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Hayreddin Barbarossa ( ar, خير الدين بربروس, Khayr al-Din Barbarus, original name Khiḍr; tr, Barbaros Hayrettin Paşa), also known as Hızır Hayrettin Pasha, and simply Hızır Reis (c. 1466/1478 – 4 July 1546), was an
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
corsair A corsair is a privateer or pirate, especially: * Barbary corsair, Ottoman and Berber pirates and privateers operating from North Africa * French corsairs, privateers operating on behalf of the French crown Corsair may also refer to: Arts and e ...
and later
admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, general in ...
of the
Ottoman Navy The Ottoman Navy ( ota, دوننماى همايون, Donanma-yı Humâyûn or tr, Osmanlı Donanması), also known as the Ottoman Fleet, was established in the early 14th century after the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; ...
. Barbarossa's naval victories secured Ottoman dominance over the Mediterranean during the mid 16th century. Born on
Lesbos Lesbos or Lesvos (, also ; el, Λέσβος, Lésvos ) is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated embayment A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly con ...
, Khizr began his naval career as a corsair under his elder brother
Oruç Reis Oruç Reis ( ota, عروج ريس; es, Aruj; 1474–1518) was an Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and ...
. In 1516, the brothers captured Algiers from Spain, with Oruç declaring himself as Sultan. Following Oruç's death in 1518, Khizr inherited his brother's nickname, "Barbarossa" ("Redbeard" in Italian). He also received the honorary name ''Hayreddin'' (from Arabic '' Khayr ad-Din'', "goodness of the faith" or "best of the faith"). In 1529, Barbarossa retook the Peñón of Algiers from the Spaniards. In 1533, Barbarossa was appointed
Kapudan Pasha The Kapudan Pasha ( ota, قپودان پاشا, modern Turkish Turkish ( , ), also referred to as Istanbul Turkish (''İstanbul Türkçesi'') or Turkey Turkish (''Türkiye Türkçesi''), is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages The ...
(Grand admiral) of the Ottoman Navy by
Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I ( ota, سليمان اول, Süleyman-ı Evvel; tr, I. Süleyman; 6 November 14946 September 1566), commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent in the West and Suleiman the Lawgiver ( ota, قانونى سلطان سليمان, Ḳā ...

Suleiman the Magnificent
. He led an embassy to France in the same year, conquered Tunis in 1534, achieved a decisive victory over the Holy League at
Preveza Preveza ( el, Πρέβεζα, ) is a city in the region of Epirus (region), Epirus, northwestern Greece, located on the northern peninsula at the mouth of the Ambracian Gulf. It is the capital of the Preveza (regional unit), regional unit of Prev ...
in 1538, and conducted joint campaigns with the French in the 1540s. Barbarossa retired to Constantinople in 1545 and died the following year.


Background

Khizr was born sometime between 1466 and 1478 in Palaiokipos on the island of
Midilli Lesbos (, also ; el, Λέσβος, Lésvos ) is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea, often called Mytilene in Greece, after its capital. It has an area of with of coastline, making it the third largest island in Greece. It is ...

Midilli
(Lesbos), a son of an Ottoman ''
sipahi ''Sipahi'' ( ota, سپاهی, translit=sipâhi, ) were professional cavalrymen deployed by the Seljuks The Seljuk dynasty, or Seljuks ( ; fa, آل سلجوق ''Al-e Saljuq'', alternatively spelled as Seljuqs or Saljuqs), also known as Selj ...

sipahi
'' father,
Yakup Ağa Yakup Ağa ( ota, یاکوب آقا) or Ebu Yusuf Nurullah Yakub ( ota, ابو یوسف نورالله یاکوب), was the father of the Barbarossa Brothers, Oruç and Hızır. A Sipahi of Turkishİsmail Hâmi Danişmend, ''Osmanlı Devlet Erk ...
, of
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...
İsmail Hâmi Danişmend, ''Osmanlı Devlet Erkânı'', pp. 172 ff. Türkiye Yayınevi (Istanbul), 1971.''Khiḍr was one of four sons of a Turk from the island of Lesbos.'', "Barbarossa", ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', 1963, p. 147. Angus Konstam, ''Piracy: The Complete History'', Osprey Publishing, 2008, , p. 80. or
Albanian Albanian may refer to: *Pertaining to Albania in Southeast Europe; in particular: **Albanians, an ethnic group native to the Balkans **Albanian language **Albanian culture **Demographics of Albania, includes other ethnic groups within the country ...

Albanian
origin from
Giannitsa Giannitsa ( el, Γιαννιτσά , in English also Yannitsa, Yenitsa) is the largest city in the regional unit of Pella and the capital of the Pella municipality, in the region of Central Macedonia Central Macedonia ( el, Κεντρική ...

Giannitsa
(now
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...

Greece
), and an Orthodox Christian
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...

Greek
mother, Katerina, from
Mytilene Mytilene (; el, Μυτιλήνη, Mytilíni ) is the capital city, capital of the Greece, Greek island of Lesbos, and its port. It is also the capital and administrative center of the North Aegean Region, and hosts the headquarters of the Unive ...

Mytilene
(also Lesbos). His mother was a widow of an
Orthodox Orthodox, Orthodoxy, or Orthodoxism may refer to: Religion * Orthodoxy, adherence to accepted norms, more specifically adherence to creeds, especially within Christianity and Judaism, but also less commonly in non-Abrahamic religions like Neo-paga ...
priest. The couple married and had two daughters and four sons: Ishak, Oruç, Khizr and Ilyas. Yakup took part in the
Ottoman conquest of Lesbos The Ottoman conquest of Lesbos took place in September 1462. The Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ota, دولت عليه عثمانيه ', literally "The Sublime Ottoman State"; Modern Turkish: ' or '; french: Empire ottoman) (''Osmane ...
in 1462 from the
Genoese Genoese may refer to: * a person from Genoa * Genoese dialect, a dialect of the Ligurian language * Republic of Genoa (–1805), a former state in Liguria See also

* Genovese, a surname * Genovesi, a surname * * * * * Genova (disambiguati ...
Gattilusio dynasty (who held the hereditary title of Lord of Lesbos between 1355 and 1462) and as a reward, was granted the fief of the village of Bonova on the island. He became an established potter and purchased a boat to trade his products with. The four sons helped their father with his business, but not much is known about the daughters. At first Oruç helped with the boat, while Khizr helped with the pottery.


Early career

All four brothers became seamen, engaged in marine affairs and international sea trade. The first brother to become involved in seamanship was Oruç, who was joined by his brother Ilyas. Later, obtaining his own ship, Khizr also began his career at sea. The brothers initially worked as sailors, but then turned
privateers A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war. Since robbery under arms was a common aspect of seaborne trade, until the early 19th century all merchant ships carried arms. A sovereign or delega ...
in the Mediterranean to counteract the privateering of the
Knights Hospitaller The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem ( la, Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), commonly known as the Knights Hospitaller (), was a medieval and early modern Catholic The Catholic Church, ...

Knights Hospitaller
(Knights of St John) who were based on the island of
Rhodes Rhodes (; el, Ρόδος, translit=Ródos ) is the largest of the Dodecanese The Dodecanese (, ; el, Δωδεκάνησα, ''Dodekánisa'' , literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek#REDIRECT Greek Gre ...

Rhodes
( until 1522). Oruç and Ilyas operated in the
Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large area in the region of . In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the , which included present-day , , , , and most of southwest of the middle . In its widest historical sense, the Levant ...

Levant
, between
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
, Syria, and Egypt. Khizr operated in the
Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated Bay, embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between Europe's Geography of Europe, Balkan peninsula and Asia's Anatolia peninsula. The sea has an area of some 215,000 square kilometres. In ...

Aegean Sea
and based his operations mostly in
Thessaloniki Thessaloniki (; el, Θεσσαλονίκη, ), also known as Thessalonica (), Saloniki or Salonica () is the second-largest city in Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in So ...

Thessaloniki
. Ishak, the eldest, remained on
Mytilene Mytilene (; el, Μυτιλήνη, Mytilíni ) is the capital city, capital of the Greece, Greek island of Lesbos, and its port. It is also the capital and administrative center of the North Aegean Region, and hosts the headquarters of the Unive ...

Mytilene
and was involved with the financial affairs of the family business.


Death of Ilyas, captivity and liberation of Oruç

Oruç was a very successful seaman. He also learned to speak Italian, Spanish, French, Greek, and Arabic in the early years of his career. While returning from a trading expedition in
Tripoli, Lebanon Tripoli ( ar, طرابلس/ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script. Applications The system is used t ...
, with his younger brother, Ilyas, they were attacked by the
Knights of St John The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem ( la, Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), commonly known as the Knights Hospitaller (), the Knights of Rhodes, the Knights of Malta, or the Order of Saint John, ...

Knights of St John
. Ilyas was killed in the fight, and Oruç was wounded. Their father's boat was captured, and Oruç was taken as a prisoner and detained in
Bodrum Castle Bodrum Castle ( tr, Bodrum Kalesi) is a historical fortification located in southwest Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia in Western Asia, with a small portion ...
at
Bodrum Bodrum () is a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or County, counties, sever ...

Bodrum
for nearly three years. Upon learning the location of his brother, Khizr went to Bodrum and managed to help Oruç escape.


Oruç, the corsair

Oruç later went to
Antalya Antalya (, from grc, Ἀττάλεια) is the fifth-most populous city in Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balka ...

Antalya
, where he was given 18 galleys by Şehzade Korkut, an Ottoman prince and governor of the city, and charged with fighting against the Knights of St John, who were inflicting serious damage on Ottoman shipping and trade. In the following years, when Korkut became governor of
Manisa Manisa (), historically known as Magnesia ( el, Μαγνησία), is a large city in Turkey's Aegean Region, Turkey, Aegean Region and the administrative seat of Manisa Province. Modern Manisa is a booming center of industry and services, adva ...

Manisa
, he gave Oruç a larger fleet of 24 galleys at the port of
İzmir Izmir ( , ; tr, İzmir, ) is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia, capital of the İzmir Province, province of the same name. It is the list of cities in Turkey, third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara; ...

İzmir
and ordered him to participate in the Ottoman naval expedition to
Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_titl ...

Apulia
in Italy, where Oruç bombarded several coastal castles and captured two ships. On his way back to Lesbos, he stopped at
Euboea Euboea (, ) or Evia (, ; el, Εύβοια Euboea (, ) or Evia (, ; el, Εύβοια ; grc, Εὔβοια ) is the second-largest List of islands of Greece, Greek island in area and population, after Crete. It is separated from Boeotia ...

Euboea
and captured three galleons and another ship. Reaching
Mytilene Mytilene (; el, Μυτιλήνη, Mytilíni ) is the capital city, capital of the Greece, Greek island of Lesbos, and its port. It is also the capital and administrative center of the North Aegean Region, and hosts the headquarters of the Unive ...

Mytilene
with these captured vessels, Oruç learned that Korkut, who was the brother of the new Ottoman sultan
Selim I Selim I ( ota, سليم الأول; tr, I. Selim; 10 October 1470 – 22 September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute ( tr, links=no, Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a Royal and no ...

Selim I
, had fled to Egypt to avoid being killed because of succession disputes – a common practice at that time. Fearing trouble due to his well-known association with the exiled Ottoman prince, Oruç sailed to Egypt, where he met Korkut in
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
and managed to get an audience with the
Mamluk Mamluk ( ar, مملوك, mamlūk (singular), , ''mamālīk'' (plural), translated as "one who is owned", meaning "", also as ''Mameluke'', ''mamluq'', ''mamluke'', ''mameluk'', ''mameluke'', ''mamaluke'', or ''marmeluke'') is a term most commo ...

Mamluk
Sultan Qansuh al-Ghawri, who gave him another ship and entrusted him with the task of raiding the coasts of Italy and the islands of the Mediterranean that were controlled by Christians. After spending the winter in Cairo, he set sail from
Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic: Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the List of cities and towns in Egypt, third-largest city in Egypt after Cairo and Giza, ...

Alexandria
and frequently operated along the coasts of
Liguria it, Ligure , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Liguria
and
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
.


Khizr's career under Oruç

In 1503, Oruç managed to seize three more ships and made the island of
Djerba Djerba (; ar, جربة, Jirba, ; it, Meninge, Girba), also transliteration, transliterated as Jerba or Jarbah, is a Tunisian island and the largest island of North Africa at , in the Gulf of Gabès, off the coast of Tunisia. It had a popula ...

Djerba
his new base, thus moving his operations to the Western Mediterranean. Khizr joined Oruç at Djerba. In 1504, the brothers contacted Abu Abdallah Muhammad IV al-Mutawakkil, ruler of
Tunis Tunis ( ar, تونس ') is the and largest city of . The greater metropolitan area of Tunis, often referred to as "", has about 2,700,000 inhabitants. , it is the fourth-largest city in the region (after , and ) and the in the . Situated on ...

Tunis
, and asked permission to use the strategically located port of
La Goulette La Goulette (), known in Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, M ...

La Goulette
for their operations. They were granted the right to do so on the condition of giving one-third of their spoils to the sultan. Oruç, in command of small
galiot A galiot, galliot or galiote, was a small galley A galley is a type of ship A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or passengers, or in support of spec ...
s, captured two much larger
papal The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Chr ...
galley A galley is a type of ship A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research, and fis ...

galley
s near the island of
Elba Elba ( it, isola d'Elba, ; la, Ilva; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into ...

Elba
. Later, near
Lipari Lipari (; scn, Lìpari; la, Lipara; grc, Μελιγουνίς, Meligounís, or , ''Lipára'') is the largest of the Aeolian Islands The Aeolian Islands ( ; it, Isole Eolie ; scn, Ìsuli Eoli; el, Αιολίδες Νήσοι, Aiolídes Ní ...

Lipari
, the two brothers captured a warship, the ''Cavalleria'', with 380 Spanish soldiers and 60 Spanish knights from
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in acc ...

Aragon
on board, who were on their way from Spain to
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of and the third-largest city of , after and , with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of ...

Naples
. In 1505, they raided the coasts of
Calabria it, Calabrese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demogr ...

Calabria
. These exploits increased their fame, and they were joined by several other well-known Muslim corsairs, including Kurtoğlu (known in the West as Curtogoli). In 1508, they raided the coasts of Liguria, particularly Diano Marina. In 1509, Ishak also left Mytilene and joined his brothers at La Goulette. The fame of Oruç increased when, between 1504 and 1510, he transported Muslim
Mudéjar Mudéjar (, also , , ca, mudèjar , ; from ar, مدجن, mudajjan, subjugated; tamed; domesticated) refers to the group of Muslims who remained in Iberia in the late medieval period The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the perio ...
s from Christian Spain to North Africa. His efforts of helping the Muslims of Spain in need and transporting them to safer lands earned him the honorific name Baba Oruç (Father Oruç), which eventually – due to the similarity in sound – evolved in Spain, France, and Italy into Barbarossa (meaning "Redbeard" in Italian). In 1510, the three brothers raided
Capo Passero Capo Passero or Cape Passaro (Greek language, Greek: ; Latin: Pachynus or Pachynum) is a celebrated promontory of Sicily, forming the extreme southeastern point of the whole island, and one of the three promontories which were supposed to have giv ...
in Sicily and repulsed Spanish attacks on ,
Oran Oran ( ar, وَهران, Wahrān) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria. It is considered the second most important city of Algeria after the capital Algiers, due to its population, commercial, industrial, and cultural impo ...

Oran
and
Algiers Algiers ( ; ar, الجزائر; Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated in ...

Algiers
. In August 1511, they raided the areas around
Reggio Calabria Reggio di Calabria ( scn, label= Southern Calabrian, Riggiu; el, label=Calabrian Greek The Calabrian dialect of Greek language, Greek, or Grecanico
in southern Italy. In August 1512, the exiled ruler of Bougie invited the brothers to drive out the Spaniards, and during the battle Oruç lost his left arm. This incident earned him the nickname ''Gümüş Kol'' ("Silver Arm" in Turkish), in reference to the silver prosthetic device that he used in place of his missing limb. Later that same year, the brothers raided the coasts of
Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name ...
, capturing a galliot of the Lomellini family of Genoa, which owned
Tabarca Tabarca (, ), officially Nueva Tabarca and also known as ''Isla Plana'' (Spanish language, Spanish) and as ''Nova Tabarca'' and ''Illa Plana'' in Valencian, is an islet located in the Mediterranean Sea, close to the town of Santa Pola, in the pr ...

Tabarca
island. They subsequently landed at
Menorca Menorca or Minorca (from la, Insula Minor, , smaller island, later ''Minorica'') is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain. Its name derives from its size, contrasting it with nearby Mallorca. Its large ...

Menorca
and captured a coastal castle and then headed towards Liguria, where they captured four Genoese galleys near Genoa. The Genoese sent a fleet to liberate their ships, but the brothers captured their flagship as well. After capturing a total of 23 ships in less than a month, the brothers sailed back to La Goulette, where they built three more galliots and a gunpowder production facility. In 1513, they launched a raid on
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Municipalities of Spain, third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, surpassing 800,000 ...

Valencia
, where they captured four ships, and then headed for
Alicante Alicante (, also , ca-valencia, Alacant, italics=no ) is a city and municipalities of Spain, municipality in the Valencian Community, Spain. It is the capital of the province of Alacant and a historic Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean port. The ...

Alicante
and captured a Spanish galley near
Málaga Málaga (, ) is a municipality of Spain, capital of the Province of Málaga , population_note = , blank_name_sec2 = Parliament , blank_info_sec2 = Cortes Generales The Cortes Generales (; en, Spanish Parliament, li ...

Málaga
. In 1513–14, the brothers engaged the Spanish fleet on several other occasions and moved to their new base to
Cherchell Cherchell (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countrie ...

Cherchell
, east of Algiers. In 1514, with 12 galliots and 1,000 Turks, they destroyed two Spanish fortresses at Bougie, and when the Spanish fleet under the command of Miguel de Gurrea, viceroy of
Majorca Mallorca, or Majorca, is the largest island in the Balearic Islands, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean. The capital of the island, Palma, Majorca, Palma, is also the capital of the autonomous communities of Spain, autono ...
, arrived as reinforcement, they headed towards
Ceuta Ceuta (, , ; ber, Sebta, script=Latn; ar, سَبْتَة, Sabtah) is a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other pl ...

Ceuta
and raided that city before capturing
Jijel Jijel ( ar, جيجل), the classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century C.E. centered on the Mediterranean Sea *Classical architecture ...

Jijel
in Algeria, which was under Genoese control. They later captured
Mahdiya Mahdia ( ar, المهدية ') is a Tunisian coastal city with 62,189 inhabitants, south of Monastir, Tunisia, Monastir and southeast of Sousse. Mahdia is a provincial centre north of Sfax. It is important for the associated fish-processing indus ...
in Tunisia. Afterwards they raided the coasts of Sicily,
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , ...

Sardinia
, the
Balearic Islands The Balearic Islands ( , also , ; ca, Illes Balears ; es, Islas Baleares ) are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea contai ...

Balearic Islands
and the Spanish mainland, capturing three large ships there. In 1515, they captured several galleons, a galley and three barques at Majorca. Still in 1515, Oruç sent precious gifts to the Ottoman Sultan
Selim I Selim I ( ota, سليم الأول; tr, I. Selim; 10 October 1470 – 22 September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute ( tr, links=no, Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a Royal and no ...

Selim I
, who, in return, sent him two galleys and two swords encrusted with diamonds. In 1516, joined by Kurtoğlu (Curtogoli), the brothers besieged the Castle of Elba, before heading once more towards Liguria, where they captured 12 ships and damaged 28 others.


Rulers of Algiers

In 1516, the three brothers succeeded in capturing
Jijel Jijel ( ar, جيجل), the classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century C.E. centered on the Mediterranean Sea *Classical architecture ...

Jijel
and Algiers from the Spaniards and eventually assumed control over the city and surrounding region, forcing the previous ruler, Abu Hamo Musa III of the Beni Ziyad dynasty, to flee. The Spaniards of Algiers sought refuge on the island of Peñón and asked to intervene, but the Spanish fleet failed to expel the brothers from Algiers.


Algiers annexed by the Ottoman Empire

After consolidating his power and declaring himself Sultan of Algiers, Oruç sought to expand his territory inland and took
Miliana Miliana ( ar, مليانة) is a commune An intentional community is a voluntary residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of group cohesiveness, social cohesion and teamwork. The members of an intentional commun ...
,
Medea In Greek mythology, Medea (; grc, Μήδεια, ''Mēdeia'' perhaps implying "planner / schemer") is the daughter of Aeëtes, King Aeëtes of Colchis, a niece of Circe and the granddaughter of the sun god Helios. Medea figures in the myth of Ja ...
and Ténès. He became known for fitting sails to cannons for transport through the deserts of North Africa. In 1517, the brothers raided Capo Limiti, and, later, Capo Rizzuto, Calabria. For Oruç, the best protection against Spain was to join the Ottoman Empire, his homeland and Spain's main rival. For this, he had to relinquish his title of Sultan of Algiers to the Ottomans. He did this in 1517 and offered Algiers to the Ottoman Sultan
Selim I Selim I ( ota, سليم الأول; tr, I. Selim; 10 October 1470 – 22 September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute ( tr, links=no, Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a Royal and no ...

Selim I
. The Sultan accepted Algiers as an Ottoman ''
sanjak Sanjaks (liwāʾ) (plural form: alwiyāʾ) * Armenian language, Armenian: նահանգ (''nahang''; meaning "province") * Bulgarian language, Bulgarian: окръг (''okrǔg''; meaning "county", "province", or "region") * el, Διοίκησι ...
'' ("province"), appointed Oruç Governor of Algiers and Chief Sea Governor of the West Mediterranean, and promised to support him with
janissaries A Janissary ( ota, يڭيچرى, yeŋiçeri, , ) was a member of the elite infantry Infantry is an army specialization whose military personnel, personnel engage in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and ar ...

janissaries
, galleys and cannon.


Final engagements and death of Oruç and Ishak

The Spaniards ordered Abu Zayan, whom they had appointed the new ruler of
Tlemcen Tlemcen (; ar, تلمسان ''Tilimsān'') is the second-largest city in north-western Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers , coordinates ...

Tlemcen
and
Oran Oran ( ar, وَهران, Wahrān) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria. It is considered the second most important city of Algeria after the capital Algiers, due to its population, commercial, industrial, and cultural impo ...

Oran
, to attack Oruç Reis overland, but Oruç learned of the plan and pre-emptively attacked Tlemcen, capturing the city and executing Abu Zayan in the Fall of Tlemcen (1517). The only survivor of Abu Zayan's dynasty was Sheikh Buhammud, who escaped to Oran and called for Spain's assistance. In May 1518, Emperor
Charles V Charles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (1500–1558) * Charles V of Naples (1661–1700), better known as Charles II of Spain * Charles V of France (1338–1380), called the Wise * Charles V, Duke of Lorraine (1643–1690) * Infant ...

Charles V
arrived at
Oran Oran ( ar, وَهران, Wahrān) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria. It is considered the second most important city of Algeria after the capital Algiers, due to its population, commercial, industrial, and cultural impo ...

Oran
and was received at the port by Sheikh Buhammud and the Spanish governor of the city, Diego de Córdoba, marquis of Comares, who commanded a force of 10,000 Spanish soldiers. Joined by thousands of local
Bedouins The Bedouin, Beduin or Bedu (; , singular ; , singular ) are nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation who regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups inc ...
, the Spaniards marched overland towards Tlemcen. Oruç and Ishak awaited them in the city with 1,500 Turkish and 5,000 Moorish soldiers. They defended Tlemcen for 20 days, but were eventually killed in combat by the forces of Garcia de Tineo. Khizr Reis, now given the title of ''
Beylerbey ''Beylerbey'' or ''Beylerbeyi'' ( ota, بكلربكی; "Bey "Bey" ( ota, بك “''Beik''”, chg, بك “''Bek''”, tk, beg, uz, bek, kz, бек, tt, bäk, sq, beu, bs, beg, fa, بیگ “''Beigh''” or “''Beg''”, tg, бе, ...
'' by Sultan
Selim I Selim I ( ota, سليم الأول; tr, I. Selim; 10 October 1470 – 22 September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute ( tr, links=no, Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a Royal and no ...

Selim I
, along with janissaries, galleys and cannon, inherited his brother's position, his name (Barbarossa) and his mission.


Later career


Pasha of Algiers

With a fresh force of Turkish soldiers sent by the Ottoman sultan, Barbarossa recaptured Tlemcen in December 1518. He continued the policy of bringing
mudéjar Mudéjar (, also , , ca, mudèjar , ; from ar, مدجن, mudajjan, subjugated; tamed; domesticated) refers to the group of Muslims who remained in Iberia in the late medieval period The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the perio ...
s from Spain to North Africa, thereby assuring himself of a sizable following of grateful and loyal Muslims who harbored an intense hatred for Spain. He captured , and in 1519, he defeated a Spanish-Italian army that tried to recapture Algiers. In a separate incident, he sank a Spanish ship and captured eight others. Still in 1519, he raided
Provence Provence (, , , , ; oc, Provença or ''Prouvènço'' , ) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, ...

Provence
,
Toulon Toulon (, , ; oc, label=Occitan language, Provençal, Tolon , , ) is a city on the French Riviera and a large port on the Mediterranean coast, with a major naval base. Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region, and ...

Toulon
and the Îles d'Hyères in southern France. In 1521, he raided the
Balearic Islands The Balearic Islands ( , also , ; ca, Illes Balears ; es, Islas Baleares ) are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea contai ...

Balearic Islands
and later captured several Spanish ships returning from the
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas."America." ''The Oxford Companion to the English Language'' (). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 33: " 6c: from ...
off the coast of Cádiz. In 1522, he sent his ships, under the command of Kurtoğlu, to participate in the Ottoman conquest of
Rhodes Rhodes (; el, Ρόδος, translit=Ródos ) is the largest of the Dodecanese The Dodecanese (, ; el, Δωδεκάνησα, ''Dodekánisa'' , literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek#REDIRECT Greek Gre ...

Rhodes
, which resulted in the departure of the
Knights of St John The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem ( la, Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), commonly known as the Knights Hospitaller (), the Knights of Rhodes, the Knights of Malta, or the Order of Saint John, ...

Knights of St John
from that island on 1 January 1523. In June 1525, he raided the coasts of
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , ...

Sardinia
. In May 1526, he landed at Crotone in
Calabria it, Calabrese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demogr ...

Calabria
and sacked the city, sank a Spanish galley and a Spanish
fusta The fusta or fuste (also called foist) was a narrow, light and fast ship with shallow draft, powered by both oar An oar is an implement used for water-borne propulsion. Oars have a flat blade at one end. Rowers grasp the oar at the other end. ...
in the harbor, then assaulted
Castignano Castignano is a ''comune'' (municipality) in the Province of Ascoli Piceno in the Italy, Italian region Marche, located about south of Ancona and about northeast of Ascoli Piceno. Castignano borders the following municipalities: Appignano del Tro ...
in Marche on the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest ...

Adriatic Sea
and later landed at Cape Spartivento. In June 1526, he landed at
Reggio Calabria Reggio di Calabria ( scn, label= Southern Calabrian, Riggiu; el, label=Calabrian Greek The Calabrian dialect of Greek language, Greek, or Grecanico
and later destroyed the fort at the port of
Messina Messina (, also , ; scn, Missina ; lat, Messana; grc, Μεσσήνη, Messḗnē) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger ...

Messina
. He then appeared on the coasts of
Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = Italian , demogra ...
, but retreated after seeing the fleet of
Andrea Doria Andrea Doria, Prince of MelfiThe title of Prince of Melfi is an Italian noble title that was granted to Andrea Doria, a famous admiral, statesman and condottiere from the Republic of Genoa, in 1531 along with the lands of the country of Melfi b ...

Andrea Doria
and the Knights of St John off the coast of
Piombino Piombino is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italia ...
. In July 1526, Barbarossa appeared once again in Messina and raided the coasts of
Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 ...
. In 1527, he raided many ports and castles on the coasts of Italy and Spain. In May 1529, he captured the Spanish fort on the island of Peñón of Algiers. In August 1529, he attacked the Mediterranean coasts of Spain, and later, answering Andalusia's requests for help in crossing the straight of Gibraltar, he transported 70,000
mudéjar Mudéjar (, also , , ca, mudèjar , ; from ar, مدجن, mudajjan, subjugated; tamed; domesticated) refers to the group of Muslims who remained in Iberia in the late medieval period The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the perio ...
s to Algiers in seven consecutive journeys. In January 1530, he again raided the coasts of Sicily and, in March and June of that year, the Balearic Islands and Marseilles. In July 1530, he appeared along the coasts of the Provence and
Liguria it, Ligure , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Liguria
, capturing two Genoese ships. In August 1530, he raided the coasts of Sardinia and, in October, appeared at
Piombino Piombino is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italia ...
, capturing a
barque A barque, barc, or bark is a type of sailing vessel A sailing ship is a sea-going vessel that uses sails mounted on Mast (sailing), masts to harness the power of wind and propel the vessel. There is a variety of sail plans that propel sailin ...

barque
from
Viareggio Viareggio () is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public servic ...
and three French
galleon on the "Suez Expedition" (part of the Portuguese Armada of 72 ships sent against the Ottoman fleet anchor in Suez, Egypt, in response to its entry in the Indian Ocean and the siege of Diu in 1538) – ''Tábuas da India'' in the João de Cast ...
s before capturing two more ships off Calabria. In December 1530, he captured the Castle of Cabrera, in the Balearic Islands, and began to use the island as a logistic base for his operations on the area. In 1531, he encountered
Andrea Doria Andrea Doria, Prince of MelfiThe title of Prince of Melfi is an Italian noble title that was granted to Andrea Doria, a famous admiral, statesman and condottiere from the Republic of Genoa, in 1531 along with the lands of the country of Melfi b ...

Andrea Doria
, who had been appointed by
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, french: Charles Quint, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, ca, Carles V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( ...

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
to recapture
Jijel Jijel ( ar, جيجل), the classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century C.E. centered on the Mediterranean Sea *Classical architecture ...

Jijel
and the Peñón of Algiers, and repulsed a Spanish-Genoese fleet of 40 galleys. Still in 1531, he raided the island of
Favignana Favignana ( scn, Faugnana) is a ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public ser ...

Favignana
, where the flagship of the Maltese Knights under the command of unsuccessfully attacked his fleet. Barbarossa then sailed eastwards and landed in Calabria and Apulia. On the way back to Algiers, he sank a ship of the Maltese Knights near Messina before assaulting
Tripoli Tripoli (; ar, طرابلس, ; ber, ⵜⵔⵢⴱⵓⵍⵙ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals ...

Tripoli
, which had been given to the Knights of St John by Charles V in 1530. In October 1531, he again raided the coasts of Spain. In 1532, during 's expedition to Habsburg Austria, Andrea Doria captured ,
Patras ) , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 = , demographics1_info2 = , timezone1 = EET , utc_offset1 = +2 ...

Patras
and
Lepanto Lepanto may refer to: Places * Lepanto, Greece, medieval Italian name of Nafpaktos ** Battle of Lepanto, 1571 * Lepanto, Arkansas, United States * Lepanto, a sub-province in the former province of Lepanto-Bontoc, Philippines (now part of Mankaya ...

Lepanto
on the coasts of the
Morea The Morea ( el, Μορέας or ) was the name of the Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ) is a peninsula and geographic regions of Greece, geographic region in sou ...

Morea
(Peloponnese). In response, Suleiman sent the forces of Yahya Pashazade Mehmed Bey, who recaptured these cities, but the event made Suleiman realize the importance of having a powerful commander at sea. He summoned Barbarossa to Istanbul, who set sail in August 1532. Having raided Sardinia,
Bonifacio Bonifacio may refer to: Places * Bonifacio, Corse-du-Sud, a town in Corsica, France * Strait of Bonifacio, separating Corsica from Sardinia * Bonifacio, Misamis Occidental, a municipality in the Philippines * Bonifacio Global City, a central bus ...
in Corsica, and the islands of
Montecristo Montecristo, also Monte Cristo (, ) and formerly Oglasa ( grc, Ὠγλάσσα, Ōglássa), is an island in the Tyrrhenian Sea and part of the Tuscan Archipelago. Administratively it belongs to the comune, municipality of Portoferraio in the pro ...

Montecristo
, Elba and
Lampedusa Lampedusa (; scn, Lampidusa ; grc, Λοπαδοῦσσα, Lopadoussa) is the largest island of the Italian Pelagie Islands in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Medite ...

Lampedusa
, he captured 18 galleys near Messina and learned from the captured prisoners that Doria was headed to
Preveza Preveza ( el, Πρέβεζα, ) is a city in the region of Epirus (region), Epirus, northwestern Greece, located on the northern peninsula at the mouth of the Ambracian Gulf. It is the capital of the Preveza (regional unit), regional unit of Prev ...

Preveza
. Barbarossa proceeded to raid the nearby coasts of Calabria and then sailed towards Preveza. Doria's forces fled after a short battle, but only after Barbarossa had captured seven of their galleys. He arrived at Preveza with a total of 44 galleys, but sent 25 of them back to Algiers and headed to Constantinople with 19 ships. There, he was received by Sultan Suleiman at
Topkapı Palace The Topkapı Palace ( tr, Topkapı Sarayı; ota, طوپقپو سرايى, Ṭopḳapu Sarāyı, lit=Cannon Gate Palace), or the Seraglio , Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code , postal_code = 34 ...

Topkapı Palace
. Suleiman appointed Barbarossa ''
Kapudan-i Derya The Kapudan Pasha ( ota, قپودان پاشا, Modern Turkish, modern Turkish: ), was the Grand admiral, Grand Admiral of the Ottoman navy, navy of the Ottoman Empire. He was also known as the ( ota, قپودان دریا, links=no, modern: , "Cap ...
'' ("Grand Admiral") of the Ottoman Navy and ''
Beylerbey ''Beylerbey'' or ''Beylerbeyi'' ( ota, بكلربكی; "Bey "Bey" ( ota, بك “''Beik''”, chg, بك “''Bek''”, tk, beg, uz, bek, kz, бек, tt, bäk, sq, beu, bs, beg, fa, بیگ “''Beigh''” or “''Beg''”, tg, бе, ...
'' ("Chief Governor") of North Africa. Barbarossa was also given the government of the ''
sanjak Sanjaks (liwāʾ) (plural form: alwiyāʾ) * Armenian language, Armenian: նահանգ (''nahang''; meaning "province") * Bulgarian language, Bulgarian: окръг (''okrǔg''; meaning "county", "province", or "region") * el, Διοίκησι ...
'' ("province") of
Rhodes Rhodes (; el, Ρόδος, translit=Ródos ) is the largest of the Dodecanese The Dodecanese (, ; el, Δωδεκάνησα, ''Dodekánisa'' , literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek#REDIRECT Greek Gre ...

Rhodes
and those of
Euboea Euboea (, ) or Evia (, ; el, Εύβοια Euboea (, ) or Evia (, ; el, Εύβοια ; grc, Εὔβοια ) is the second-largest List of islands of Greece, Greek island in area and population, after Crete. It is separated from Boeotia ...

Euboea
and
Chios Chios (; el, Χίος, Khíos ) is the fifth largest of the Greece, Greek list of islands of Greece, islands, situated in the northern Aegean Sea. The island is separated from Turkey by the Chios Strait. Chios is notable for its exports of Mast ...

Chios
in the
Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated Bay, embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between Europe's Geography of Europe, Balkan peninsula and Asia's Anatolia peninsula. The sea has an area of some 215,000 square kilometres. In ...

Aegean Sea
.


Diplomacy with France

In 1533, Barbarossa sent an embassy to the king of France,
Francis IFrancis I or Francis the First may refer to: * Francesco I Gonzaga (1366–1407) * Francis I, Duke of Brittany (1414–1450), reigned 1442–1450 * Francis I of France (1494–1547), reigned 1515–1547 * Francis I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg (1510–15 ...
, the
Ottoman embassy to France (1533) An Ottoman embassy to France was sent in 1533 by Hayreddin Barbarossa, the Ottoman Governor of Algiers, vassal of the Ottoman Emperor Suleiman the Magnificent. A safe-conduct is thought to have been obtained in 1532 for the embassy by the Ottoman ...
. Francis I would in turn dispatch Antonio Rincon to Barbarossa in North Africa and then to
Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I ( ota, سليمان اول, Süleyman-ı Evvel; tr, I. Süleyman; 6 November 14946 September 1566), commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent in the West and Suleiman the Lawgiver ( ota, قانونى سلطان سليمان, Ḳā ...

Suleiman the Magnificent
in
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of ...

Asia Minor
. Following a second embassy, the Ottoman embassy to France (1534), Francis I sent his ambassador Jehan de la Forest to Hayreddin Barbarossa, asking for his naval support against the Habsburg:


Kapudan-i Derya of the Ottoman Navy

In 1534, Barbarossa set sail from Constantinople with 80 galleys, and in April, he recaptured ,
Patras ) , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 = , demographics1_info2 = , timezone1 = EET , utc_offset1 = +2 ...

Patras
and Naupaktos, Lepanto from the Spaniards. In July 1534, he crossed the Strait of Messina and raided the Calabrian coasts, capturing a substantial number of ships around Reggio Calabria as well as the Castle of San Lucido. He later destroyed the port of Cetraro and the ships harbored there. Also in July 1534, he appeared in
Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 ...
and sacked the islands of Capri and Procida before bombarding the ports in the Gulf of
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of and the third-largest city of , after and , with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of ...

Naples
. He then appeared in Lazio, shelled Gaeta and in August landed at Villa Santa Lucia, Sperlonga, Fondi, Terracina and Ostia Antica (archaeological site), Ostia on the River Tiber, causing the church bells in Rome to sound the alarm. He sailed south, appearing at Ponza, Sicily and Sardinia, before capturing Tunis in August 1534 and sending the Hafsid dynasty, Hafsid Sultan Abu Abdallah Muhammad V al-Hasan, Mulay Hassan fleeing. He also Conquest of Tunis (1534), captured Tunis' strategic port of La Goulette the same year. Charles dispatched an agent to offer Barbarossa "the lordship of North Africa" for his changed loyalty, or if that failed, to assassinate him. However, upon rejecting the offer, Barbarossa decapitated the agent with a scimitar. Mulei Hassan asked Emperor Charles V for help in recovering his kingdom, and a Spanish-Italian force of 300 galleys and 24,000 soldiers Conquest of Tunis (1535), recaptured Tunis as well as Bône and
Mahdiya Mahdia ( ar, المهدية ') is a Tunisian coastal city with 62,189 inhabitants, south of Monastir, Tunisia, Monastir and southeast of Sousse. Mahdia is a provincial centre north of Sfax. It is important for the associated fish-processing indus ...
in 1535. Recognizing the futility of armed resistance, Barbarossa had abandoned Tunis well before the arrival of the invaders, sailing away into the Tyrrhenian Sea, where he bombarded ports, landed once again at Capri and reconstructed a fort (which still today carries his name) after largely destroying it during the siege of the island. He then sailed to Algiers, from where he raided the coastal towns of Spain, destroyed the ports of
Majorca Mallorca, or Majorca, is the largest island in the Balearic Islands, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean. The capital of the island, Palma, Majorca, Palma, is also the capital of the autonomous communities of Spain, autono ...
and
Menorca Menorca or Minorca (from la, Insula Minor, , smaller island, later ''Minorica'') is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain. Its name derives from its size, contrasting it with nearby Mallorca. Its large ...

Menorca
, captured several Spanish and Genoese galleys and liberated their Muslim oar slaves. In September 1535, he repulsed another Spanish attack on
Tlemcen Tlemcen (; ar, تلمسان ''Tilimsān'') is the second-largest city in north-western Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers , coordinates ...

Tlemcen
. In 1536, Barbarossa was called back to Constantinople to take command of 200 ships in a naval attack on the Habsburg Kingdom of Naples. In July 1537, he landed at Otranto and captured the city, as well as the Fortress of Castro, Apulia, Castro and the city of Ugento in Apulia. In August 1537, Lütfi Pasha and Barbarossa led a huge Ottoman force that captured the Aegean Sea, Aegean and Ionian Sea, Ionian islands belonging to the Republic of Venice, namely Syros, Aegina, Ios (Island), Ios, Paros, Tinos, Karpathos, Kasos, Kythira, and Naxos Island, Naxos. In the same year, Barbarossa raided Siege of Corfu (1537), Corfu and obliterated the agricultural cultivations of the island while enslaving nearly all the population of the countryside. However, the Old Fortress of Corfu was well defended by a 4,000-strong Venetian garrison with 700 guns, and when several assaults failed to capture the fortifications, the Turks reluctantly re-embarkedHistory of Corfu
and once again raided
Calabria it, Calabrese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demogr ...

Calabria
. These losses prompted Venice to ask Pope Paul III to organize a " Holy League" against the Ottomans. In February 1538, Pope Paul III succeeded in assembling a Holy League (composed of the Papacy, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, the Republic of Venice and the Maltese Knights) against the Ottomans, but Barbarossa's forces led by Sinan Reis defeated its combined fleet, commanded by
Andrea Doria Andrea Doria, Prince of MelfiThe title of Prince of Melfi is an Italian noble title that was granted to Andrea Doria, a famous admiral, statesman and condottiere from the Republic of Genoa, in 1531 along with the lands of the country of Melfi b ...

Andrea Doria
, at the Battle of Preveza in September 1538. This victory secured Ottoman dominance over the Mediterranean for the next 33 years, until the Battle of Lepanto (1571), Battle of Lepanto in 1571. In the summer of 1539, Barbarossa captured the islands of Skiathos, Skyros, Andros and Serifos and recaptured Herceg Novi, Castelnuovo from the Spanish, who had taken it from the Ottomans after the battle of Preveza. He also captured the nearby Castle of Risan, and with Sinan Reis, later assaulted the Venetian fortress of Cattaro and the Spanish fortress of Santa Veneranda near Pesaro. Barbarossa later took the remaining Christian outposts in the Ionian and Aegean Seas. Venice finally signed a peace treaty with Sultan Suleiman in October 1540, agreeing to recognize the Ottoman territorial gains and to pay 300,000 gold ducats. In September 1540, Emperor Charles V contacted Barbarossa and offered him to become his Admiral-in-Chief as well as the ruler of Spain's territories in North Africa, but he refused. Unable to persuade Barbarossa to switch sides, in October 1541, Charles himself laid siege to Algiers, seeking to end the corsair threat to the Spanish domains and Christian shipping in the western Mediterranean. The season was not ideal for such a campaign, and both Andrea Doria, who commanded the fleet, and Hernán Cortés, who had been asked by Charles to participate in the campaign, attempted to change the Emperor's mind but failed. Eventually, a violent storm disrupted Charles's landing operations. Andrea Doria took his fleet away into open waters to avoid being wrecked on the shore, but much of the Spanish fleet went aground. After some indecisive fighting on land, Charles had to abandon the effort and withdraw his severely battered force.


Franco-Ottoman alliance

In 1543, Barbarossa headed towards Marseilles to assist France, then an ally of the Ottoman Empire, and cruised the western Mediterranean with a fleet of 210 ships (70 galleys, 40 galliots and 100 other warships carrying 14,000 Turkish soldiers, thus an overall total of 30,000 Ottoman troops). On his way, while passing through the Strait of Messina, he asked Diego Gaetani, governor of Reggio Calabria, to surrender his city. Gaetani responded with cannon fire, which killed three Turkish sailors. Barbarossa, angered by the response, besieged and captured the city. He then landed on the coasts of
Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 ...
and Lazio and, from the mouth of the Tiber, threatened Rome, but France intervened in favor of the pope's city. Barbarossa then raided several Italian and Spanish islands and coastal settlements before laying the Siege of Nice and capturing the city on 5 August 1543 on behalf of the French king,
Francis IFrancis I or Francis the First may refer to: * Francesco I Gonzaga (1366–1407) * Francis I, Duke of Brittany (1414–1450), reigned 1442–1450 * Francis I of France (1494–1547), reigned 1515–1547 * Francis I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg (1510–15 ...
. The Ottoman captain later landed at Antibes and the Île Sainte-Marguerite near Cannes before sacking the city of Sanremo, San Remo, other ports of Liguria, Monaco and La Turbie. He spent the winter with his fleet and 30,000 Turkish soldiers in
Toulon Toulon (, , ; oc, label=Occitan language, Provençal, Tolon , , ) is a city on the French Riviera and a large port on the Mediterranean coast, with a major naval base. Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region, and ...

Toulon
, but occasionally sent his ships from there to bombard the coasts of Spain. The Christian population had been evacuated, and the Toulon Cathedral, Cathedral of St Mary in Toulon was transformed into a mosque for the Turkish soldiers, while Ottoman money was accepted for transactions by the French tradesmen in the city. In the spring of 1544, after assaulting San Remo for the second time and landing at Borghetto Santo Spirito and Ceriale, Barbarossa defeated another Spanish-Italian fleet and raided deeply into the Kingdom of Naples. He then sailed to Genoa with his 210 ships and threatened to attack the city unless it freed Turgut Reis, who had been serving as a galley slave on a Genoese ship and then was imprisoned in the city since his capture in Corsica by Giannettino Doria in 1540. Barbarossa was invited by
Andrea Doria Andrea Doria, Prince of MelfiThe title of Prince of Melfi is an Italian noble title that was granted to Andrea Doria, a famous admiral, statesman and condottiere from the Republic of Genoa, in 1531 along with the lands of the country of Melfi b ...

Andrea Doria
to discuss the issue at his palace in Fassolo. The two admirals negotiated the release of Turgut Reis in exchange for 3,500 gold ducats. Barbarossa then successfully repulsed further Spanish attacks on southern France, but was recalled to Istanbul after Charles V and Suleiman had agreed to a truce in 1544. After leaving Provence from the port of Île Sainte-Marguerite in May 1544, Barbarossa assaulted San Remo for the third time, and when he appeared before Vado Ligure, the Republic of Genoa sent him a substantial sum to save other Genoese cities from further attacks. In June 1544, Barbarossa appeared before Elba. Threatening to bombard
Piombino Piombino is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italia ...
unless the city's Lord released the son of Sinan Reis who had been captured and baptized 10 years earlier by the Spaniards in Tunis, he obtained his release. He then captured Castiglione della Pescaia, Talamone and Orbetello in the province of Grosseto in Tuscany. There, he destroyed the tomb and burned the remains of Bartolomeo Peretti, who had burned his father's house in
Mytilene Mytilene (; el, Μυτιλήνη, Mytilíni ) is the capital city, capital of the Greece, Greek island of Lesbos, and its port. It is also the capital and administrative center of the North Aegean Region, and hosts the headquarters of the Unive ...

Mytilene
the previous year, in 1543. He then captured Montiano and occupied Porto Ercole and the Isola del Giglio, Isle of Giglio. He later assaulted Civitavecchia, but Leone Strozzi, the French envoy, convinced Barbarossa to lift the siege. The Ottoman fleet then assaulted the coasts of Sardinia before appearing at Ischia and landing there in July 1544, capturing the city as well as Forio and the Isle of Procida before threatening Pozzuoli. Encountering 30 galleys under Giannettino Doria, Barbarossa forced them to sail away towards Sicily and seek refuge in Messina. Due to strong winds, the Ottomans were unable to attack Salerno but managed to land at Cape Palinuro nearby. Barbarossa then entered the Strait of Messina and landed at Catona, Fiumara and Calanna (near Reggio Calabria) and later at Cariati and at
Lipari Lipari (; scn, Lìpari; la, Lipara; grc, Μελιγουνίς, Meligounís, or , ''Lipára'') is the largest of the Aeolian Islands The Aeolian Islands ( ; it, Isole Eolie ; scn, Ìsuli Eoli; el, Αιολίδες Νήσοι, Aiolídes Ní ...

Lipari
, which was his final landing on the Italian peninsula. There, he bombarded the citadel for 15 days after the city refused to surrender and eventually captured it. He finally returned to Constantinople and, in 1545, left the city for his final naval expeditions, during which he bombarded the ports of the Spanish mainland and landed at Majorca and Menorca for the last time. He then sailed back to Constantinople and built a palace on the Bosphorus, in the present-day quarter of Büyükdere, Istanbul, Büyükdere in the Sarıyer district.


Retirement and death

Barbarossa retired in Constantinople in 1545, leaving his son Hasan Pasha (son of Barbarossa), Hasan Pasha as his successor in Algiers. He then dictated his memoirs to Muradi Sinan Reis. They consist of five hand-written volumes known as ''Gazavat-ı Hayreddin Paşa'' (''Conquests of Hayreddin Pasha''). Today, they are exhibited at the
Topkapı Palace The Topkapı Palace ( tr, Topkapı Sarayı; ota, طوپقپو سرايى, Ṭopḳapu Sarāyı, lit=Cannon Gate Palace), or the Seraglio , Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code , postal_code = 34 ...

Topkapı Palace
and Istanbul University Library. They are prepared and published by Babıali Cultural Publications, Babıali Kültür Yayıncılığı as ''Kaptan Paşa'nın Seyir Defteri'' (''The Logbook of the Captain Pasha'') by Prof. Dr. Ahmet Şimşirgil, a Turkish academic. They are also fictionalised as ''Akdeniz Bizimdi'' (''The Mediterranean was Ours'') by M. Ertuğrul Düzdağ. Barbarossa is also one of the main characters in Mika Waltari's book The Wanderer (Waltari), ''The Wanderer'' (1949). Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha died in 1546 in his seaside palace in the Büyükdere neighbourhood of Istanbul, on the northwestern shores of the Bosphorus. He is buried in the tall mausoleum (''türbe'') near the ferry port of the district of Beşiktaş on the European side of Istanbul, which was built in 1541 by the famous architect Mimar Sinan, at the site where his fleet used to assemble. His memorial was built in 1944, next to his mausoleum.


The Flag (Sanjak) of Hayreddin Barbarossa

The Arabic calligraphy at the top of the standard reads, "" (''nasrun mina'llāhi wa fatḥhun qarībun wa bashshiri'l-mu’minīna yā muḥammad''), translated as "Victory from Allah and an eminent conquest; and give good tidings to the believers, O Muhammad." The text comes from verse 61:13 of the Quran, with the addition of "O Muhammad", since the last part of the verse addresses the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Within the four crescents are the names, from right to left, beginning at the top right, of the first four caliphs – Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali – whose rule of the Islamic state after Muhammad is referred to as the Rashidun Caliphate. The two-bladed sword represents Dhu'l-Fiqar, a famous sword in Islamic history, belonging first to Muhammad and then Ali. To the left of the sword's hilt is a small hand. Between the two blades of the sword is a six-pointed star. The star may be confused with the Star of David, a Jewish symbol. However, in medieval times, this star was a popular Islamic symbol known as the Seal of Solomon and was widely used by the Anatolian beyliks, Beyliks of
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
. The seal was later used by the Ottomans in their mosque decorations, coins and the personal flags of the pashas, including Hayreddin Barbarossa. One of the Turkish beyliks known to use the seal on its flag was the Jandarids. According to the Catalan Atlas of 1375 by Abraham Cresques, A. Cresques, the flag of the Karamanids, another Anatolian beylik, consisted of a blue six-edged star.


Legacy

Hayreddin Barbarossa established the Ottoman supremacy in the Mediterranean, which lasted until the Battle of Lepanto (1571), Battle of Lepanto in 1571. However, even after their defeat in Lepanto, the Ottomans quickly rebuilt their fleet, gained Cyprus and other territories in
Morea The Morea ( el, Μορέας or ) was the name of the Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ) is a peninsula and geographic regions of Greece, geographic region in sou ...

Morea
and Dalmatia from the Republic of Venice between 1571 and 1572, and reconquered Tunisia from Habsburg Spain, Spain in 1574. However, during these centuries of great seamen such as Kemal Reis before him; his brother
Oruç Reis Oruç Reis ( ota, عروج ريس; es, Aruj; 1474–1518) was an Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and ...
and other contemporaries Turgut Reis, Salih Reis, Piri Reis and Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis; or Piyale Pasha, Murat Reis the Elder, Murat Reis, Seydi Ali Reis, Uluç Ali Reis and Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis after him, few other Ottoman admirals ever achieved the overwhelming naval power of Hayreddin Barbarossa. His mausoleum is in the Barbaros Park of Beşiktaş, Istanbul, where his statue also stands, next to the Istanbul Naval Museum. On the back of the statue are verses by the Turkish poet Yahya Kemal Beyatlı, which may be translated as follows: ''Whence on the sea's horizon comes that roar?''
''Can it be Barbarossa now returning''
''From Tunis or Algiers or from the Isles?''
''Two hundred vessels ride upon the waves,''
''Coming from lands the rising Crescent lights:''
''O blessed ships, from what seas are ye come?'' Barbaros Boulevard starts from his mausoleum on the Bosphorus and runs up to the Levent and Maslak business districts and beyond. The port of Üsküdar and Eminönü (before 10 January 2009, Kadıköy) in Beşiktaş is named after him. In the centuries following his death, even today, Turkish seamen salute his mausoleum with a cannon shot before leaving for naval operations and battles. Several warships of the Turkish Navy and passenger ships have been named after him. Outside Turkey, or the wider Islamic world, the prolific British historian of naval military history, Edward Keble Chatterton, considered him "the greatest pirate that has ever lived, and one of the cleverest tacticians and strategists the Mediterranean ever bore on its waters"; noting that "his death was received by Christian Europe with a sigh of the greatest relief."E. Keble Chatterton, ''Pirates and Piracy'', Courier Corporation, 2012, pp. 68-69


Cultural depictions

Hayreddin Barbarossa has been the subject of many Turkish films. It should also be noted that name of Hector Barbossa, a Character (arts), fictional character in the Pirates of the Caribbean (film series), Pirates of the Caribbean film series, is a derivative of Hayreddin Barbarossa's.Kaplan, Arie (2015). ''Swashbuckling Scoundrels: Pirates in Fact and Fiction'', p. 55. Twenty-First Century Books. *1951- Barbaros Hayrettin Paşa- Film - actor, Cüneyt Gökçer *2013-2014- Muhteşem Yüzyıl - Series - actor, Tolga Tekin *2013- Barbaros- Cartoon- animated cartoon *2018- Barbaros Hayrettin Paşa- animated cartoon *2021- Barbaros (TV series), Barbaroslar - Series - actor, Ulaş Tuna Astepe


Notes


References

* * * * * * *


External links


Pasha, pirates and Paros

Encyclopædia Britannica





Original Gazawat by Seyyid Muradi

Hayreddin Barbarossa's tomb in Beşiktaş


(Memoirs of Hayreddin Barbarossa in Turkish) {{DEFAULTSORT:Barbarossa 1476 births 1546 deaths Muslims of the Ottoman Empire 15th-century people of the Ottoman Empire 16th-century people of the Ottoman Empire 16th-century pirates People from Lesbos Barbary pirates Kapudan Pashas Heads of state of Algeria Privateers Suleiman the Magnificent Piri Reis Ottoman Empire admirals Turks of the Ottoman Empire People of the Ottoman Empire of Albanian descent People of the Ottoman Empire of Greek descent Turkish people of Albanian descent Albanians of the Ottoman Empire Greeks of the Ottoman Empire Turkish people of Greek descent Ottoman people of the Ottoman–Venetian Wars Ottoman Navy officers Rulers of the Regency of Algiers