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Harvard University is a
private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two decades from the charts. Both "In Pri ...
Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference comprising eight private research universities in the Northeastern United States. The term ''Ivy League'' is typically used beyond the sports co ...
research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in va ...
in
Cambridge, Massachusetts Cambridge ( ) is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Greater Boston, Boston metropolitan area as a major suburb of Boston. , it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, ...
. Founded in 1636 as Harvard College and named for its first benefactor, the
Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to purify the Church of England of Roman Catholic practices, maintaining that the Church of England had not been fully reformed and should become more Protestant. ...
clergyman John Harvard, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and among the most prestigious in the world. The Massachusetts colonial legislature authorized Harvard's founding, "dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches, when our present ministers shall lie in the dust"; though never formally affiliated with any
denomination Denomination may refer to: * Religious denomination, such as a: ** Christian denomination ** Jewish denomination ** Islamic denomination ** Hindu denominations ** Schools of Buddhism, Buddhist denomination * Denomination (currency) * Denomination ( ...
, in its early years
Harvard College Harvard College is the undergraduate education, undergraduate college of Harvard University, an Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636, Harvard College is the original school of Harvard University, the oldest i ...
primarily trained
Congregational Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Crit ...
clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century, it had emerged as the central cultural establishment among the Boston elite. Following the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by Names of the American Civil War, other names) was a civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865, fought between northern U.S. state, states loyal to the Union (American Civil War), Union and south ...
, President
Charles William Eliot Charles William Eliot (March 20, 1834 – August 22, 1926) was an American academic who was selected as Harvard's president in 1869. A member of the prominent Eliot family of Boston, he transformed the provincial college into the pre-eminent Ame ...
's long tenure (1869–1909) transformed the
college A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an educational institution or a University system, constituent part of one. A college may be a academic degree, degree-awarding Tertiary education, tertiary educational institution, a part of a collegiate un ...
and affiliated professional schools into a modern
research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in va ...
; Harvard became a founding member of the
Association of American Universities The Association of American Universities (AAU) is an organization of American research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to increase ...
in 1900.
James B. Conant James Bryant Conant (March 26, 1893 – February 11, 1978) was an American chemist A chemist (from Greek ''chēm(ía)'' alchemy; replacing ''chymist'' from Medieval Latin ''alchemist'') is a scientist A scientist is a person who conduc ...
led the university through the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning Great Depression in the United States, in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied around the world; in mos ...
and
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great ...
, and liberalized admissions after the war. The university is composed of ten academic faculties plus the
Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study Image:Radcliffe Yard, Cambridge MA.jpg, 250px, Radcliffe Yard The Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study is a part of Harvard University that fosters interdisciplinary research across the humanities, sciences, social sciences, arts, and professio ...
. Arts and Sciences offers study in a wide range of
academic discipline An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge that is Education, taught and researched at the college or university level. Disciplines are defined (in part) and recognized by the academic journals in which research is pu ...
s for undergraduates and for graduates, while the other faculties offer only graduate degrees, mostly
professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of education and training that prepare members of the profession with the particular kno ...
. Harvard has three main campuses: the Cambridge campus centered on
Harvard Yard Harvard Yard, in Cambridge, Massachusetts Cambridge ( ) is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Greater Boston, Boston metropolitan area as a major suburb of Boston. , it was the fifth most ...

Harvard Yard
; an adjoining campus immediately across the
Charles River The Charles River (sometimes called the River Charles or simply the Charles) is an long river in eastern Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous U.S. state, state in the New Eng ...

Charles River
in the
Allston Allston is an officially recognized Neighborhoods in Boston, neighborhood within the City of Boston, Massachusetts, United States. It was named after the American painter and poet Washington Allston. It comprises the land covered by the zip code 0 ...

Allston
neighborhood of Boston; and the medical campus in Boston's
Longwood Medical Area The Longwood Medical and Academic Area (also known as Longwood Medical Area, LMA, or simply Longwood) is a medical campus in Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massac ...
. Harvard's endowment is valued at $53.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Endowment income helps enable the undergraduate college to admit students regardless of financial need and provide generous financial aid with no loans. The
Harvard Library The Harvard Library is the umbrella organization for the Harvard University libraries and their shared services, such as access, preservation, digital infrastructure, digital imaging, and discovery services. The Harvard Library is nearly 400 ye ...
is the world's largest academic library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding about 20.4 million items. Harvard has more alumni, faculty, and researchers who have won Nobel Prizes (161) and
Fields Medal The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity ...
s (18) than any other university in the world and more alumni who have been members of the
U.S. Congress The United States Congress or U.S. Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States and consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Wa ...

U.S. Congress
,
MacArthur Fellows The MacArthur Fellows Program, also known as the MacArthur Fellowship and commonly but unofficially known as the "Genius Grant", is a prize awarded annually by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation typically to between 20 and 30 indiv ...
,
Rhodes Scholars 250px, Rhodes House in Oxford, designed by Sir Herbert Baker">Oxford.html" ;"title="Rhodes House in Oxford">Rhodes House in Oxford, designed by Sir Herbert Baker The Rhodes Scholarship is an international Postgraduate education, postgraduate a ...
(375), and
Marshall Scholars General of the Army George C. Marshall, former Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense and Army Chief of Staff, for whom the scholarships are named The Marshall Scholarship is a Postgraduate student, postgraduate scholarship for "intellectually ...
(255) than any other university in the United States. Its alumni include eight U.S. presidents and 188 living billionaires, the most of any university. Fourteen Turing Award laureates have been Harvard affiliates. Students and alumni have won 10
Academy Awards The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e., f ...
, 48
Pulitzer Prize#REDIRECT Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature and musical composition within the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of Joseph ...
s, and 110 Olympic medals (46 gold), and they have founded many notable companies.


History


Colonial

File:A Westerly View of the Colledges in Cambridge New England by Paul Revere.jpeg, upright=1, Engraving of
Harvard College Harvard College is the undergraduate education, undergraduate college of Harvard University, an Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636, Harvard College is the original school of Harvard University, the oldest i ...
by Paul Revere, 1767 Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named
Harvard College Harvard College is the undergraduate education, undergraduate college of Harvard University, an Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636, Harvard College is the original school of Harvard University, the oldest i ...
after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the
University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge. , established = , other_name = The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of ...
who had left the school £779 and his library of some 400 volumes. The charter creating the
Harvard Corporation The President and Fellows of Harvard College (also called the Harvard Corporation) is the smaller of Harvard University's two governing boards, the other being its Harvard Board of Overseers, Board of Overseers. History In 1650, at the request of ...
was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust." It trained many Puritan ministers in its early years and offered a classic curriculum based on the English university modelmany leaders in the colony had attended the
University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge. , established = , other_name = The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of ...
but conformed to the tenets of
Puritanism The Puritans were English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to purify the Church of England of Roman Catholic practices, maintaining that the Church of England had not been fully reformed and should become more Protestant. ...
. Harvard has never affiliated with any particular denomination, though many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Puritan churches.
Increase Mather Increase Mather (June 21, 1639 Old Style Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) indicate a dating system from before and after a calendar change, respectively. Usually this is the change from the Julian calendar The Julian calendar, prop ...

Increase Mather
served as president from 1681 to 1701. In 1708,
John Leverett John Leverett (baptized 7 July 1616 – 16 March 1678/79In the Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in , was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on , by edict. It was designed with the aid of Greek math ...
became the first president who was not also a clergyman, marking a turning of the college away from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence.


19th century

In the 19th century,
Enlightenment Enlightenment, enlighten or enlightened may refer to: Age of Enlightenment * Age of Enlightenment, period in Western intellectual history from the late 17th to late 18th century, centered in France but also encompassing: ** Midlands Enlightenment ...
ideas of reason and free will were widespread among
Congregational Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Crit ...
ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist,
Calvinist Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, A ...
parties.Gary J. Dorrien.
The Making of American Liberal Theology: Imagining Progressive Religion, 1805–1900, Volume 1
Westminster John Knox Press, 2001
When
Hollis Professor of DivinityThe Hollis Chair of Divinity is an Financial endowment, endowed chair at Harvard Divinity School. It was established in 1721 by Thomas Hollis (1659–1731), Thomas Hollis, a wealthy English merchant and benefactor of the university, at a salary of £ ...
David Tappan died in 1803 and
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
Joseph Willard died a year later, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the Hollis chair in 1805, and the liberal
Samuel Webber Samuel Webber (1759 – July 17, 1810) was an American clergyman, mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quan ...
was appointed to the presidency two years later, signaling the shift from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal,
Arminian Arminianism is a branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of J ...
ideas.
Charles William Eliot Charles William Eliot (March 20, 1834 – August 22, 1926) was an American academic who was selected as Harvard's president in 1869. A member of the prominent Eliot family of Boston, he transformed the provincial college into the pre-eminent Ame ...
, president 1869–1909, eliminated the favored position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. Though Eliot was the crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education but by Transcendentalist
Unitarian Unitarian or Unitarianism may refer to: Christian and Christian-derived theologies A Unitarian is a follower of, or a member of an organisation that follows, any of several theologies referred to as Unitarianism: * Unitarianism (1565–present), ...
convictions influenced by
William Ellery Channing William Ellery Channing (April 7, 1780 – October 2, 1842) was the foremost Unitarianism, Unitarian preacher in the United States in the early nineteenth century and, along with Andrews Norton (1786–1853), one of Unitarianism's leading theologi ...
and
Ralph Waldo Emerson Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803April 27, 1882), who went by his middle name Waldo, was an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher, abolitionism, abolitionist and poet who led the Transcendentalism, transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th c ...

Ralph Waldo Emerson
. Programs in the study of French] and Spanish languages began in 1816 with
George Ticknor George Ticknor (August 1, 1791 – January 26, 1871) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (U ...

George Ticknor
as its first professor.


20th century

In the 20th century, Harvard's reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the university's scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new graduate schools were begun and the undergraduate college expanded.
Radcliffe College Radcliffe College was a women's A woman is an adult female human. The term ''woman'' may also refer to a girl (a female child or Adolescence, adolescent). The plural ''women'' is sometimes used for female humans regardless of age, as in phr ...
, established in 1879 as the female counterpart of Harvard College, became one of the most prominent schools for women in the United States. Harvard became a founding member of the
Association of American Universities The Association of American Universities (AAU) is an organization of American research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to increase ...
in 1900. The student body in the early decades of the century was predominantly "old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians." A 1923 proposal by President A. Lawrence Lowell that Jews be limited to 15% of undergraduates was rejected, but Lowell did ban blacks from freshman dormitories. President
James B. Conant James Bryant Conant (March 26, 1893 – February 11, 1978) was an American chemist A chemist (from Greek ''chēm(ía)'' alchemy; replacing ''chymist'' from Medieval Latin ''alchemist'') is a scientist A scientist is a person who conduc ...
reinvigorated creative scholarship to guarantee Harvard's preeminence among research institutions. He saw higher education as a vehicle of opportunity for the talented rather than an entitlement for the wealthy, so Conant devised programs to identify, recruit, and support talented youth. In 1943, he asked the faculty to make a definitive statement about what general education ought to be, at the secondary as well as at the college level. The resulting ''Report'', published in 1945, was one of the most influential manifestos in 20th century American education. Between 1945 and 1960, admissions were opened up to bring in a more diverse group of students. No longer drawing mostly from select New England prep schools, the undergraduate college became accessible to striving middle class students from public schools; many more Jews and Catholics were admitted, but few blacks, Hispanics, or Asians. Throughout the rest of the 20th century, Harvard became more diverse. Harvard's graduate schools began admitting women in small numbers in the late 19th century. During World War II, students at
Radcliffe College Radcliffe College was a women's A woman is an adult female human. The term ''woman'' may also refer to a girl (a female child or Adolescence, adolescent). The plural ''women'' is sometimes used for female humans regardless of age, as in phr ...
(which since 1879 had been paying Harvard professors to repeat their lectures for women) began attending Harvard classes alongside men. Women were first admitted to the
medical school A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons. Such medical degrees include the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surge ...
in 1945. Since 1971, Harvard has controlled essentially all aspects of undergraduate admission, instruction, and housing for Radcliffe women. In 1999, Radcliffe was formally merged into Harvard.


21st century

Drew Gilpin Faust Catharine Drew Gilpin Faust (born September 18, 1947) is an American historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who studies an ...
, previously the dean of the
Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study Image:Radcliffe Yard, Cambridge MA.jpg, 250px, Radcliffe Yard The Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study is a part of Harvard University that fosters interdisciplinary research across the humanities, sciences, social sciences, arts, and professio ...
, became Harvard's first female president on July 1, 2007. She was succeeded by
Lawrence Bacow Lawrence "Larry" Seldon Bacow (; born August 24, 1951) is an American lawyer, Economics, economist, author and university administrator, and the current 29th President of Harvard University. He assumed office on July 1, 2018, succeeding Drew Gilp ...
on July 1, 2018.


Campuses


Cambridge

Harvard's main campus is centered on
Harvard Yard Harvard Yard, in Cambridge, Massachusetts Cambridge ( ) is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Greater Boston, Boston metropolitan area as a major suburb of Boston. , it was the fifth most ...

Harvard Yard
("the Yard") in Cambridge, about west-northwest of downtown
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unite ...
, and extends into the surrounding
Harvard Square Harvard Square is a triangular plaza at the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue, Brattle Street, and John F. Kennedy Street, near the center of Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, ...

Harvard Square
neighborhood. The Yard contains administrative offices such as University Hall and
Massachusetts HallMassachusetts Hall may refer to: * Massachusetts Hall (Harvard University), in Cambridge, Massachusetts * Massachusetts Hall, Bowdoin College, in Brunswick, Maine {{disambig Architectural disambiguation pages ...
; libraries such as , Pusey, Houghton, and Lamont; and Memorial Church. The Yard and adjacent areas include the main academic buildings of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, including the college, such as
Sever Hall Sever Hall is an academic building at Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John H ...

Sever Hall
and
Harvard Hall Harvard Hall is a Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard (clergyman), ...
. Freshman dormitories are in, or adjacent to, the Yard. Upperclassmen live in the twelve residential housesnine south of the Yard near the
Charles River The Charles River (sometimes called the River Charles or simply the Charles) is an long river in eastern Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous U.S. state, state in the New Eng ...

Charles River
, the others half a mile northwest of the Yard at the Radcliffe Quadrangle (which formerly housed
Radcliffe College Radcliffe College was a women's A woman is an adult female human. The term ''woman'' may also refer to a girl (a female child or Adolescence, adolescent). The plural ''women'' is sometimes used for female humans regardless of age, as in phr ...
students). Each house is a community of undergraduates, faculty deans, and resident tutors, with its own dining hall, library, and recreational facilities. Also in Cambridge are the
Law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundaries, ...
,
Divinity Divinity or the divine are things that are either related to, devoted to, or proceeding from a deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as "a God (m ...
(theology), Engineering and Applied Science,
Design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototype A prototype is an early sample, model, ...
(architecture),
Education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion a ...
, Kennedy (public policy), and Extension schools, as well as the
Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study Image:Radcliffe Yard, Cambridge MA.jpg, 250px, Radcliffe Yard The Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study is a part of Harvard University that fosters interdisciplinary research across the humanities, sciences, social sciences, arts, and professio ...
in Radcliffe Yard. Harvard also has commercial real estate holdings in Cambridge.


Allston

Harvard Business School Harvard Business School (HBS) is the graduate Graduate refers to someone who has been the subject of a graduation, namely, someone who has completed the requirements of an academic degree. Education * Graduate, an alumnus * Graduate diploma, ...
,
Harvard Innovation Labs Harvard Innovation Labs (i-Lab) is an institution which aims to promote team-based and entrepreneurial activities among Harvard University, Harvard students, faculty, entrepreneurs, and members of the Allston and Greater Boston communities. The i-L ...
, and many athletics facilities, including
Harvard Stadium Harvard Stadium is a U-shaped college football stadium in the northeast United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located ...

Harvard Stadium
, are located on a campus in
Allston Allston is an officially recognized Neighborhoods in Boston, neighborhood within the City of Boston, Massachusetts, United States. It was named after the American painter and poet Washington Allston. It comprises the land covered by the zip code 0 ...

Allston
, a Boston neighborhood just across the
Charles River The Charles River (sometimes called the River Charles or simply the Charles) is an long river in eastern Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous U.S. state, state in the New Eng ...

Charles River
from the Cambridge campus. The John W. Weeks Bridge, a pedestrian bridge over the Charles River, connects the two campuses. The university is actively expanding into Allston, where it now owns more land than in Cambridge. Plans include new construction and renovation for the Business School, a hotel and conference center, graduate student housing, Harvard Stadium, and other athletics facilities. In 2021, the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences will expand into a new, 500,000+ square foot Science and Engineering Complex (SEC) in Allston. The SEC will be adjacent to the Enterprise Research Campus, the Business School, and the Harvard Innovation Labs to encourage technology- and life science-focused startups as well as collaborations with mature companies.


Longwood

The schools of
Medicine Medicine is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations ...
,
Dental Medicine Dentistry, also known as dental medicine and oral medicine, is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the mouth, oral cavity, commonly in the dentition b ...
, and
Public Health Public health has been defined as "the science and art of Preventive healthcare, preventing disease", prolonging life and improving quality of life through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations (public and private), C ...
are located on a campus in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area in Boston, about south of the Cambridge campus. Several Harvard-affiliated hospitals and research institutes are also in Longwood, including
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in Boston, Massachusetts is a teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School. It was formed out of the 1996 merger of Beth Israel Hospital (founded in 1916) and New England Deaconess Hospital (founded ...
,
Boston Children's Hospital Boston Children's Hospital formerly known as Children's Hospital Boston until 2012 is a nationally ranked, freestanding acute care Pediatrics, children's hospital located in Boston, Massachusetts, adjacent both to its teaching affiliate, Harvard M ...
,
Brigham and Women's Hospital Brigham may refer to: Places * Brigham, Cumbria, England * Brigham, East Riding of Yorkshire, England * Brigham City, Utah, USA * Brigham, Wisconsin, USA * Brigham, Quebec, Canada People * Brigham (surname), including a list of people with the s ...
,
Dana–Farber Cancer Institute Dana–Farber Cancer Institute is a comprehensive cancer treatment and research institution in Boston, Massachusetts. Dana-Farber is the founding member of Dana–Farber/Harvard Cancer Center, Harvard's Comprehensive Cancer Center designated by t ...
,
Joslin Diabetes Center Joslin Diabetes Center is the world's largest diabetes research center, diabetes clinic, and provider of diabetes education. It is located in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area in Boston, Massachusetts, United States. Among the Harvard Medical ...
, and the
Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering The Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering is a cross-disciplinary research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research. Research institutes may specialize in ...
. Additional affiliates, most notably
Massachusetts General Hospital Massachusetts General Hospital (Mass General or MGH) is the original and largest teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School located in the West End neighborhood of Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, cap ...
, are located throughout the Greater Boston area.


Other

Harvard owns the
Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection Dumbarton Oaks is a historic estate in the Georgetown, Washington, D.C., Georgetown List of neighborhoods of the District of Columbia by ward, neighborhood of Washington, D.C. It was the residence and garden of Robert Woods Bliss (1875–1962 ...

Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection
in
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument and Lincoln Memorial on the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped park within ...
, the Harvard Forest in
Petersham, Massachusetts Petersham (pronounced, "Peter's ham") is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 1,234 at the 2010 census. Petersham is home to a considerable amount of conservation land, including the Quabbin Reservation, H ...
, the Concord Field Station in Estabrook Woods in
Concord, Massachusetts Concord () is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, in the United States. At the 2020 census, the town population was 18,491. The United States Census Bureau considers Concord part of Greater Boston. The town center is near where the conflue ...
, the
Villa I Tatti Villa I Tatti, The Harvard Center for Italian Renaissance Studies is a center for advanced research in the humanities located in Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central Italy and the capital city of the Tuscany Regions of ...
research center in
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the ...

Florence
, Italy, the Harvard Shanghai Center in
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four Direct-administered municipalities of China, direct-administered municipalities of the China, People's Republic of China. The city is located on the sout ...

Shanghai
, China, and the
Arnold Arboretum The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard (cler ...
in the
Jamaica Plain Jamaica Plain is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Ang ...
neighborhood of Boston.


Organization and administration


Governance

Harvard is governed by a combination of its Board of Overseers and the
President and Fellows of Harvard College The President and Fellows of Harvard College (also called the Harvard Corporation) is the smaller of Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Establish ...
(also known as the Harvard Corporation), which in turn appoints the
President of Harvard University The president of Harvard University is the chief administrator of Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1636 and named for its firs ...
. There are 16,000 staff and faculty, including 2,400 professors, lecturers, and instructors. The Faculty of Arts and Sciences is the largest Harvard faculty and has primary responsibility for instruction in
Harvard College Harvard College is the undergraduate education, undergraduate college of Harvard University, an Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636, Harvard College is the original school of Harvard University, the oldest i ...
, the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), and the Division of Continuing Education, which includes
Harvard Summer School Harvard Summer School, founded in 1871, is a summer school run by Harvard University. It serves more than 5,000 students per year. History Harvard Summer School was founded in 1871. It is the first academic summer session established and the olde ...
and
Harvard Extension School Harvard Extension School is the extension school of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Under the Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences, it offers liberal arts and professional courses, academic certificates, undergraduate degrees, u ...
. There are nine other graduate and professional faculties as well as the
Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study Image:Radcliffe Yard, Cambridge MA.jpg, 250px, Radcliffe Yard The Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study is a part of Harvard University that fosters interdisciplinary research across the humanities, sciences, social sciences, arts, and professio ...
. Joint programs with the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private land-grant research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts Cambridge ( ) is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Greater Bos ...
include the
Harvard–MIT Program in Health Sciences and Technology The Harvard–MIT Program in Health Sciences and Technology, or HST, is one of the oldest and largest biomedical engineering and physician-scientist training programs in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly kno ...
, the
Broad Institute The Eli and Edythe L. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard (pronounced ), often referred to as the Broad Institute, is a biomedical and genomic research center located in Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the count ...
,
The Observatory of Economic Complexity The Observatory of Economic Complexity (OEC) is a data visualization Data visualization (often abbreviated ''data viz'') is an interdisciplinary field that deals with the graphic representation of data. It is a particularly efficient way of ...
, and edX.


Endowment

Harvard has the largest
university endowment A financial endowment is a legal structure for managing, and in many cases indefinitely perpetuating, a pool of Financial instrument, financial, real estate, or other investments for a specific purpose according to Donor intent, the will of its fo ...
in the world, valued at about $41.9 billion as of 2020. During the recession of 2007–2009, it suffered significant losses that forced large budget cuts, in particular temporarily halting construction on the Allston Science Complex. The endowment has since recovered. About $2 billion of investment income is annually distributed to fund operations. Harvard's ability to fund its degree and financial aid programs depends on the performance of its endowment; a poor performance in fiscal year 2016 forced a 4.4% cut in the number of graduate students funded by the Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Endowment income is critical, as only 22% of revenue is from students' tuition, fees, room, and board.


Divestment

Since the 1970s, several student-led campaigns have advocated divesting Harvard's endowment from controversial holdings, including investments in
apartheid Apartheid (, especially South African English South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ...
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 59 million people, it is the world's List of countries by population, 23rd-most populous nation a ...

South Africa
,
Sudan Sudan (; ar, السودان, as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan ( ar, جمهورية السودان, link=no, Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the Egypt–Sudan border, nort ...

Sudan
during the
Darfur genocide The Darfur genocide is the systematic killing of ethnic Darfuri people which has occurred during the ongoing conflict in Western Sudan. It has become known as the first genocide of the 21st century. The genocide, which is being carried out agains ...
, and the
tobacco village in Xanthi, Greece Tobacco is the common name of several plants in the genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the princip ...
,
fossil fuel A fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen che ...
, and
private prison A private prison, or for-profit prison, is a place where people are imprisoned by a third party that is contracted by a government agency A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organiza ...
industries. In the late 1980s, during the
divestment from South Africa Disinvestment (or divestment) from South Africa was first advocated in the 1960s, in protest against History of South Africa in the apartheid era, South Africa's system of apartheid, but was not implemented on a significant scale until the mid-198 ...
movement, student activists erected a symbolic "shantytown" on Harvard Yard and blockaded a speech by South African Vice Consul Duke Kent-Brown. The university eventually reduced its South African holdings by $230 million (out of $400 million) in response to the pressure.


Academics


Teaching and learning

Harvard is a large, highly residential research university offering 50
undergraduate Undergraduate education is education conducted after secondary education and prior to postgraduate education. It typically includes all postsecondary programs up to the level of a bachelor's degree A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin ''b ...
majors, 134 graduate degrees, and 32 professional degrees. For the 2018–2019 academic year, Harvard granted 1,665 baccalaureate degrees, 1,013 graduate degrees, and 5,695 professional degrees. The four-year, full-time undergraduate program has a liberal arts and sciences focus. To graduate in the usual four years, undergraduates normally take four courses per semester. In most majors, an honors degree requires advanced coursework and a senior thesis. Though some introductory courses have large enrollments, the median class size is 12 students.


Research

Harvard is a founding member of the
Association of American Universities The Association of American Universities (AAU) is an organization of American research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to increase ...
and a preeminent research university with "very high" research activity (R1) and comprehensive doctoral programs across the arts, sciences, engineering, and medicine according to the Carnegie Classification. With the
medical school A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons. Such medical degrees include the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surge ...
consistently ranking first among medical schools for research, biomedical research is an area of particular strength for the university. More than 11,000 faculty and over 1,600 graduate students conduct research at the medical school as well as its 15 affiliated hospitals and research institutes. The medical school and its affiliates attracted $1.65 billion in competitive research grants from the
National Institutes of Health The National Institutes of Health (NIH ) is the primary agency of the United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States The United Sta ...
in 2019, more than twice as much as any other university.


Libraries and museums

The
Harvard Library The Harvard Library is the umbrella organization for the Harvard University libraries and their shared services, such as access, preservation, digital infrastructure, digital imaging, and discovery services. The Harvard Library is nearly 400 ye ...
system is centered in
Widener Library The Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Library, housing some 3.5million books in its "vast and cavernous" stacks (library architecture), stacks, is the centerpiece of the Harvard College Libraries (the libraries of Harvard's Harvard Faculty of Arts and ...

Widener Library
in
Harvard Yard Harvard Yard, in Cambridge, Massachusetts Cambridge ( ) is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Greater Boston, Boston metropolitan area as a major suburb of Boston. , it was the fifth most ...

Harvard Yard
and comprises nearly 80 individual libraries holding about 20.4 million items. According to the
American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a ...
, this makes it the largest academic library in the world. Houghton Library, the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, and the Harvard University Archives consist principally of rare and unique materials. America's oldest collection of maps, gazetteers, and atlases both old and new is stored in Pusey Library and open to the public. The largest collection of East-Asian language material outside of East Asia is held in the Harvard-Yenching Library. The Harvard Art Museums comprise three museums. The Arthur M. Sackler Museum covers Asian, Mediterranean, and Islamic art, the Busch–Reisinger Museum (formerly the Germanic Museum) covers central and northern European art, and the Fogg Museum covers Western art from the Middle Ages to the present emphasizing Italian Early Renaissance painting, early Renaissance, British pre-Raphaelite, and 19th-century French art. The Harvard Museum of Natural History includes the Harvard Mineralogical Museum, the Harvard University Herbaria featuring the Leopold and Rudolf Blaschka, Blaschka Glass Flowers exhibit, and the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Other museums include the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, designed by Le Corbusier and housing the film archive, the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, specializing in the cultural history and civilizations of the Western Hemisphere, and the Harvard Museum of the Ancient Near East featuring artifacts from excavations in the Middle East.


Reputation and rankings

Among overall rankings, the ''Academic Ranking of World Universities'' (''ARWU'') has ranked Harvard as the world's top university every year since it was released. When ''QS'' and ''Times Higher Education'' collaborated to publish the ''Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings'' from 2004 to 2009, Harvard held the top spot every year and continued to hold first place on ''World Reputation Rankings, THE World Reputation Rankings'' ever since it was released in 2011. In 2019, it was ranked first worldwide by ''SCImago Institutions Rankings''. It was ranked in the first tier of American research universities, along with Columbia, MIT, and Stanford, in the 2019 report from the Center for Measuring University Performance. Harvard University is Higher education accreditation in the United States, accredited by the New England Commission of Higher Education. Among rankings of specific indicators, Harvard topped both the University Ranking by Academic Performance (2019–2020) and ''Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities'' (2011), which measured universities' numbers of alumni holding CEO positions in Fortune Global 500, ''Fortune'' Global 500 companies. According to annual polls done by ''The Princeton Review'', Harvard is consistently among the top two most commonly named "dream colleges" in the United States, both for students and parents. Additionally, having made significant investments in its Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, engineering school in recent years, Harvard was ranked third worldwide for Engineering and Technology in 2019 by ''Times Higher Education''.


School rankings


Student life


Student government

The Harvard Undergraduate Council, Undergraduate Council represents College students. The Harvard Graduate Council, Graduate Council represents students at all twelve graduate and professional schools, most of which also have their own student government.


Athletics

Harvard College fields 42 intercollegiate sports teams in the National Collegiate Athletic Association, NCAA Division I (NCAA), Division I
Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference comprising eight private research universities in the Northeastern United States. The term ''Ivy League'' is typically used beyond the sports co ...
, more than any other college in the country. Every two years, the Harvard and Yale track and field teams come together to compete against a combined Oxford University, Oxford and Cambridge University, Cambridge team in the oldest continuous international amateur competition in the world. As with other Ivy League universities, Harvard does not offer athletic scholarships. The school color is crimson. Harvard's athletic rivalry with Yale Bulldogs, Yale is intense in every sport in which they meet, coming to a climax each fall in the Harvard–Yale football rivalry, annual football meeting, which dates back to 1875. Both the undergraduate College and the graduate schools have intramural sports programs.


Notable people


Alumni

Over more than three and a half centuries, Harvard alumni have contributed creatively and significantly to society, the arts and sciences, business, and national and international affairs. Harvard's alumni include eight U.S. presidents, 188 List of universities by number of billionaire alumni, living billionaires, List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Harvard University, 79 Nobel laureates, 7 Fields Medal winners, 9 Turing Award laureates, 369
Rhodes Scholars 250px, Rhodes House in Oxford, designed by Sir Herbert Baker">Oxford.html" ;"title="Rhodes House in Oxford">Rhodes House in Oxford, designed by Sir Herbert Baker The Rhodes Scholarship is an international Postgraduate education, postgraduate a ...
, 252
Marshall Scholars General of the Army George C. Marshall, former Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense and Army Chief of Staff, for whom the scholarships are named The Marshall Scholarship is a Postgraduate student, postgraduate scholarship for "intellectually ...
, and 13 Mitchell Scholarship, Mitchell Scholars. Harvard students and alumni have won 10
Academy Awards The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e., f ...
, 48
Pulitzer Prize#REDIRECT Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature and musical composition within the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of Joseph ...
s, and List of American universities with Olympic medals, 108 Olympic medals (including 46 gold medals), and they have founded List of companies founded by Harvard University alumni, many notable companies worldwide. File:US Navy 031029-N-6236G-001 A painting of President John Adams (1735-1826), 2nd president of the United States, by Asher B. Durand (1767-1845)-crop.jpg, 2nd President of the United States John Adams (AB, 1755; AM, 1758) File:John Quincy Adams.jpg, 6th President of the United States John Quincy Adams (AB, 1787; AM, 1790) Ralph Waldo Emerson ca1857 retouched.jpg , Essayist, lecturer, philosopher, and poet
Ralph Waldo Emerson Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803April 27, 1882), who went by his middle name Waldo, was an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher, abolitionism, abolitionist and poet who led the Transcendentalism, transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th c ...

Ralph Waldo Emerson
(AB, 1821) Benjamin D. Maxham - Henry David Thoreau - Restored - greyscale - straightened.jpg , Naturalist, essayist, poet, and philosopher Henry David Thoreau (AB, 1837) File:President Rutherford Hayes 1870 - 1880 Restored.jpg, 19th President of the United States Rutherford B. Hayes (LLB, 1845) File:Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr circa 1930-edit.jpg , Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. (AB, 1861, LLB) Charles Sanders Peirce.jpg , Philosopher, logician, and mathematician Charles Sanders Peirce (AB, 1862, SB 1863) File:President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904.jpg, 26th President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Theodore Roosevelt (AB, 1880) File:WEB DuBois 1918.jpg, Sociologist and civil rights activist
W. E. B. Du Bois (PhD, 1895) File:FRoosevelt.png, 32nd President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt (AB, 1903) File:Helen Keller circa 1920 - restored.jpg, Author, political activist, and lecturer Helen Keller (AB, 1904, Radcliffe College) Thomas Stearns Eliot by Lady Ottoline Morrell (1934).jpg, Poet and Nobel laureate in literature T. S. Eliot (AB, 1909; AM, 1910) JROppenheimer-LosAlamos.jpg, Physicist and leader of Manhattan Project J. Robert Oppenheimer (AB, 1925) Paul Samuelson.jpg, Economist and Nobel laureate in economics Paul Samuelson (AM, 1936; PhD, 1941) Leonard Bernstein by Jack Mitchell.jpg, Musician and composer Leonard Bernstein (AB, 1939) File:John F. Kennedy, White House color photo portrait.jpg, 35th President of the United States John F. Kennedy (AB, 1940) Mary Robinson (2014).jpg, 7th President of Ireland and United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Mary Robinson (LLM, 1968) File:Al Gore, Vice President of the United States, official portrait 1994.jpg, 45th Vice President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Al Gore (AB, 1969) File:Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, April 2010.jpg, 24th President of Liberia and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (MPA, 1971) File:Chuck Schumer official photo.jpg, Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer (AB, 1971; JD, 1975) File:Benazir Bhutto.jpg, 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto (AB, 1973, Radcliffe College) File:Ben Bernanke official portrait.jpg, 14th Chair of the Federal Reserve Ben Bernanke (AB, 1975; AM, 1975) File:George-W-Bush.jpeg, 43rd President of the United States George W. Bush (MBA, 1975) File:Official roberts CJ.jpg, 17th Chief Justice of the United States John Roberts (AB, 1976; JD, 1979) File:Bill Gates June 2015.jpg, Founder of Microsoft and philanthropist Bill Gates (College, 1977;Nominal Harvard College class year: did not graduate LLD Honorary degree, hc, 2007) File:Ban Ki-Moon Davos 2011 Cropped.jpg, 8th Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon (MPA, 1984) File:Elena Kagan SCOTUS portrait.jpg, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States Elena Kagan (JD, 1986) Michelle Obama 2013 official portrait.jpg, Former First Lady of the United States Michelle Obama (JD, 1988) Professor Jennifer Doudna ForMemRS.jpg, Biochemist and Nobel laureate in chemistry Jennifer Doudna (PhD, 1989) File:Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg, 44th President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Barack Obama (JD, 1991)


Faculty

File:Louis Agassiz H6.jpg, Louis Agassiz File:Danielle Allen 2017.jpg, Danielle Allen File:Alan dershowitz 2009 retouched cropped.jpg, Alan Dershowitz File:PEF-with-mom-and-baby---Quy-Ton-12-2003 1-1-310.jpg, Paul Farmer File:Jason Furman official portrait.jpg, Jason Furman File:John Kenneth Galbraith 1982.jpg, John Kenneth Galbraith File:Henry Louis Gates 2014 (cropped).jpg, Henry Louis Gates Jr. File:Asa Gray 1870s.jpg, Asa Gray File:Seamus Heaney Photograph Edit.jpg, Seamus Heaney File:Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr c1879.jpg, Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. File:William James b1842c.jpg, William James File:Timothy-Leary-Los-Angeles-1989.jpg, Timothy Leary File:Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, photographed by Julia Margaret Cameron in 1868.jpg, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow File:James Russell Lowell - 1855.jpg, James Russell Lowell File:GregoryMankiw.jpg, Greg Mankiw File:102111 Pinker 344.jpg, Steven Pinker File:Michael Porter 2017.jpg, Michael Porter File:Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. 1961.jpg, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. File:Amartya Sen.jpg, Amartya Sen File:B.F. Skinner at Harvard circa 1950.jpg, B. F. Skinner File:Lawrence Summers 2012.jpg, Lawrence Summers File:Cass Sunstein (2008).jpg, Cass Sunstein File:Elizabeth Warren 2016.jpg, Elizabeth Warren File:Cornel West by Gage Skidmore.jpg, Cornel West File:Plos wilson.jpg, E. O. Wilson File:Shing-Tung Yau Screenshot (cropped).png, Shing-Tung Yau File:Sec. Robert Reich.jpg, Robert Reich


Literature and popular culture

The perception of Harvard as a center of either elite achievement, or elitist privilege, has made it a frequent literary and cinematic backdrop. "In the grammar of film, Harvard has come to mean both tradition, and a certain amount of stuffiness," film critic Paul Sherman has said.


Literature

* ''The Sound and the Fury'' (1929) and ''Absalom, Absalom!'' (1936) by William Faulkner both depict Harvard student life. * ''Of Time and the River'' (1935) by Thomas Wolfe is a fictionalized autobiography that includes his alter ego's time at Harvard. * ''The Late George Apley'' (1937) by John P. Marquand parodies Harvard men at the opening of the 20th century; it won the
Pulitzer Prize#REDIRECT Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature and musical composition within the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of Joseph ...
. * ''The Second Happiest Day'' (1953) by John P. Marquand Jr. portrays the Harvard of the World War II generation.


Film

Harvard's policy since 1970 (after the damage caused by ''Love Story'') has been to permit filming on its property only rarely, so most scenes set at Harvard (especially indoor shots, but excepting aerial footage and shots of public areas such as Harvard Square) are in fact shot elsewhere. * ''Love Story (1970 film), Love Story'' (1970) concerns a romance between a wealthy Harvard hockey player (Ryan O'Neal) and a brilliant Radcliffe student of modest means (Ali MacGraw): it is screened annually for incoming freshmen. * ''The Paper Chase (film), The Paper Chase'' (1973) * ''A Small Circle of Friends'' (1980)


See also

* 2012 Harvard cheating scandal * Academic regalia of Harvard University * Gore Hall * Harvard College social clubs * Harvard University Police Department * Harvard University Press * Harvard/MIT Cooperative Society * I, Too, Am Harvard * List of oldest universities in continuous operation * List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Harvard University * Outline of Harvard University * Secret Court of 1920


References


Bibliography

* Abelmann, Walter H., ed. ''The Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology: The First 25 Years, 1970–1995'' (2004). 346 pp. * Beecher, Henry K. and Altschule, Mark D. ''Medicine at Harvard: The First 300 Years'' (1977). 569 pp. * Bentinck-Smith, William, ed. ''The Harvard Book: Selections from Three Centuries'' (2d ed.1982). 499 pp. * Bethell, John T.; Hunt, Richard M.; and Shenton, Robert. ''Harvard A to Z'' (2004). 396 pp
excerpt and text search
* Bethell, John T. ''Harvard Observed: An Illustrated History of the University in the Twentieth Century'', Harvard University Press, 1998, * Bunting, Bainbridge. ''Harvard: An Architectural History'' (1985). 350 pp. * Carpenter, Kenneth E. ''The First 350 Years of the Harvard University Library: Description of an Exhibition'' (1986). 216 pp. * Cuno, James et al. ''Harvard's Art Museums: 100 Years of Collecting'' (1996). 364 pp. * Elliott, Clark A. and Rossiter, Margaret W., eds. ''Science at Harvard University: Historical Perspectives'' (1992). 380 pp. * Hall, Max. ''Harvard University Press: A History'' (1986). 257 pp. * Hay, Ida. ''Science in the Pleasure Ground: A History of the Arnold Arboretum'' (1995). 349 pp. * Hoerr, John, ''We Can't Eat Prestige: The Women Who Organized Harvard;'' Temple University Press, 1997, * Howells, Dorothy Elia. ''A Century to Celebrate: Radcliffe College, 1879–1979'' (1978). 152 pp. * Keller, Morton, and Phyllis Keller. ''Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University'' (2001), major history covers 1933 to 200
online edition
* Harry R. Lewis, Lewis, Harry R. ''Excellence Without a Soul: How a Great University Forgot Education'' (2006) * Morison, Samuel Eliot. ''Three Centuries of Harvard, 1636–1936'' (1986) 512pp
excerpt and text search
* Powell, Arthur G. ''The Uncertain Profession: Harvard and the Search for Educational Authority'' (1980). 341 pp. * Reid, Robert. ''Year One: An Intimate Look inside Harvard Business School'' (1994). 331 pp. * Henry Rosovsky, Rosovsky, Henry. ''The University: An Owner's Manual'' (1991). 312 pp. * Rosovsky, Nitza. ''The Jewish Experience at Harvard and Radcliffe'' (1986). 108 pp. * Seligman, Joel. ''The High Citadel: The Influence of Harvard Law School'' (1978). 262 pp. * Sollors, Werner; Titcomb, Caldwell; and Underwood, Thomas A., eds. ''Blacks at Harvard: A Documentary History of African-American Experience at Harvard and Radcliffe'' (1993). 548 pp. * Trumpbour, John, ed., ''How Harvard Rules. Reason in the Service of Empire'', Boston: South End Press, 1989, * Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher, ed.,
Yards and Gates: Gender in Harvard and Radcliffe History
', New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. 337 pp. * Winsor, Mary P. ''Reading the Shape of Nature: Comparative Zoology at the Agassiz Museum'' (1991). 324 pp. * Wright, Conrad Edick. ''Revolutionary Generation: Harvard Men and the Consequences of Independence'' (2005). 298 pp.


External links

* * {{Authority control Harvard University, 1636 establishments in Massachusetts Universities and colleges in Middlesex County, Massachusetts Universities and colleges in Cambridge, Massachusetts Colonial colleges Educational institutions established in the 1630s Private universities and colleges in Massachusetts