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In
geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10. ...

geography
and
cartography Cartography (; from χάρτης ''chartēs'', "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν ''graphein'', "write") is the study and practice of making and using s. Combining , , and technique, cartography builds on the premise that rea ...
, the hemispheres of Earth refer to any division of
the globe
the globe
into two hemispheres (from
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
, meaning "half of a sphere"). The most common such divisions are by
latitudinal In geography, latitude is a Geographic coordinate system, geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface. Latitude is an angle (defined below) which ranges from 0° at the Equator to 90° (North ...

latitudinal
or
longitudinal Longitudinal is a geometric term of location which may refer to: * Longitude ** Line of longitude, also called a meridian (geography), meridian * Longitudinal engine, an internal combustion engine in which the crankshaft is oriented along the long ...

longitudinal
markers: * North–South **
Northern Hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remain ...

Northern Hemisphere
, the half that lies north of the
Equator The Equator is a circle of latitude, about in circumference, that divides Earth into the Northern Hemisphere, Northern and Southern Hemisphere, Southern hemispheres. It is an imaginary line located at 0 degrees latitude, halfway between the N ...

Equator
**
Southern Hemisphere The Southern Hemisphere is the half (hemisphere Hemisphere may refer to: * A half of a sphere As half of the Earth * A hemispheres of Earth, hemisphere of Earth ** Northern Hemisphere ** Southern Hemisphere ** Eastern Hemisphere ** Western He ...

Southern Hemisphere
, the half that lies south of the Equator * East–West **
Eastern Hemisphere 250px, Eastern Hemisphere The Eastern Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which is east of the prime meridian A prime meridian is the meridian (geography), meridian (a line of longitude) in a geographic coordinate system ...
, the half that lies east of the
prime meridian#REDIRECT Prime meridian A prime meridian is the meridian (geography), meridian (a line of longitude) in a geographic coordinate system at which longitude is defined to be 0°. Together, a prime meridian and its anti-meridian (the 180th meridian ...

prime meridian
and west of the
180th meridian File:International Date Line.png, The International Date Line zigzags around the 180th Meridian. The 180th meridian or antimeridian is the meridian (geography), meridian 180° both east and west of the Prime meridian#International prime meridian ...
** Western Hemisphere, the half that lies west of the prime meridian and east of the 180th meridian The East–West division can also be seen in a cultural and religious sense, as a division into two cultural and religious hemispheres. However, other schemes have sought to divide the planet in a way that maximizes the preponderance of one geographic feature or another in each division: * Land–Water ** Land Hemisphere, the hemisphere on Earth containing the largest possible area of land ** Water Hemisphere, the hemisphere on Earth containing the largest possible area of water Earth may also be split into hemispheres of
day The word day has a number of meanings, depending on the context it is used such as of astronomy, physics, and various calendar systems. As a term in physics and astronomy it is approximately the period during which the Earth completes one ro ...

day
and
night Night (also described as night time, night-time, or nighttime, unconventionally spelled as ''nite'') is the period of ambient Ambient or Ambiance or Ambience may refer to: Music and sound * Ambience (sound recording), also known as atmospher ...

night
by the terrestrial terminator.


See also

*
Antarctica Antarctica ( or ) is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Oc ...

Antarctica
**
South Pole The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole, Terrestrial South Pole or 90th Parallel South, is one of the where intersects its surface. It is the southernmost point on Earth and lies on the of Earth from the . Situated on the ...
*
Arctic Ocean The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major s. It spans an area of approximately and is also known as the coldest of all the oceans. The (IHO) recognizes it as an ocean, although some call it the Arctic Medit ...

Arctic Ocean
**
North Pole The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is the point in the Northern Hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only ast ...
* Earth's geographical centre *
Eastern Hemisphere 250px, Eastern Hemisphere The Eastern Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which is east of the prime meridian A prime meridian is the meridian (geography), meridian (a line of longitude) in a geographic coordinate system ...
*
Land and water hemispheres The land hemisphere and water hemisphere are the hemispheres of Earth containing the largest possible total areas of land and ocean, respectively. By definition (assuming that the entire surface can be classed as either "land" or "ocean"), the t ...
*
Northern Hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remain ...

Northern Hemisphere
*
Southern Hemisphere The Southern Hemisphere is the half (hemisphere Hemisphere may refer to: * A half of a sphere As half of the Earth * A hemispheres of Earth, hemisphere of Earth ** Northern Hemisphere ** Southern Hemisphere ** Eastern Hemisphere ** Western He ...

Southern Hemisphere
* Western Hemisphere


References


External links

{{Hemispheres of the Earth Geography