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Herzegovina ( or ;
Serbo-Croatian Serbo-Croatian () – also called Serbo-Croat (), Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), and Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS) – is a South Slavic language The South Slavic languages are one of three branche ...
: / , ) is the
south South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Germa ...

south
ern and smaller of two main geographical
regions In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the wor ...

regions
of
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north a ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
, the other being
Bosnia Bosnia ( bs, Bosna / , ) is the north North is one of the four compass points The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar r ...
. It has never had strictly defined geographical or cultural-historical borders, nor has it ever been defined as an administrative whole in the geopolitical and economic subdivision of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bosnia Bosnia ( bs, Bosna / , ) is the north North is one of the four compass points The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar r ...
, the larger of the two regions, lies to the west and north of Herzegovina, while the Croatian region of
Dalmatia Dalmatia (; hr, Dalmacija ; it, Dalmazia; see #Name, names in other languages) is a region on the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, a narrow belt stretching from the island of Rab in the north to the Bay of Kotor in the south. The Dalmatian Hin ...

Dalmatia
lies to the south-southwest, and
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Crna Gora, , , ; sq, Mali i zi) is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (fro ...

Montenegro
lies to the east-southeast. The land area of Herzegovina is around , or around 23–24% of the country. The largest city is
Mostar Mostar (, ; cyrl, Мостар, ) is a city and the administrative center of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton The Herzegovina-Neretva Canton ( hr, Hercegovačko-neretvanska županija; bs, Hercegovačko-neretvanski kanton) is one of 10 cantons of th ...

Mostar
, in the center of the region. Other large settlements include
Trebinje Trebinje ( sr-Cyrl, Требиње, ) is a town and municipality located in the Republika Srpska entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the southernmost city in Bosnia and Herzegovina and is situated on the banks of Trebišnjica river in the re ...

Trebinje
,
Široki Brijeg Široki Brijeg ( cyrl, Широки Бријег, ) is a city and the administrative center of West Herzegovina Canton The West Herzegovina Canton ( hr, Županija Zapadnohercegovačka, bs, Zapadnohercegovački kanton) is one of the cantons of ...
,
Ljubuški Ljubuški () is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the card ...
,
Čapljina Čapljina ( sr-cyrl, Чапљина, ) is a city located in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located on the border with Croatia a mere from the Adriatic Sea. The r ...
,
Konjic Konjic (Serbian Cyrillic The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet ( sr, / , ) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various ...

Konjic
and Posušje.


Etymology

The name ''Hercegovina'' (''Herzegovina'' in English) stems from the archaic
Serbo-Croatian Serbo-Croatian () – also called Serbo-Croat (), Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), and Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS) – is a South Slavic language The South Slavic languages are one of three branche ...
term, ''Herceg'', borrowed from
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
''
Herzog ''Herzog'' (female ''Herzogin'') is a German hereditary title held by one who rules a territorial duchy, exercises feudal Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural custo ...

Herzog
'' (the German term for a
duke Duke is a male title either of a monarch ruling over a , or of a member of , or . As rulers, dukes are ranked below s, s, s, s, and sovereign s. As royalty or nobility, they are ranked below princes of nobility and grand dukes. The title comes ...

duke
; sh, vojvoda), and means a land ruled and/or owned by a ''herceg'', thus literally means duke's land (). The first among the Kosača dukes to use the title ''herceg'' instead of ''duke'' was Stjepan Vukčić Kosača, who became ''Herzog of Hum'' in 1449/50. In December 1481, the lands of Stjepan Vukčić's successors were finally occupied by Ottoman forces. The Ottomans were the first to officially use the name ''Herzegovina'' () for the region in their administrative affairs in 1454, and established a
sanjak Sanjaks (liwāʾ) (plural form: alwiyāʾ) * Armenian language, Armenian: նահանգ (''nahang''; meaning "province") * Bulgarian language, Bulgarian: окръг (''okrǔg''; meaning "county", "province", or "region") * el, Διοίκησι ...
bearing that name in 1470, the
Sanjak of Herzegovina The Sanjak of Herzegovina ( tr, Hersek Sancağı) was an Ottoman administrative unit established in 1470. The seat was in Foča until 1572 when it was moved to Taşlıca (Pljevlja). The sanjak was initially part of the Eyalet of Rumelia but ...
, with its first seat at
Foča Foča ( sr-Cyrl, Фоча, ) is a town and a municipality located in Republika Srpska in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as B ...

Foča
. The name Herzegovina is the most important and indelible Herceg Stjepan's legacy, unique within the entire Serbo-Croatian speaking world of the Balkans, of one medieval person giving his name, or more precisely his noble title, which in the last few years of his life became literally inseparable from his name, to an entire region previously called ''Humska zemlja'', or ''Hum'' for short, which still exists today with the name
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north a ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
.
Although this is just a superficial understanding, because the appearance of the name ''Herzegovina'', recorded as early as 1 February 1454, in a letter written by the Ottoman commander Esebeg from Skopje, can not be attributed to Herceg Stjepan alone, as his title was not of decisive importance after all. Far more crucial was a well-known Ottoman custom to call newly acquired lands by the names of its earlier lords. It was enough for the Ottomans to conquer Stjepan's land as a whole, to start calling it Herzegovina. Also, Herceg-Stjepan did not establish this province as a feudal and political unit of the Bosnian state, that honor befell
Grand Duke of Bosnia Grand Duke of Bosnia ( bs, Veliki Vojvoda Bosanski), in most charters styled as bs, Veliki vojvoda rusaga Bosanskog, ( la, Bosne supremus voivoda / Sicut supremus voivoda regni Bosniae), was a court title in the Kingdom of Bosnia, bestowed by the ...
, Vlatko Vuković, who received it from King Tvrtko I, while Sandalj Hranić expanded it and reaffirmed the Kosača family supremacy.


History


Medieval period

Slavs settled in the Balkans in the 7th century. What later became known as Herzegovina was divided between
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
,
Zachlumia Zachlumia or Zachumlia ( sh, Zahumlje / Захумље; ), also Hum, was a medieval principality located in the modern-day regions of Herzegovina and southern Dalmatia Dalmatia (; hr, Dalmacija ; it, Dalmazia; see names in other langua ...
and
Travunija Travunija or Travunia ( sh, Травунија / ''Travunija''; grc, Τερβουνία, ''Terbounía'', modern pronunciation ''Tervounía''; la, Tribunia), was a South Slavic medieval principality that was part of Medieval Serbia (850–1371), ...
in the
Early Middle Ages The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, is typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century. They marked the start of the Middle Ages ...
. Parts of the region were later ruled by various medieval rulers, with the eastern part mostly within
Medieval Serbia Serbia in the Middle Ages refers to the medieval period in the history of Serbia. The period begins in the 6th century with the Slavic migrations to Southeastern Europe, and lasts until the Ottoman Serbia, Ottoman conquest of Serbian lands in ...
, and the western part in the Kingdom of Croatia. During the 13th and 14th centuries the Bosnian ''bans'' Stjepan I Kotromanić and
Stjepan II Kotromanić Stephen II ( sh, Stjepan II) was the Bosnian Ban from 1314, but in reality from 1322 to 1353 together with his brother, Vladislav Kotromanić in 1326–1353. He was the son of Bosnian Ban Stephen I Kotromanić and Elizabeth, sister of King Ste ...
joined these regions to the Bosnian state, with the King Tvrtko I Kotromanić extending territories even further, beyond what is modern-day Herzegovina proper. During these times, parts of Herzegovina, or Hum, as it was called at the time, were ruled by powerful Bosnian magnates of Kosača family and its branch clans, namely Vuković, headed by Vlatko Vuković, who received it from the King Tvrtko I as an award for his service as a supreme commander of the Bosnian army, and Hranić, headed by
Grand Duke of Bosnia Grand Duke of Bosnia ( bs, Veliki Vojvoda Bosanski), in most charters styled as bs, Veliki vojvoda rusaga Bosanskog, ( la, Bosne supremus voivoda / Sicut supremus voivoda regni Bosniae), was a court title in the Kingdom of Bosnia, bestowed by the ...
, Sandalj Hranić. Another powerful Bosnian noble family, Pavlović, whose seat was near
Rogatica Rogatica ( sr-cyrl, Рогатица) is a town and municipality located in eastern Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often kn ...
in
Drina The Drina ( sr-Cyrl, Дрина, ) is a long Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Ge ...
county, including holdings in Drina and parts of
Vrhbosna Vrhbosna (Врхбосна, ) was the medieval name of a small region in today's central Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is ...
, also sheared a some of the territories in Hum centered around
Trebinje Trebinje ( sr-Cyrl, Требиње, ) is a town and municipality located in the Republika Srpska entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the southernmost city in Bosnia and Herzegovina and is situated on the banks of Trebišnjica river in the re ...

Trebinje
.
Stjepan VukčićStjepan is the Serbo-Croatian variant of Stephen used by Bošnjani, medieval Bosnians/Serbs/Croats. It may refer to: * Stjepan Držislav of Croatia, Croatian monarch * Stjepan II of Croatia, Croatian monarch * Stjepan Svetoslavić, Croatian nobleman ...
, Sandalj's nephew, inherited lordship over the Hum, and was the last Bosnian nobleman who had effective control over the province (''zemlja'') before Ottoman conquest. He titled himself ''Duke of Hum and Primorje, Bosnian Grand Duke, Knyaz of Drina'', and later ''
Herzog ''Herzog'' (female ''Herzogin'') is a German hereditary title held by one who rules a territorial duchy, exercises feudal Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural custo ...

Herzog
of
Saint Sava In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of Q-D-Š, holiness, likeness, or closeness to God. However, the use of the term ''saint'' depends on the context and Christian denomination, denomination ...

Saint Sava
, Lord of Hum and Bosnian Grand Duke, Knyaz of Drina and the rest''. Following the Ottomans conquest and fall of Bosnian Kingdom, ''Hum'' or ''Humska zemlja'' became known as ''Hercegovina'' (), which literally means Herzog's land.


Ottoman period

In 1482, the lands of Stefan Vukčić's successors were occupied by Ottoman forces. The Ottomans were the first to begin officially using the name Herzegovina (Hersek) for the region. The Bosnian beylerbey Isa-beg Ishaković mentioned the name in a letter from 1454. In the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
, Herzegovina was organized as a ''
sanjak Sanjaks (liwāʾ) (plural form: alwiyāʾ) * Armenian language, Armenian: նահանգ (''nahang''; meaning "province") * Bulgarian language, Bulgarian: окръг (''okrǔg''; meaning "county", "province", or "region") * el, Διοίκησι ...
'', the
Sanjak of Herzegovina The Sanjak of Herzegovina ( tr, Hersek Sancağı) was an Ottoman administrative unit established in 1470. The seat was in Foča until 1572 when it was moved to Taşlıca (Pljevlja). The sanjak was initially part of the Eyalet of Rumelia but ...
, within the
Bosnia Eyalet The Eyalet of Bosnia (Ottoman Turkish Ottoman Turkish ( ota, لِسانِ عُثمانى, , ; tr, Osmanlı Türkçesi) was the standardized register A register is an authoritative list of one kind of information. Register or registration m ...
. According to the Turkish census of Herzegovina from 1477, some villages were mentioned as being "in the possession of Vlachs," while others, were listed as "Serb settlements" and mostly deserted. According to Ottoman
defter A ''defter'' (plural: ''defterler'') was a type of tax register and land cadastre in the Ottoman Empire. Description The information collected could vary, but ''tahrir defterleri'' typically included details of villages, dwellings, household h ...
s, at the end of 15th century in Herzegovina were at least 35,000 of Vlachs. During the
Long War (1591–1606) The Long Turkish War or Thirteen Years' War was an indecisive land war between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire, primarily over the Principalities of Wallachia, Transylvania, and Moldavia. It was waged from 1593 to 1606 but in Europe ...
, Serbs rose up in Herzegovina (1596–97), but they were quickly suppressed after their defeat at the field of
Gacko Gacko ( sr-cyrl, Гацко) is a town and municipality located in Republika Srpska Republika Srpska ( sr-cyr, Република Српска, ) is one of the two of , the other being the . It is located in the north and east of the co ...

Gacko
. The Candian War of 1645 to 1669 caused great damage to the region as the
Republic of Venice The Republic of Venice ( it, Repubblica di Venezia; vec, Repùblega de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic ( it, Repubblica Veneta; vec, Repùblega Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima ( en, Most Serene Republic Most Serene Republic ( ...
and the Ottoman Empire fought for control over
Dalmatia Dalmatia (; hr, Dalmacija ; it, Dalmazia; see #Name, names in other languages) is a region on the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, a narrow belt stretching from the island of Rab in the north to the Bay of Kotor in the south. The Dalmatian Hin ...

Dalmatia
and coastal Herzegovina. As a result of the
Treaty of Karlowitz The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed on 26 January 1699 in Karlowitz, Military Frontier The Military Frontier (german: Militärgrenze, sh, Vojna krajina/Vojna granica, Војна крајина/Војна граница; hu, Katonai határőrvi ...

Treaty of Karlowitz
of 1699, the Ottomans gained access to the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest ...

Adriatic Sea
through the
Neum Neum ( sr-cyrl, Неум, ) is a town and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South Sout ...

Neum
- Klek coastal area. The
Republic of Dubrovnik A republic ( la, res publica, links=yes, meaning "public affair") is a List of forms of government, form of government in which "power is held by the people and their elected representatives". In republics, the country is considered a "public m ...
ceded this to distance themselves from the
Venetian Republic The Republic of Venice ( it, Repubblica di Venezia; vec, Repùblega de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic ( it, Repubblica Veneta; vec, Repùblega Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima ( en, Most Serene Republic Most Serene Republic ( ...
's influence. The Ottomans benefitted from this in gaining the region's salt. As a result of the Bosnian Uprising (1831–32), the Vilayet was split to form the separate
Herzegovina Eyalet The Eyalet of Herzegovina ( ota, ایالت هرسك; Eyālet-i Hersek, sh, Hercegovački pašaluk) was an Ottoman Empire, Ottoman eyalet from 1833 to 1851. Its last capital was Mostar. History In 1831, Bosnian kapudan Husein Gradaščević occu ...
, ruled by semi-independent
vizier A vizier (; ar, وزير, wazīr; fa, وزیر, vazīr), or wazir, is a high-ranking political advisor or minister in the near east. The caliphs gave the title ''wazir'' to a minister formerly called ' (secretary), who was at first merely a ...
Ali-paša Rizvanbegović. After his death, the eyalets of Bosnia and Herzegovina were merged. The new joint entity was after 1853 commonly referred to as Bosnia and Herzegovina. Serbs in the region revolted against the Ottomans (1852–62) and were aided by the Montenegrins, who sought the liberation of the Serb people from Ottoman rule. The Herzegovinian Serbs frequently rose up against the Ottoman rule; culminating in the Herzegovina Uprising (1875-78), which was supported by the
Principality of Serbia The Principality of Serbia ( sr-Cyrl, Кнежевина Србија, Kneževina Srbija) was an independent state in the Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Euro ...
and Montenegro. Montenegro did succeed in liberating and annexing large parts of Herzegovina before the
Berlin Congress The Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878) was a meeting of the representatives of the era's six great powers in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by conventio ...
of 1878, including the
Nikšić Nikšić ( cnr, Никшић, italic=no, sr-cyrl, Никшић, italic=no; ), is the second largest city in Montenegro, with a total population of 56,970 located in the west of the country, in the centre of the spacious Nikšić field at the foot o ...
area; the historical Herzegovina region annexed to Montenegro is known as East or
Old Herzegovina within borders of modern states, including the ''Old Herzegovina'', in Montenegro (red) and Serbia (yellow) Old Herzegovina ( sr, Стара Херцеговина, cnr, italics=yes, Stara Hercegovina) is a historical region, covering eastern par ...

Old Herzegovina
.


Modern history

As a result of the
Treaty of Berlin (1878) The Treaty of Berlin (formally the Treaty between Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain and Ireland, Italy, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire for the Settlement of Affairs in the East) was signed on 13 July 1878. In the aftermath of the Ru ...
, Herzegovina, along with Bosnia, were occupied by Austria-Hungary, only nominally remaining under Ottoman rule. The historical Herzegovina region in the
Principality of Montenegro The Principality of Montenegro ( sr, Књажевина Црна Горa, Knjaževina Crna Gora) was a former realm in Southeastern Europe that existed from 13 March 1852 to 28 August 1910. It was then proclaimed a kingdom by Nikola I, who then ...
was known as East or
Old Herzegovina within borders of modern states, including the ''Old Herzegovina'', in Montenegro (red) and Serbia (yellow) Old Herzegovina ( sr, Стара Херцеговина, cnr, italics=yes, Stara Hercegovina) is a historical region, covering eastern par ...

Old Herzegovina
. The Serb population of Herzegovina and Bosnia hoped for annexation to
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may ref ...

Serbia
and Montenegro. The Franciscan order opened the first university in Herzegovina in 1895 in
Mostar Mostar (, ; cyrl, Мостар, ) is a city and the administrative center of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton The Herzegovina-Neretva Canton ( hr, Hercegovačko-neretvanska županija; bs, Hercegovačko-neretvanski kanton) is one of 10 cantons of th ...

Mostar
. In 1908, Austria-Hungary annexed the province, leading to the Bosnian Crisis, an international dispute which barely failed to precipitate a world war immediately, and was an important step in the buildup of international tensions during the years leading up to the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
. The assassination of the
Archduke Franz Ferdinand Archduke Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria of Austria (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was the heir presumptive to the throne of Austria-Hungary. His Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, assassination in Sarajevo is conside ...
came as a direct result of the resentment of the Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina against Austro-Hungarian rule. During
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, Herzegovina was a scene of inter-ethnic conflict. During the war, the Austro-Hungarian government formed Šuckori, Muslim para-militia units. Šuckori units were especially active in Herzegovina. Persecution of Serbs conducted by the Austro-Hungarian authorities was the "first incidence of active 'ethnic cleansing' in Bosnia and Herzegovina". In 1918, Herzegovina became a part of the newly formed
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female monarch Taxonomy * Kingdom (biology), a category in biological taxonomy Arts a ...
(later renamed
Kingdom of Yugoslavia The Kingdom of Yugoslavia ( sh, Kraljevina Jugoslavija / Краљевина Југославија; sl, Kraljevina Jugoslavija) was a state in Southeast Europe, Southeast and Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1941. From 1918 to 1929 ...
). In 1941 Herzegovina fell once again under the rule of the
fascist Fascism () is a form of far-right Far-right politics, also referred to as the extreme right or right-wing extremism, are politics further on the right of the left–right political spectrum than the standard political right, particular ...

fascist
Independent State of Croatia The Independent State of Croatia ( sh, Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH; german: Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; it, Stato indipendente di Croazia) was a World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII ...

Independent State of Croatia
. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, Herzegovina was a battleground between fascist Croat
Ustaše The Ustaše (), also known by anglicised versions Ustasha or Ustashe, was a Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croati ...
, royalist Serb Četniks, and the communist
Yugoslav Partisans The Yugoslav Partisans,Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian language, Macedonian, Slovene language, Slovene: ''Partizani,'' Партизани or the National Liberation Army, sh, Narodnooslobodilačka vojska (NOV), Народноослободилачк ...
; Herzegovina was a part of the
Independent State of Croatia The Independent State of Croatia ( sh, Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH; german: Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; it, Stato indipendente di Croazia) was a World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII ...

Independent State of Croatia
, administratively divided into the counties of Hum and Dubrava, then in 1945,
Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina ( sh, Socijalistička Republika Bosna i Hercegovina / Социјалистичка Pепублика Босна и Херцеговина), commonly referred to as Socialist Bosnia or simply Bosni ...
became one of the republics of
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, commonly referred to as SFR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a Socialist state, socialist country in Southeast Europe, Southeast and Central Europe that existed from its foundation in the afte ...
. It remained so until the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s. During the
Bosnian War The Bosnian War ( sh, Rat u Bosni i Hercegovini / Рат у Босни и Херцеговини) was an international armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, ...
, large parts of western and central Herzegovina came under control of the Croat republic of
Herzeg-Bosnia The Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia ( hr, Hrvatska Republika Herceg-Bosna) was an unrecognised geopolitical entity and proto-state in Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was proclaimed on 18 November 1991 under the n ...
(which later joined the
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the two entities Entity may refer to: Computing * Character entity reference, replacement text for a character in HTML or XML * Entity class, a thing of interest within an entity–relations ...
) while eastern Herzegovina became a part of
Republika Srpska Republika Srpska ( sr-cyr, Република Српска, ) is one of the two entities Entity may refer to: Computing * Character entity reference, replacement text for a character in HTML or XML * Entity class, a thing of interest within ...

Republika Srpska
.


Geography

Herzegovina is a
south South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Germa ...

south
ern
region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The ...

region
of
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north a ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
. Its borders and territory have never been geographically or culturally-historically strictly defined, nor has ever been defined as an administrative whole in the geopolitical and economic subdivision of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is also true considering
regionalisation Regionalisation is the tendency to form Decentralization, decentralised regions. Regionalisation or land classification can be observed in various disciplines: *In agriculture, see Agricultural Land Classification. *In biogeography, see Biogeogr ...
in the modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. The larger of two Bosnia and Herzegovina regions,
Bosnia Bosnia ( bs, Bosna / , ) is the north North is one of the four compass points The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar r ...
, is to the west and north of Herzegovina, and the border between two regions, Herzegovina and Bosnia, is unclear as it has never been strictly defined. To the south-southwest of region lies Croatian region of
Dalmatia Dalmatia (; hr, Dalmacija ; it, Dalmazia; see #Name, names in other languages) is a region on the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, a narrow belt stretching from the island of Rab in the north to the Bay of Kotor in the south. The Dalmatian Hin ...

Dalmatia
, and to the east-southeast is
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Crna Gora, , , ; sq, Mali i zi) is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (fro ...

Montenegro
. The land area is , or around 23% of the total area of the present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina, to , or around 24% of the country. The terrain of Herzegovina is mostly hilly
karst Karst is a topography Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surfaces. The topography of an area could refer to the surface forms and features themselves, or a description (especially their depiction in maps). Topography ...

karst
with high mountains in the north such as Čvrsnica and
Prenj Prenj ( sr-cyrl, Прењ) is a list of mountains in Bosnia and Herzegovina, mountain range in the Dinaric Alps of southern Bosnia and Herzegovina, located in eastern Herzegovina near Mostar, Jablanica, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Jablanica and Konjic ...

Prenj
, except for the central valley of the river
Neretva The Neretva ( sr-cyrl, Неретва, ), also known as Narenta, is one of the largest rivers of the eastern part of the Adriatic The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the nor ...

Neretva
. The upper reaches of the River Neretva lie in northern Herzegovina, a heavily forested area with fast-flowing rivers and high mountains. Konjic and Jablanica lie in this area. The Neretva rises on Lebršnik Mountain, close to the
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Crna Gora, , , ; sq, Mali i zi) is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (fro ...

Montenegro
border, and as the river flows west, it enters Herzegovina. The entire upper catchment of the Neretva constitutes a precious ecoregion with many endemic and endangered species. The river carves through the precipitous karst terrain, providing excellent opportunities for rafting and kayaking, while the spectacular scenery of the surrounding mountains and forests is a challenging hiking terrain. The Neretva's tributaries in the upper reaches are mostly short, due to the mountainous terrain: the River Rakitnica has cut a deep canyon, its waters being one of the least explored areas in this part of Europe. The Rakitnica flows into Neretva upstream from Konjic. The Neretva then flows northwest, through Konjic. It enters the Jablanica Reservoir (''Jablaničko jezero''), one of the largest in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The lake ends near the town of Jablanica. From here on, the Neretva turns southward, continuing toward the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest ...

Adriatic Sea
. With the mountains lining its shores gradually receding, the Neretva enters a valley where the city of
Mostar Mostar (, ; cyrl, Мостар, ) is a city and the administrative center of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton The Herzegovina-Neretva Canton ( hr, Hercegovačko-neretvanska županija; bs, Hercegovačko-neretvanski kanton) is one of 10 cantons of th ...

Mostar
lies. It flows under the old bridge (''
Stari most Stari Most ( sr, Стари мост, lit=Old Bridge), also known as Mostar Bridge ( tr, Mostar Köprüsü), is a rebuilt 16th-century Ottoman Empire, Ottoman bridge in the city of Mostar in Bosnia and Herzegovina that crosses the river Neretva ...

Stari most
'') and continues, now wider, toward the town of Čapljina and the
Neretva Delta Neretva Delta is the river delta A river delta is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body. Landforms together make up a given terrain, and their arrangement in the ...
in Croatia before emptying into the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest ...

Adriatic Sea
.


Cities and towns

The largest city is
Mostar Mostar (, ; cyrl, Мостар, ) is a city and the administrative center of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton The Herzegovina-Neretva Canton ( hr, Hercegovačko-neretvanska županija; bs, Hercegovačko-neretvanski kanton) is one of 10 cantons of th ...

Mostar
, in the center of the region. Other larger towns include
Trebinje Trebinje ( sr-Cyrl, Требиње, ) is a town and municipality located in the Republika Srpska entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the southernmost city in Bosnia and Herzegovina and is situated on the banks of Trebišnjica river in the re ...

Trebinje
,
Stolac Stolac ( sr-cyr, Столац) is a town and municipality located in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in the region of Herzegovina. Stolac is situated in t ...
,
Široki Brijeg Široki Brijeg ( cyrl, Широки Бријег, ) is a city and the administrative center of West Herzegovina Canton The West Herzegovina Canton ( hr, Županija Zapadnohercegovačka, bs, Zapadnohercegovački kanton) is one of the cantons of ...
, Posušje,
Ljubuški Ljubuški () is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the card ...
,
Grude Grude ( cyrl, Груде, ) is a town and a municipality located in of the , an entity of . Geography Grude is located 49 s from , 19 kilometers from , and 100 km from . History Pre-history and ancient times Testimony about life ...

Grude
,
Konjic Konjic (Serbian Cyrillic The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet ( sr, / , ) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various ...

Konjic
, and
Čapljina Čapljina ( sr-cyrl, Чапљина, ) is a city located in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located on the border with Croatia a mere from the Adriatic Sea. The r ...
.
Mostar Mostar (, ; cyrl, Мостар, ) is a city and the administrative center of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton The Herzegovina-Neretva Canton ( hr, Hercegovačko-neretvanska županija; bs, Hercegovačko-neretvanski kanton) is one of 10 cantons of th ...

Mostar
is the best-known urban area and the official capital. It is the only city with over 100,000 citizens. There are no other large cities in Herzegovina, though some have illustrious histories.
Stolac Stolac ( sr-cyr, Столац) is a town and municipality located in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in the region of Herzegovina. Stolac is situated in t ...
, for example, is perhaps Herzegovina's oldest city. Settlements date from the
Paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age (from Greek palaios - old, lithos - stone), is a period in prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history ...
period (
Badanj Cave Badanj Cave ( Bosnian: ''Pećina Badanj'') is located in Borojevići village near the town of Stolac, Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally ...
). An
Illyrian tribe This is a list of ancient tribes in the ancient territory of Illyria In classical antiquity, Illyria ( grc, Ἰλλυρία, ''Illyría'' or , ''Illyrís''; la, Illyria, ''Illyricum'') was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula ...
lived in the city of
Daorson Daorson (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: Mycenaean ...

Daorson
. There were several Roman settlements alongside the Bregava River and
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...

medieval
inhabitants left large stone grave monuments called stećak in
Radimlja Radimlja ( sr-cyr, Радимља) is a stećak necropolis located near Stolac, Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in Vidovo polje, 3 km west of Stolac, on the Čapljina-Stolac road. The Radimlja necropolis is one of the most valuable monu ...
.
Trebinje Trebinje ( sr-Cyrl, Требиње, ) is a town and municipality located in the Republika Srpska entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the southernmost city in Bosnia and Herzegovina and is situated on the banks of Trebišnjica river in the re ...

Trebinje
, on the Trebišnjica River, is the southernmost city in Bosnia and Herzegovina, near the
Montenegro Montenegro (; cnr, Crna Gora, , , ; sq, Mali i zi) is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (fro ...

Montenegro
border.
Čapljina Čapljina ( sr-cyrl, Чапљина, ) is a city located in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located on the border with Croatia a mere from the Adriatic Sea. The r ...
and
Ljubuški Ljubuški () is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the card ...
are known for their history and their rivers; the village of has religious importance for many
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman Catholic
s.


Administration

In the modern state of Bosnia and Herzegovina, area of Herzegovina is divided between two entities,
Republika Srpska Republika Srpska ( sr-cyr, Република Српска, ) is one of the two entities Entity may refer to: Computing * Character entity reference, replacement text for a character in HTML or XML * Entity class, a thing of interest within ...

Republika Srpska
and the
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the two entities Entity may refer to: Computing * Character entity reference, replacement text for a character in HTML or XML * Entity class, a thing of interest within an entity–relations ...
. Republika Srpska's part of Herzegovina, commonly referred to as
East Herzegovina East Herzegovina ( sh, Istočna Hercegovina, Источна Херцеговина) is the eastern part of the historical Herzegovina region in Bosnia and Herzegovina, east of the Neretva river, part of the Republika Srpska entity. Major towns are ...
or, as of late, "Trebinje Region", is administratively divided into municipalities of ,
Bileća Bileća ( sr-cyrl, Билећа) is a town and municipality located in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As of 2013, the town has a population of 7,476 inhabitants, while the municipality has 10,807 inhabitants. History ...
,
Gacko Gacko ( sr-cyrl, Гацко) is a town and municipality located in Republika Srpska Republika Srpska ( sr-cyr, Република Српска, ) is one of the two of , the other being the . It is located in the north and east of the co ...

Gacko
, Istočni Mostar, Ljubinje, Nevesinje, and
Trebinje Trebinje ( sr-Cyrl, Требиње, ) is a town and municipality located in the Republika Srpska entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the southernmost city in Bosnia and Herzegovina and is situated on the banks of Trebišnjica river in the re ...

Trebinje
. Within the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Herzegovina is administratively divided between the cantons of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton, Herzegovina-Neretva and West Herzegovina Canton, West Herzegovina. Mezoregija Trebinje PP.PNG,
East Herzegovina East Herzegovina ( sh, Istočna Hercegovina, Источна Херцеговина) is the eastern part of the historical Herzegovina region in Bosnia and Herzegovina, east of the Neretva river, part of the Republika Srpska entity. Major towns are ...
or "Trebinje Region" in
Republika Srpska Republika Srpska ( sr-cyr, Република Српска, ) is one of the two entities Entity may refer to: Computing * Character entity reference, replacement text for a character in HTML or XML * Entity class, a thing of interest within ...

Republika Srpska
Herzegovina-Neretva_in_Federation_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina.svg, Herzegovina-Neretva Canton in
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the two entities Entity may refer to: Computing * Character entity reference, replacement text for a character in HTML or XML * Entity class, a thing of interest within an entity–relations ...
West_Herzegovina_in_Federation_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina.svg, West Herzegovina Canton in
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the two entities Entity may refer to: Computing * Character entity reference, replacement text for a character in HTML or XML * Entity class, a thing of interest within an entity–relations ...
Economic region of Herzegovina.png, Economic region of Herzegovina, planned since 2013.


Population

The locals of Herzegovina are known by the demonym Herzegovinians (
Serbo-Croatian Serbo-Croatian () – also called Serbo-Croat (), Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), and Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS) – is a South Slavic language The South Slavic languages are one of three branche ...
: / ; / , / ), which they prefer to be referred to as rather than Bosnians. While the population of Herzegovina throughout history has been ethnically mixed, the
Bosnian War The Bosnian War ( sh, Rat u Bosni i Hercegovini / Рат у Босни и Херцеговини) was an international armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, ...
in the 1990s resulted in mass ethnic cleansing and large-scale displacement of people. The last pre-war census in 1991 recorded a population of 437,095 inhabitants. * Croats generally populate the areas closest to the Croatian border focused on
Mostar Mostar (, ; cyrl, Мостар, ) is a city and the administrative center of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton The Herzegovina-Neretva Canton ( hr, Hercegovačko-neretvanska županija; bs, Hercegovačko-neretvanski kanton) is one of 10 cantons of th ...

Mostar
,
Ljubuški Ljubuški () is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the card ...
,
Široki Brijeg Široki Brijeg ( cyrl, Широки Бријег, ) is a city and the administrative center of West Herzegovina Canton The West Herzegovina Canton ( hr, Županija Zapadnohercegovačka, bs, Zapadnohercegovački kanton) is one of the cantons of ...
, Čitluk,
Grude Grude ( cyrl, Груде, ) is a town and a municipality located in of the , an entity of . Geography Grude is located 49 s from , 19 kilometers from , and 100 km from . History Pre-history and ancient times Testimony about life ...

Grude
, Posušje,
Čapljina Čapljina ( sr-cyrl, Чапљина, ) is a city located in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located on the border with Croatia a mere from the Adriatic Sea. The r ...
,
Neum Neum ( sr-cyrl, Неум, ) is a town and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South Sout ...

Neum
,
Stolac Stolac ( sr-cyr, Столац) is a town and municipality located in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in the region of Herzegovina. Stolac is situated in t ...
, Ravno, Livno, Tomislavgrad, Kupres and Prozor-Rama. * Bosniaks mainly live in the areas along the
Neretva The Neretva ( sr-cyrl, Неретва, ), also known as Narenta, is one of the largest rivers of the eastern part of the Adriatic The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the nor ...

Neretva
, such as
Mostar Mostar (, ; cyrl, Мостар, ) is a city and the administrative center of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton The Herzegovina-Neretva Canton ( hr, Hercegovačko-neretvanska županija; bs, Hercegovačko-neretvanski kanton) is one of 10 cantons of th ...

Mostar
,
Konjic Konjic (Serbian Cyrillic The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet ( sr, / , ) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various ...

Konjic
and Jablanica, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Jablanica, to a significant extent in
Stolac Stolac ( sr-cyr, Столац) is a town and municipality located in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in the region of Herzegovina. Stolac is situated in t ...
,
Čapljina Čapljina ( sr-cyrl, Чапљина, ) is a city located in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located on the border with Croatia a mere from the Adriatic Sea. The r ...
, and to a lesser extent in Nevesinje,
Gacko Gacko ( sr-cyrl, Гацко) is a town and municipality located in Republika Srpska Republika Srpska ( sr-cyr, Република Српска, ) is one of the two of , the other being the . It is located in the north and east of the co ...

Gacko
,
Trebinje Trebinje ( sr-Cyrl, Требиње, ) is a town and municipality located in the Republika Srpska entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the southernmost city in Bosnia and Herzegovina and is situated on the banks of Trebišnjica river in the re ...

Trebinje
. * Serbs are the majority in
East Herzegovina East Herzegovina ( sh, Istočna Hercegovina, Источна Херцеговина) is the eastern part of the historical Herzegovina region in Bosnia and Herzegovina, east of the Neretva river, part of the Republika Srpska entity. Major towns are ...
, including the municipalities of ,
Bileća Bileća ( sr-cyrl, Билећа) is a town and municipality located in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As of 2013, the town has a population of 7,476 inhabitants, while the municipality has 10,807 inhabitants. History ...
,
Gacko Gacko ( sr-cyrl, Гацко) is a town and municipality located in Republika Srpska Republika Srpska ( sr-cyr, Република Српска, ) is one of the two of , the other being the . It is located in the north and east of the co ...

Gacko
, Istočni Mostar, Ljubinje, Nevesinje, and
Trebinje Trebinje ( sr-Cyrl, Требиње, ) is a town and municipality located in the Republika Srpska entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the southernmost city in Bosnia and Herzegovina and is situated on the banks of Trebišnjica river in the re ...

Trebinje
.


Culture


Monuments

The region has rich history and diverse culture, with variety of important monuments of cultural-historical heritage, such as the following cultural monuments; Mogorjelo,
Stari most Stari Most ( sr, Стари мост, lit=Old Bridge), also known as Mostar Bridge ( tr, Mostar Köprüsü), is a rebuilt 16th-century Ottoman Empire, Ottoman bridge in the city of Mostar in Bosnia and Herzegovina that crosses the river Neretva ...

Stari most
, Stećci and Khanqah, Tekija.


Religion

The Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina guarantees freedom of religion, * Eparchy of Zahumlje and Herzegovina of the Serbian Orthodox Church * Roman Catholic Diocese of Mostar-Duvno and Roman Catholic Diocese of Trebinje-Mrkan * Islam in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Islam (See: Islamic Community of Bosnia and Herzegovina)


Music

* Ganga (music), Ganga * Gusle * Sevdalinka


Tourism

Herzegovina's natural landmarks include many features. *The falls of Kravica (waterfall), Kravica, on the Trebižat (river), Trebižat river, consist of several waterfalls near the city of Ljubuški and a popular spot for the local people, to take a bath in the hot Herzegovinian weather, or just to enjoy the view. * The Hutovo Blato is a bird reserve, one of the most important in Europe and a gathering place for many international ornithologists. * Vjetrenica is a cave system and a unique ecosystem. It is located near the border with Croatia, in Popovo Polje in the Ravno municipality. The cave has not been explored totally yet, but it is open to visitors. A large number of endemic cave-dwelling species have been discovered there, and new ones can be expected to be discovered still. * Blagaj is also known as the origin of the Buna River (Neretva), Buna River, inside a cave system. *
Neum Neum ( sr-cyrl, Неум, ) is a town and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South Sout ...

Neum
at the Adriatic Sea, Bosnia and Herzegovina's only coastal town, is also a tourist attraction. * has one of the most visited sites in Bosnia and Herzegovina.


Image gallery

File:Mostar Old Town Panorama 2007.jpg,
Mostar Mostar (, ; cyrl, Мостар, ) is a city and the administrative center of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton The Herzegovina-Neretva Canton ( hr, Hercegovačko-neretvanska županija; bs, Hercegovačko-neretvanski kanton) is one of 10 cantons of th ...

Mostar
File:Требиње, Стари град 1.jpg,
Trebinje Trebinje ( sr-Cyrl, Требиње, ) is a town and municipality located in the Republika Srpska entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the southernmost city in Bosnia and Herzegovina and is situated on the banks of Trebišnjica river in the re ...

Trebinje
File:Počitelj - pano.jpg, Počitelj Međugorje St.James Church.jpg, Medjugorje File:Neum02450.JPG,
Neum Neum ( sr-cyrl, Неум, ) is a town and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South Sout ...

Neum
File:Kravica Waterfalls.jpg, Kravice, Kravice Waterfalls File:Blagaj Ceilings.jpg, Blagaj, Blagaj Tekija File:Blidinjsko jezero (23 ha, hl. max. 3,5 m) z Maleho Vranu.jpg, Blidinje Nature Park File:Np sutjeska planina volujak.JPG, Volujak (mountain), Volujak Mountain File:Vucji zub Orjen Bijela gora.jpg, Orjen, Orjen Mountain File:Izgori pogled na Lebršnik.jpg, Lebršnik, Lebršnik Mountain File:Popovo Polje.JPG, Popovo Polje File:Bilećko jezero (Bileća) 11.jpg, Bileća Lake Ramska prehrada s desitkami ostruvku a zalivu.jpg, Rama Lake (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Ramsko Lake File:Jezero Klinje (Gacko) 44.jpg, Klinje Lake File:Gracanica Church, Trebinje (43547615082).jpg, Hercegovačka Gračanica, Hercegovačka Gračanica Monastery File:Manastir u Dužima kod Trebinja.jpg, Duži Monastery File:Manastir Zitomislici.jpg, Žitomislić, Žitomislić Monastery File:Tvrdoš Monastery 05.jpg, Tvrdoš Monastery File:M01 - Crkva i zvonik.jpg, Zavala Monastery


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * *


External links


Culture of Lower Herzegovina

Poskok (Vipera) – Herzegovinian portal

Vinska Cesta
{{Authority control Herzegovina, Historical regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina Regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina