoman Flag.svg, Flag of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
(1517–1916) File:Flag of Upper Asir.svg, Sheikdom of Upper Asir (1916-1920) File:Ottoman red flag.svg, Provisional flag of the
Kingdom of Hejaz The Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz ( ar, المملكة الحجازية الهاشمية, ''Al-Mamlakah al-Ḥijāziyyah Al-Hāshimiyyah'') was a state in the Hejaz region in the Middle East (modern-day western Saudi Arabia), the western portion of ...
from 1916 to 1917 File:Flag of Hejaz 1917.svg, Flag of the
Kingdom of Hejaz The Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz ( ar, المملكة الحجازية الهاشمية, ''Al-Mamlakah al-Ḥijāziyyah Al-Hāshimiyyah'') was a state in the Hejaz region in the Middle East (modern-day western Saudi Arabia), the western portion of ...
(1917–1920) File:Flag of Hejaz 1920.svg, Flag of the
Kingdom of Hejaz The Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz ( ar, المملكة الحجازية الهاشمية, ''Al-Mamlakah al-Ḥijāziyyah Al-Hāshimiyyah'') was a state in the Hejaz region in the Middle East (modern-day western Saudi Arabia), the western portion of ...
and the
Sharifian CaliphateThe Sharifian Caliphate ( ar, الخلافة الشريفية) was an Arab caliphate proclaimed by the Sharifian rulers of Hejaz in 1924, in lieu of the Ottoman Caliphate The Ottoman Caliphate ( ota, خلافت مقامى, tr, hilâfet makamı; " ...
(1920 to 1926) File:The Flag of Hijaz, part of the Kingdom of Hijaz and Najd.png, Flag of Hijaz, part of the Kingdom of Hijaz and Najd (1926–1932) File:Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd.svg, Flag of the
Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd The Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd ( ar, مملكة الحجاز ونجد, '), initially the Kingdom of Hejaz and Sultanate of Nejd (, '), was a dual monarchy ruled by Abdulaziz following the victory of the House of Saud, Saudi Sultanate of Nejd ove ...
(1926 to 1932) File:Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg, Flag of the
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
(1973–present)


Cities

Al Bahah Region Al-Bahah Province ( ' ) is a provinces of Saudi Arabia, province of Saudi Arabia. It is located in the southwestern part of the Hejazi region. It has an area of 9,921 km2, and a population of 476,172 (2017). Its capital is Al Bahah. The r ...
: * Al-Bāḥah
Al Madinah Region The Medina State ( ar, مِنْطَقَة ٱلْمَدِيْنَة ٱلْمُنَوَّرَة, Minṭaqat Al-Madīnah Al-Munawarah) is a Provinces of Saudi Arabia, State (''mintaqah, minṭaqah'') of Saudi Arabia, located on the Hejaz, country's ...
: * ''Al-Madīnah Al-Munawwarah'' (
Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, ), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam and the Capital city, capital of the Me ...

Medina
) * Badrبـتـصـرف عـن مـجـلـة الأمـانـة الـعـدد عـشـرون شـوال 1419 تـصـدر عـن أمـانـة الـمـديـنـة الـمـنـور
إمـارة مـنـطـقـة الـمـديـنـة الـمـنـورة
* ''Yanbuʿ al-Baḥr'' (
Yanbu Yanbu ( ar, ينبع, lit=Spring, translit=Yanbu'), also known simply as Yambu or Yenbo, is a city in the Al Madinah Province The Medina State ( ar, مِنْطَقَة ٱلْمَدِيْنَة ٱلْمُنَوَّرَة, Minṭaqat Al-Madīnah ...
)
Makkah Province The Mecca Province ( ar, مِنْطَقَة مَكَّة '), also known as the Mecca Region, is one of the 13 Provinces of saudi arabia, provinces of Saudi Arabia. It is the third-largest province by area at and the most populous with a populat ...
: * Aṭ-Ṭāʾif * ''Jiddah'' (
Jeddah Jeddah ( ), also spelled Jedda, Jiddah or Jidda ( ; ar, جِدَّة, Jidda, ), is a city in the Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia (''Shahada ...

Jeddah
) * ''Makkah'' (
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ),Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inland ...

Mecca
* Rābigh
Tabuk Region Tabuk ( ar, مِنْطَقَة تَبُوْك '), also spelled ''Tabouk'', is a regions of Saudi Arabia, region of Saudi Arabia, located along the north-west coast of the country, facing Egypt across the Red Sea. It has an area of 146,072 km ...
: * Tabūk


International tourism development

As a component of
Saudi Vision 2030 Saudi Vision 2030 ( ar, رؤية السعودية ٢٠٣٠ ''ruʾyah al-suʿūdiyah'') is a strategic framework to reduce Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Sau ...
, a 28,000 square kilometer tourism destination is under development on the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر, translit=al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar; or ; Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a North ...

Red Sea
coast between the towns of
Umluj Umluj ( ar, أملج) is one of the List of governorates of Saudi Arabia, governorates in Tabuk Region, Saudi Arabia. References

Populated places in Tabuk Province Governorates of Saudi Arabia {{SaudiArabia-geo-stub ...
() and Al-Wajh (), in the northern section of the Hejazi coast. The project will involve "the development of 22 of the 90+ islands" that lie along the coast to create a "fully integrated luxury mixed-use destination." and will be "governed by laws on par with international standards".


Demographics

The Hejaz is the most populated region in Saudi Arabia, containing 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia. Most people of Hejaz are Sunni, Sunnis with a Shia minority in the cities of Medina, Mecca and Jeddah. Many consider themselves more cosmopolitan because Hejaz was for centuries a part of the great empires of Islam from the Umayyads to the Ottoman Empire, Ottomans. People of Hejaz, who feel particularly connected to the holy places of Mecca and Medina, have probably the most strongly articulated identity of any regional grouping in Saudi Arabia.


Gallery

File:Mina 2.JPG, The camp of Mina, Saudi Arabia, Mina on the outskirts of Mecca, where Pilgrimage#Islam, Muslim pilgrims gather for the ''Hajj, Ḥajj'' (Greater Pilgrimage). ''Masjid Al-Khayf'' is visible to the right. File:Pilgrims must spend the time within a defined area on the plain of Arafat. - Flickr - Al Jazeera English.jpg, Pilgrims gathering at the plain of Mount Arafat File:جبل أحد.jpg, Mount Uhud in the area of Madinah File:DL1W7080.jpg, The Al-Balad, Jeddah, old city of
Jeddah Jeddah ( ), also spelled Jedda, Jiddah or Jidda ( ; ar, جِدَّة, Jidda, ), is a city in the Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia (''Shahada ...

Jeddah
File:Kaust-night-view.jpg, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) campus at night File:Al Wajh Beach.jpg, Beach promenade in Al-Wajh File:Albaha.JPG, Al-Bahah City, located above sea level File:1قرية ذي عين.jpg, Dhi 'ain village located in Al-Bahah Province, Al Bahah Province


Notable Hejazis

* Salih of Thamud


Al-Abwa'

* Musa al-Kadhim ibn Ja‘far al-Sadiq, descendant of Muhammad


Mecca


Pre–6th century CE

* Qusai ibn Kilab ibn Murrah ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr ibn Malik ibn An-Nadr ibn Kinanah ibn Khuzaymah ibn Mudrikah ibn Ilyas ibn Mudar ibn Nizar ibn Ma'ad ibn Adnan the descendant of Isma'il ibn Ibrahim ibn Terah, Azar ibn Nahor, son of Serug, Nahor ibn Serug ibn Reu ibn Peleg ibn Eber ibn Salah (biblical figure), Shelakh,Book of Genesis, Chapters 10, 11, 16, 17, 21 and 251 Chronicles, Chapter 1 Chief of the Tribe of
Quraysh The Quraysh ( ar, قُرَيْشٌ, ) were a grouping of Arab clans that historically inhabited and controlled the city of Mecca and its Ka'ba. The Islamic prophet Muhammad was born into the Banu Hashim, Hashim clan of the tribe. Despite this, ...
, and an ancestor of Muhammad * Abd-al-Dar ibn Qusai, Qusai's son Abd-al-DarSUNY Press :: History of al-Tabari Vol. 39, The
the father of Uthman the father of Abdul-Uzza the father of Barrah bint Abdul Uzza, Barrah the maternal grandmother of Muhammad * Abd Manaf ibn Qusai, paternal ancestor of Muhammad * Abd-al-Uzza ibn Qusai, Abdul-Uzza, son of Qusai, and an ancestor of Barrah bint Abdul-Uzza * Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, Hashim, son of Abd Manaf, paternal great-grandfather of Muhammad, and the progenitor of Banu Hashim in the Tribe of Quraysh * Hubbah bint Hulail ibn Hubshiyyah ibn Salul ibn Ka‘b ibn Amr al-Banu Khuza'a, Khuza'i, wife of Qusai, and an ancestor of Muhammad * Atikah bint Murrah ibn Hilal ibn Falij ibn Dhakwan, wife of Abd Manaf, and an ancestor of Muhammad


Since

* Ab (Semitic), Abu Qasim ibn Muhammad, al-Qasim Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib * Abu Bakr Abdullah ibn Uthman Abu Quhafah ibn Amir ibn Amr ibn Ka'b ibn Sa'd ibn Taym ibn Murrah ibn Ka'b, father-in-law of Muhammad, and Caliph * Umar ibn Al-Khattab ibn Nufayl ibn Abdul-Uzza the descendant of Banu 'Adiy, Adi ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy, father-in-law of Muhammad, and Caliph * Ali ibn Abi Talib, cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, and Caliph * Hamzah, son of Abdul-Muttalib, and a paternal uncle of Muhammad, and other ''Muhajirun'' or Meccan followers of Muhammad, including Ubaydah and Sa'd * Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib, Abu Talib, son of Abdul-Muttalib, Chief of Banu Hashim, paternal uncle of Muhammad, and the father of Ali * Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim, Chief of Bani Hashim, and the paternal grandfather of Muhammad * Khadijah bint Khuwaylid ibn Asad ibn Abdul-Uzza ibn Qusai, and other Meccan Muhammad's wives, wives of Muhammad * Fatimah, other Muhajirun#Daughters of Muhammad, daughters of Muhammad, and other Muhajirun, Muhajir women * Umm Ammar ibn Yasir, Ammar Sumayyah bint Khayyat, wife of Yasir ibn Amir, Yasir ibn Amir ibn Malik al-Ansi, believed to be the first martyr from the followers of Muhammad * Aminah bint Wahb ibn Abd Manaf ibn Zuhrah ibn Kilab ibn Murrah, wife of Abdullah, and the mother of Muhammad


Medina


Pre–6th century CE

* Salma bint Amr, Salmah, daughter of Amr, wife of Hashim, and a great-grandmother of Muhammad


Since

* Caliph Hasan ibn Ali, Hasan, and other Descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib, sons of Ali and Family tree of Muhammad, grandsons of Muhammad born in Medina * Caliph Umar II, Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz ibn Marwan, Abdul-Aziz ibn Marwan ibn Al-Hakam ibn Abi al-'As ibn Umayyah ibn Abd Shams ibn Abd Manaf ibn Qusai, great-grandson of Umar ibn Al-Khattab * Hasan of Basra * Muhammad al-Baqir ibn Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, Ali Zaynul-Abidin, grandson of Hasan and Husayn ibn Ali, Husayn the grandsons of Muhammad * Zayd ibn Ali, Zayd ibn Ali Zaynul-Abidin ibn Husayn ibn Fatimah bint Muhammad, half-brother of Muhammad al-Baqir * Ansar (Islam), Ansari women * Ja'far al-Sadiq ibn Muhammad al-Baqir * Malik ibn Anas, Malik the son of Anas ibn Malik ibn Abi Amir al-Asbahi (not Anas ibn Malik, Anas the companion of Muhammad) * Ali al-Ridha ibn Musa al-Kadhim ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq * Fatimah bint Musa ibn Ja'far, sister of Ali al-Ridha * Abu Ali al-Hadi, Ali Muhammad al-Jawad ibn Ali al-Ridha


Ta'if


6th–7th centuries CE

* Uthman ibn Affan ibn Abu al-'As ibn Umayyah ibn Abd Shams ibn Abd Manaf, son-in-law of Muhammad, and Caliph * Urwah ibn Mas'ud, Chief of Banu Thaqif * Nafi ibn al-Harith, Physician


Since

* Sharif Ali ibn Ajlan ibn Rumaithah ibn Muhammad, son-in-law and successor of Sultan Ahmad of Brunei, father of Sulaiman (Brunei), Sultan Sulaiman, and a descendant of Muhammad


See also

* Al Baydha Project * Desert of Paran * Hejaz Vilayet * Hejazi turban * Hijazi script * Midian * Syria (region)#Sham, Relationship between the Hijaz, Shaam and Yemen * Sharifate of Mecca


Explanatory notes


References


Further reading

* PBK, first edition: 1987.


External links

* {{Authority control Hejaz, Geography of Saudi Arabia Historical regions Historical regions in Saudi Arabia Megalithic monuments in the Middle East Red Sea