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Hautes-Alpes (; oc, Auts Aups; en, Upper Alps) is a department in the
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (; or , ; commonly shortened to PACA; en, Provence-Alps-French Riviera, italic=yes; also branded as Région Sud) is one of the eighteen administrative regions of France, the far southeastern on the mainland. Its pre ...
region In geography, regions, otherwise referred to as zones, lands or territories, are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and ...
of Southeastern France. It is located in the heart of the
French Alps The French Alps are the portions of the Alps mountain range that stand within France, located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur regions. While some of the ranges of the French Alps are entirely in France, others, such ...
, after which it is named. Hautes-Alpes had a population of 141,220 as of 2019,Populations légales 2019: 05 Hautes-Alpes
INSEE
which makes it the third least populated French department. Its
prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin ''Praefectura'') is an administrative jurisdiction traditionally governed by an appointed prefect. This can be a regional or local government subdivision in various countries, or a subdivision in certain internationa ...
is Gap; its sole
subprefecture A subprefecture is an administrative division of a country that is below prefecture or province. Albania There are twelve Albanian counties or prefectures, each of which is divided into several districts, sometimes translated as subprefectures ...
is
Briançon Briançon (, ) is the sole subprefecture of the Hautes-Alpes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in Southeastern France. It is the highest city in France at an altitude of , based on the national definition as a community co ...
. Its INSEE and postal code is 05.


History

Hautes-Alpes is one of the original 83 departments created during the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France that began with the Estates General of 1789 and ended with the formation of the French Consulate in November 1799. Many of its ideas are consid ...
on 4 March 1790. It consists of the southeast of the former province of
Dauphiné The Dauphiné (, ) is a former province in Southeastern France, whose area roughly corresponded to that of the present departments of Isère, Drôme and Hautes-Alpes. The Dauphiné was originally the Dauphiné of Viennois. In the 12th ce ...
and the north of
Provence Provence (, , , , ; oc, Provença or ''Prouvènço'' , ) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône to the west to the Italian border to the east; it is bor ...
. At the time when the department was created, the two mountain communes of
La Grave La Grave (; oc, La Grava) is a commune in the Hautes-Alpes department in southeastern France. It is a small ski resort in the French Alps, dominated by La Meije (3982 m). It was the birthplace of Nicolas de Nicolay; adventurer and Geogr ...
and
Villar-d'Arêne Villar-d'Arêne (; oc, Vilars d'Arena) is a commune in the Hautes-Alpes department in southeastern France, between Grenoble and Briançon. It is in the French Alps, in Massif des Écrins. Near this village located in the Romanche valley, the ...
successfully campaigned to be included in Hautes-Alpes and not in the neighbouring department of
Isère Isère ( , ; frp, Isera; oc, Isèra, ) is a landlocked department in the southeastern French region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. Named after the river Isère, it had a population of 1,271,166 in 2019.Statute of the Briançon Escartons.
Napoleon Napoleon Bonaparte ; it, Napoleone Bonaparte, ; co, Napulione Buonaparte. (born Napoleone Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821), later known by his regnal name Napoleon I, was a French military commander and political leader who ...
passed through Gap when he returned to reclaim France after his exile on
Elba Elba ( it, isola d'Elba, ; la, Ilva) is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, from the coastal town of Piombino on the Italian mainland, and the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago. It is also part of the Arcipelago Toscano Nation ...
using what is now known as Route Napoléon. After Napoleon's defeat at the
Battle of Waterloo The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday 18 June 1815, near Waterloo (at that time in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, now in Belgium). A French army under the command of Napoleon was defeated by two of the armies of the Seventh ...
, the department was occupied by Austrian and Piedmontese troops from 1815 to 1818. During World War II, Italy occupied Hautes-Alpes from November 1942 to September 1943.


Geography

The department is surrounded by the following French departments:
Alpes-de-Haute-Provence Alpes-de-Haute-Provence or sometimes abbreviated as AHP (; oc, Aups d'Auta Provença; ) is a department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of France, bordering Alpes-Maritimes and Italy to the east, Var to the south, Vaucluse to the ...
,
Drôme Drôme (; Occitan: ''Droma''; Arpitan: ''Drôma'') is the southernmost department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of Southeastern France. Named after the river Drôme, it had a population of 516,762 as of 2019.
,
Isère Isère ( , ; frp, Isera; oc, Isèra, ) is a landlocked department in the southeastern French region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. Named after the river Isère, it had a population of 1,271,166 in 2019.Savoie Savoie (; Arpitan: ''Savouè'' or ''Savouè-d'Avâl''; English: ''Savoy'' ) is a department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, Southeastern France. Located in the French Alps, its prefecture is Chambéry. In 2019, Savoie had a populati ...
. Italy borders it on the east with the
Metropolitan City of Turin The Metropolitan City of Turin ( it, Città metropolitana di Torino, Piedmontese: ''Sità metropolitan-a 'd Turin'') is a metropolitan city in the Piedmont region, Italy. Its capital is the city of Turin. It replaced the Province of Turin and ...
and the
province of Cuneo Cuneo ( Italian), or Coni ( Piedmontese), is a province in the southwest of the Piedmont region of Italy. To the west it borders on the French region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur ( departments of Alpes-Maritimes, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence and ...
, region of
Piedmont it, Piemontese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...
. Hautes-Alpes is located in the
Alps The Alps () ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps ; sl, Alpe . are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, stretching approximately across seven Alpine countries (from west to east): France, ...
mountain range. The average elevation is over 1000 m, and the highest elevation is over 4000 m. The only three sizable towns are Gap,
Briançon Briançon (, ) is the sole subprefecture of the Hautes-Alpes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in Southeastern France. It is the highest city in France at an altitude of , based on the national definition as a community co ...
, and Embrun, which was a subprefecture until 1926. The third highest
commune A commune is an alternative term for an intentional community. Commune or comună or comune or other derivations may also refer to: Administrative-territorial entities * Commune (administrative division), a municipality or township ** Communes of ...
in all of Europe is the village of
Saint-Véran Saint-Véran (; oc, Sent Veran sã vˈʀã is a commune in the Hautes-Alpes department in southeastern France in the Queyras Regional Natural Park. Geography Saint-Véran, located in the French Alps, is the most elevated commune in France a ...
. Gap and
Briançon Briançon (, ) is the sole subprefecture of the Hautes-Alpes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in Southeastern France. It is the highest city in France at an altitude of , based on the national definition as a community co ...
are the highest
prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin ''Praefectura'') is an administrative jurisdiction traditionally governed by an appointed prefect. This can be a regional or local government subdivision in various countries, or a subdivision in certain internationa ...
and
subprefecture A subprefecture is an administrative division of a country that is below prefecture or province. Albania There are twelve Albanian counties or prefectures, each of which is divided into several districts, sometimes translated as subprefectures ...
in France. The following rivers flow through the department:
Durance The Durance (; ''Durença'' in the Occitan classical norm or ''Durènço'' in the Mistralian norm) is a major river in Southeastern France. A left tributary of the Rhône, it is long. Its drainage basin is .Guisane The Guisane is a river in the Hautes-Alpes department, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of France, a subtributary of the Rhône and tributary of the Durance The Durance (; ''Durença'' in the Occitan classical norm or ''Durènço'' in the ...
,
Buëch The Buëch ( ), Occitan ''Bueg'' () is a river in southeastern France, a right tributary of the Durance. It is long. Its drainage basin is .Drac and Clarée. The
Durance The Durance (; ''Durença'' in the Occitan classical norm or ''Durènço'' in the Mistralian norm) is a major river in Southeastern France. A left tributary of the Rhône, it is long. Its drainage basin is .Lac de Serre-Ponçon Lake Serre-Ponçon (french: Lac de Serre-Ponçon, ; Vivaro-Alpine: ''Lac de Sèrra Ponçon'') is a reservoir in the departments of Hautes-Alpes and Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, in southeast France, one of the larg ...
. The
Queyras The Queyras ( oc, Cairàs) is a valley located in the French Hautes-Alpes, of which the geographical extent is the basin of the river Guil, a tributary of the Durance The Durance (; ''Durença'' in the Occitan language, Occitan classical nor ...
valley is located in the eastern part of the department and is noted by many as being an area of outstanding beauty.


Principal communes

The most populous commune is the prefecture Gap. As of 2019, there are 2 communes with more than 10,000 inhabitants, and 6 communes with more than 3,000 inhabitants:


Demographics

The inhabitants of the department are called ''Haut-Alpins'' and ''Haut-Alpines'' in French. The extremely mountainous terrain explains the sparse population, which was about 120,000 in 1791. It changed little during the 19th century, but fell to about 85,000 after World War I. Thanks in large part to tourism, the population has risen from 87,436 in 1962 to 141,107 in 2016, principally in the town of Gap. Population development since 1791:


Politics


Departmental Council of Hautes-Alpes

The President of the Departmental Council of Hautes-Alpes has been Jean-Marie Bernard of The Republicans since the 2015 departmental elections.


Members of the National Assembly

Hautes-Alpes elected the following members of the
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral legislature, the lower house of a bicameral legislature, or both houses of a bicameral legislature together. In the English language it generally means "an assembly composed of the r ...
during the 2017 legislative election:


Tourism

The tourist industry is largely dependent on skiing in winter. In summer the Alpine scenery and many outdoor activities attract visitors from across Europe (sailing, hiking,
climbing Climbing is the activity of using one's hands, feet, or any other part of the body to ascend a steep topographical object that can range from the world's tallest mountains (e.g. the eight thousanders), to small boulders. Climbing is done ...
and aerial sports such as
gliding Gliding is a recreational activity and competitive air sport in which pilots fly unpowered aircraft known as gliders or sailplanes using naturally occurring currents of rising air in the atmosphere to remain airborne. The word ''soaring'' is ...
). The
Tour de France The Tour de France () is an annual men's multiple-stage bicycle race primarily held in France, while also occasionally passing through nearby countries. Like the other Grand Tours (the Giro d'Italia and the Vuelta a España), it consist ...
passes through the department regularly. This draws many cycling fanatics to cycle the cols and watch the race. File:Collégiale Notre-Dame-et-Saint-Nicolas de Briançon.jpg,
Briançon Briançon (, ) is the sole subprefecture of the Hautes-Alpes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in Southeastern France. It is the highest city in France at an altitude of , based on the national definition as a community co ...
File:Embrun - Couvent des Cordeliers -829.jpg, Embrun File:Vue en montant à Vallonpierre.jpg, Massif des Écrins File:La Grave 2.jpg,
La Grave La Grave (; oc, La Grava) is a commune in the Hautes-Alpes department in southeastern France. It is a small ski resort in the French Alps, dominated by La Meije (3982 m). It was the birthplace of Nicolas de Nicolay; adventurer and Geogr ...
File:Emparis- massif de la Meije depuis le lac Noir.jpg, La Meije File:Echaugette de Mont Dauphin - panoramio.jpg, The Alps and the
Guil The Guil (french: le Guil) is a long river in the Hautes-Alpes ''département'', southeastern France. Its drainage basin is .Mont-Dauphin Mont-Dauphin (; oc, Montdaufin) is a commune in the Hautes-Alpes department in southeastern France. At the confluence of Durance and Guil rivers, overlooking the impressive canyon of the latter flowing down from Queyras valleys, Mont-Dauphin ...


See also

*
Cantons of the Hautes-Alpes department The following is a list of the 15 cantons of the Hautes-Alpes department, in France, following the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015: * L'Argentière-la-Bessée * Briançon-1 * Briançon-2 * Chorges * Embrun * ...
*
Communes of the Hautes-Alpes department The following is a list of the 162 communes of the Hautes-Alpes department of France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of Overseas France, overseas reg ...
*
Arrondissements of the Hautes-Alpes department The 2 arrondissements of the Hautes-Alpes department are: # Arrondissement of Briançon, ( subprefecture: Briançon) with 36 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 35,266 in 2016. # Arrondissement of Gap, (prefecture of the Haut ...


References


External links

* *
Prefecture website
*
Departmental Council website
*
Tourist office Website
* {{Authority control 1790 establishments in France Departments of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur States and territories established in 1790 Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region articles needing translation from French Wikipedia