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Habsburg Monarchy (german: Habsburgermonarchie), or Danubian Monarchy (german: Donaumonarchie), or Habsburg Empire (german: Habsburgerreich) is a modern
umbrella term In linguistics, hyponymy (from Greek language, Greek ὑπό, ''hupó'', "under", and ὄνυμα, ''ónuma'', "name") is a semantics, semantic relation between a hyponym denoting a subtype and a hypernym or hyperonym denoting a supertype. In oth ...
coined by historians to denote the numerous lands and kingdoms of the
Habsburg dynasty The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: Haus Habsburg, es, Casa de Habsburgo, hu, Habsburg-család), also House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich, es, link=no, Casa de Austria), was one of the ...
, especially for those of the Austrian line. From 1438 to 1806 (with the exception of 1742 to 1745), a member of the House of Habsburg was also
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
. However, the states of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
ruled by their own dynasties (and over which the emperor exercised only very limited authority) are not considered to have been part of what is now called the Habsburg Monarchy. The history of the Habsburg Monarchy begins with the election of
Rudolf I Rudolf I (1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291) was the first king of Germany King of the Romans ( la, Rex Romanorum; german: König der Römer) was the title used by the German king following his election An election is a formal group decisi ...
as
King of Germany King of the Romans ( la, Rex Romanorum; german: König der Römer) was the title used by the German king following his election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple in ...
in 1273 and his acquisition of the
Duchy of Austria The Duchy of Austria (german: Herzogtum Österreich) was a medieval Princes of the Holy Roman Empire, principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1156 by the ''Privilegium Minus'', when the Margraviate of Austria (''Name of Austria, Osta ...
for his house in 1282. In 1482,
Maximilian IMaximilian I may refer to: *Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, reigned 1486/93–1519 *Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, reigned 1597–1651 *Maximilian I, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1636-1689) *Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria, reigned 1795– ...

Maximilian I
acquired the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...
through marriage. Both territories lay within the empire and passed to his grandson and successor,
Charles VCharles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and offici ...

Charles V
, who also inherited
Spain and its colonies
Spain and its colonies
and ruled the Habsburg empire at its greatest territorial extent. The abdication of Charles V in 1556 led to a broad division of the Habsburg holdings between his brother
Ferdinand IFerdinand I or Fernando I may refer to: People * Ferdinand I of León, ''the Great'' (ca. 1000–1065, king from 1037) * Ferdinand I of Portugal and the Algarve, ''the Handsome'' (1345–1383, king from 1367) * Ferdinand I of Aragon and Sicily, ''of ...

Ferdinand I
, who had been his deputy in the Austrian lands since 1521, and the elected king of
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...
and
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geography, geographical areas which at some point in time had a culture, cultural, ethnic gr ...
since 1526, and his son
Philip II of Spain Philip II) in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption ...

Philip II of Spain
. The Spanish branch (which held all of Iberia, the Netherlands, Burgundy, and lands in Italy) became extinct in 1700. The Austrian branch (which also had the imperial throne and ruled Hungary, Bohemia, and all the crowns entailed to them) was itself divided between different branches of the family from 1564 to 1665 but thereafter remained a single
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
. The Habsburg Monarchy was thus a union of crowns, with no single constitution or shared institutions other than the Habsburg court itself, with territories inside and outside the Holy Roman Empire that were united only in the person of the monarch. The
composite state A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger in 1975 and popularised by Sir John H. Elliott, that describes early modern states consisting of several countries under one ruler, sometimes ...
became the most common dominant form of monarchies in the
European continent Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions ...
during the
early modern era The early modern period of follows the of the . Although the chronological limits of this period are open to debate, the spans the period after the late post-classical or Middle Ages (c. 1400–1500) through the beginning of the (c. 1800). ...
. A unification of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy took place in the early 19th century, when the Habsburg possessions were formally unified in 1804 as the
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural ...
, which in 1867 became the
Austro-Hungarian Empire Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exer ...
and survived until 1918.Encyclopædia Britannica online article Austria-Hungary; http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/44386/Austria-Hungary It collapsed following defeat in the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
. In historiography, the Habsburg Monarchy (of the Austrian branch) is often called "Austria" by
metonymy Metonymy () is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of pe ...
. Around 1700, the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
term ''monarchia austriaca'' came into use as a term of convenience.. Within the empire alone, the vast possessions included the original hereditary lands, the ''
Erblande The ''Erblande'' (Hereditary Lands) of the House of Habsburg The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: Haus Habsburg, es, Casa de Habsburgo, hu, Habsburg-család), also House of Austria (german: link=no, H ...
'', from before 1526; the lands of the Bohemian crown; the formerly
Spanish Netherlands Spanish Netherlands es, Países Bajos Españoles; nl, Spaanse Nederlanden; french: Pays-Bas espagnols; german: Spanische Niederlande. (historically in Spanish: ''Flandes'', the name "Flanders" was used as a ''pars pro toto ''Pars pro toto'' (, ...

Spanish Netherlands
from 1714 until 1794; and some fiefs in Imperial Italy. Outside the empire, they encompassed all the lands of the crown of Hungary as well as conquests made at the expense of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
. The dynastic capital was
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian ) is the Capital city, national capital, largest city, and one of States of Austria, nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's List of cities and towns in Austria, mos ...

Vienna
, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was in
Prague Prague ( ; cs, Praha ; german: Prag, ; la, Praga) is the capital and largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people ...

Prague
.


Origins and expansion

The first Habsburg who can be reliably traced was a certain
Radbot of KlettgauRadbod, Radbot, Ratbod, Ratpot, Redbod, Redbad, Radboud, Rapoto, or sometimes just Boddo, is a Germanic masculine given name that may refer to: *Redbad, King of the Frisians (died 719) *Radbod (prefect) (833–54), Frankish prefect *Ratbod (archbish ...
, who was born in the late 10th century; the family name originated with
Habsburg Castle Image:Habsburg castle (1250) basic structure and stages.jpg, 250px, The castle in 1250, seen from the north. ██ Built before 1100. 1600 in ruins. ██ Built between 1100 and 1250. 1600 in ruins. ██ Built before 1100. 1600 s ...
, in present-day
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
, which was built by Radbot. After 1279, the Habsburgs came to rule in the
Duchy of Austria The Duchy of Austria (german: Herzogtum Österreich) was a medieval Princes of the Holy Roman Empire, principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1156 by the ''Privilegium Minus'', when the Margraviate of Austria (''Name of Austria, Osta ...
, which was part of the elective
Kingdom of Germany The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom ( la, regnum Teutonicorum "kingdom of the Germans", "German kingdom", "kingdom of Germany") was the mostly Germanic-speaking East Frankish kingdom, which was formed by the Treaty of Verdun The Treaty ...
within the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
. King
Rudolf I of Germany Rudolf I (1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291) was the first king of Germany from the House of Habsburg. The first of the count-kings of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = ...
of the Habsburg family assigned the Duchy of Austria to his sons at the
Diet of Augsburg The Diet of Augsburg were the meetings of the Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire held in the German city of Augsburg. Both an Free imperial city, Imperial City and the residence of the Prince-Bishopric of Augs ...
(1282), thus establishing the " Austrian hereditary lands". From that moment, the Habsburg dynasty was also known as the
House of Austria The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: Haus Habsburg, es, Casa de Habsburgo, hu, Habsburg-család), also House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich, es, link=no, Casa de Austria), was one of the ...
. Between 1438 and 1806, with few exceptions, the Habsburg
Archduke of Austria Austria was ruled by the House of Babenberg until 1246 and by the House of Habsburg The House of Habsburg (; ; alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; german: Haus Habsburg, es, Casa de Habsburgo, hu, Habsburg-család), also House of Aust ...
was elected as
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
. The Habsburgs grew to European prominence as a result of the dynastic policy pursued by
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. He was never crowned by the pope, as the journey to Rome was blocked by the Venetians. He was instead proclaimed ...

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
. Maximilian married
Mary of Burgundy Mary (french: Marie; nl, Maria; 13 February 1457 – 27 March 1482), nicknamed the Rich, titular , reigned over the , now mainly in —with the exception of the returned to the (1477)—and the , from 1477 until her death in a ridin ...

Mary of Burgundy
, thus bringing the
Burgundian Netherlands In the history of the Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays-Bas) and historically called the Netherlands ( nl, de Nederlanden), Flanders, or Belgica, refers to a coastal lowl ...
into the Habsburg possessions. Their son,
Philip the Handsome Philip the Handsome, es, Felipe, french: Philippe, nl, Filips (22 July 1478 – 25 September 1506), also called the Fair, was Duke of Burgundy from 1482 to 1506 and the first Habsburg King of Castile (as Philip I) for a brief time in 1506. ...

Philip the Handsome
, married
Joanna the Mad Joanna I (6 November 1479 – 12 April 1555), known historically as Joanna the Mad ( es, link=no, Juana la Loca), was Queen of Castile from 1504 and Queen of Aragon from 1516 to 1555. Modern Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, R ...
of Spain (daughter of
Ferdinand II of Aragon Ferdinand II of Aragon ( an, Ferrando; ca, Ferran; eu, Errando; es, Fernando; 10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), also called ''Ferdinand the Catholic'', was King of Aragon from 1479, King of Sicily (as Ferdinand II) from 1469, List of monar ...
and
Isabella of Castile Isabella I ( es, Isabel I, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) was Queen of Castile from 1474 and, as the wife of King Ferdinand II, Queen of Aragon from 1479 until her death, reigning over a dynastically unified Spain , * gl, Re ...
).
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, french: Charles Quint, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, ca, Carles V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( ...

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
, the son of Philip and Joanna, inherited the
Habsburg Netherlands Habsburg Netherlands ( nl, Habsburgse Nederlanden; french: Pays-Bas des Habsbourg), in Latin referred to as Belgica, is the collective name of Renaissance period fiefs in the Low Countries held by the Holy Roman Empire's House of Habsburg. T ...
in 1506,
Habsburg Spain Habsburg Spain is a contemporary historiographical term referred to the Spain of the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700) when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central and Eastern ...
and its territories in 1516, and Habsburg Austria in 1519. At this point, the Habsburg possessions were so vast that Charles V was constantly travelling throughout his dominions and therefore needed deputies and regents, such as
Isabella of Portugal Isabella of Portugal (24 October 1503 – 1 May 1539), also known as the Empress of the Carnation, was Holy Roman Empress, List of Spanish consorts, Queen of Spain, List of German queens, Germany, and List of Italian consorts, Italy, and List of ...

Isabella of Portugal
in Spain and Margaret of Austria in the Low Countries, to govern his various realms. At the
Diet of Worms The Diet of Worms of 1521 (german: Reichstag zu Worms ) was an imperial diet (a formal deliberative assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic ...

Diet of Worms
in 1521,
Emperor Charles V Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator Romanoru ...

Emperor Charles V
came to terms with his younger brother
Ferdinand Ferdinand is a Germanic nameGermanic given names are traditionally dithematic; that is, they are formed from two elements, by joining a prefix A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the beginning of one w ...

Ferdinand
. According to the
Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...

Habsburg
''compact'' of Worms (1521), confirmed a year later in
Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (french: link=no, Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; nl, link=no, Brusse ...

Brussels
, Ferdinand was made
Archduke Archduke (feminine: Archduchess; German: ''Erzherzog'', feminine form: ''Erzherzogin'') was the title borne from 1358 by the Habsburg rulers of the Archduchy of Austria, and later by all senior members of that dynasty. It denotes a rank within ...
, as a regent of Charles V in the Austrian hereditary lands. Following the death of
Louis II of Hungary Louis II ( cs, Ludvík, hr, Ludovik , hu, Lajos, sk, Ľudovít; 1 July 1506 – 29 August 1526) was King of Hungary The King of Hungary ( hu, magyar király) was the Monarchy, ruling head of state of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 (or 1001) ...
in the
Battle of Mohács The Battle of Mohács (; hu, Mohácsi csata, tr, Mohaç Muharebesi) was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history. It was fought on 29 August 1526 near Mohács, Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a mon ...

Battle of Mohács
against the
Ottoman Turks The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, tr, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish language , Turkish-speaking people of the Ottoman Empire ( 1299–1922/1923). Reliable information about the early history of Ottoman Turks remains scarce, but the ...
, Archduke Ferdinand (who was his brother-in-law by virtue of an adoption treaty signed by Maximilian and Vladislaus II, Louis's father at the
First Congress of Vienna 300x300px, Woodcut by Albrecht Dürer from the ''Triumphal Arch (woodcut), Triumphal Arch'' commemorating the double wedding at the First Congress of Vienna, on 22 July 1515. Anna's betrothed Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand I (age 11) ...
) was also elected the next King of
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geography, geographical areas which at some point in time had a culture, cultural, ethnic gr ...
and
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...
in 1526."Czech Republic – Historic Centre of Prague (1992)" Heindorffhus, August 2007
HeindorffHus-Czech
.
Bohemia and Hungary became hereditary Habsburg domains only in the 17th century: Following victory in the
Battle of White Mountain ), near Prague Prague (; cs, Praha , german: Prag, la, Praga) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic The Czech Republic (; cs, Česká republika ), also known by its short-form name, Czechia (; cz, Česko ), is a l ...

Battle of White Mountain
(1620) over the Bohemian rebels, promulgated a ''Renewed Constitution'' (1627) that established hereditary succession over Bohemia. Following the
Battle of Mohács (1687) The Second Battle of Mohács, also known as the Battle of Harsány Mountain, was fought on 12 August 1687 between the forces of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed IV, commanded by the Grand-Vizier Sari Süleyman Paşa, and the forces of Holy Roman Emperor L ...
, in which
Leopold ILeopold I may refer to: *Leopold I, Margrave of Austria (d. 994), first Margrave of Austria *Leopold I, Duke of Austria (1290–1326), co-Duke of Austria and Styria with Frederick I *Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor (1640–1705), Holy Roman Emperor, K ...
reconquered almost all of Hungary from the
Ottoman Turks The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, tr, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish language , Turkish-speaking people of the Ottoman Empire ( 1299–1922/1923). Reliable information about the early history of Ottoman Turks remains scarce, but the ...
, the emperor held a diet in Pressburg to establish hereditary succession in the Hungarian kingdom. Charles V divided the House in 1556 by ceding Austria along with the Imperial crown to Ferdinand (as decided at the Imperial election, 1531), and the
Spanish empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish empire
to his son
Philip Philip, also Phillip, is a male given name, derived from the Greek language, Greek (''Philippos'', lit. "horse-loving" or "fond of horses"), from a compound of (''philos'', "dear", "loved", "loving") and (''hippos'', "horse"). Prominent Philip ...

Philip
. The Spanish branch (which also held the Netherlands, the
Kingdom of Portugal The Kingdom of Portugal ( la, Regnum Portugalliae, pt, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Hou ...
between 1580 and 1640, and the
Mezzogiorno Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), also known as ''Meridione'' or ''Mezzogiorno'' (, literally "Midday"; in nap, 'o Miezzojuorno; in scn, Mezzujornu), is a macroregion of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), ...

Mezzogiorno
of Italy) became extinct in 1700. The Austrian branch (which also ruled the Holy Roman Empire, Hungary and Bohemia) was itself divided between different branches of the family from 1564 until 1665, but thereafter it remained a single
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
.


Names

* Habsburg Monarchy (German ''Habsburgermonarchie''): this is an unofficial umbrella term, very frequently used, but was not an official name. * Austrian monarchy ( la, monarchia austriaca) came into use around 1700 as a term of convenience for the Habsburg territories. * "Danubian Monarchy" (german: Donaumonarchie) was an unofficial name often used contemporaneously. * "Dual Monarchy" (german: Doppel-Monarchie) referred to the combination of the Duchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary, two states under one crowned ruler. *
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural ...
(german: Kaisertum Österreich): This was the official name of the new Habsburg empire created in 1804, after the end of the Holy Roman Empire. The English word empire refers to a territory ruled by an
emperor An emperor (from la, imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as a title roughly equivalent to ''commander'' under the Roma ...

emperor
, and not to a "widespreading domain". *
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exe ...

Austria-Hungary
(german: Österreich-Ungarn), 1867–1918: This name was commonly used in international relations, although the official name was Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (german: Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie).. * Crownlands or
crown land Crown land (sometimes spelled crownland), also known as royal domain, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies . It is the equivalent of an and passes with the monarchy, being inseparable from it. Today, in s such as Cana ...
s (''Kronländer'') (1849–1918): This is the name of all the individual parts of the Austrian Empire (1849–1867), and then of Austria-Hungary from 1867 on. The Kingdom of Hungary (more exactly the Lands of the Hungarian Crown) was not considered a "crownland" after the establishment of Austria-Hungary in 1867, so that the "crownlands" became identical with what was called the Kingdoms and Lands represented in the Imperial Council (''Die im Reichsrate vertretenen Königreiche und Länder''). * The Hungarian parts of the Empire were called "
Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen The internal official name "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" ( hu, "a Szent Korona Országai") denominated the Hungarian territories of Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monar ...
" or "Lands of Holy (St.) Stephen's Crown" (''Länder der Heiligen Stephans Krone''). The Bohemian (Czech) Lands were called "Lands of the St. Wenceslaus' Crown" (''Länder der Wenzels-Krone''). Names of some smaller territories: * Present-day Austria is a semi-federal republic of nine states (''Bundesländer''): Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Tyrol, Styria, Salzburg, Carinthia, Vorarlberg, Burgenland and the capital city, Vienna. *
Burgenland Burgenland (; hu, Őrvidék; hr, Gradišće; Austro-Bavarian Austro-Bavarian (also known as Austrian or Bavarian; or ; german: Bairisch ) is a West Germanic language spoken in parts of Bavaria and most of Austria. Before 1945, Austro-Bava ...
came to Austria in 1921 from Hungary. *
Salzburg Salzburg (, ; literally "Salt Castle"; bar, Soizbuag, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian) is the List of cities and towns in Austria, fourth-largest city in Austria. In 2020, it had a population of 156,872. The town is on the site of the ...

Salzburg
finally became Austrian in 1816 after the Napoleonic wars; before that it was ruled by the
prince-archbishops of Salzburg The Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg (german: Fürsterzbistum Salzburg) was an Prince-bishop, ecclesiastical principality and Imperial State, state of the Holy Roman Empire. It comprised the temporalities, secular territory ruled by the archbisho ...
as a sovereign territory. * Vienna, Austria's capital, became a state on 1 January 1922, having been the imperial residence and capital of the Austrian Empire (''Reichshaupt und Residenzstadt Wien'') for centuries. * Austria, historically, was split into "Austria above the Enns" and "Austria below the Enns" (the Enns river is the state-border between Upper- and Lower Austria). Upper Austria was enlarged after the
Treaty of Teschen The Treaty of Teschen (german: Frieden von Teschen, i.e., "Peace of Teschen"; french: Traité de Teschen) was signed on 13 May 1779 in Teschen, Austrian Silesia, between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia, which officially ...

Treaty of Teschen
(1779) following the "War of the Bavarian Succession" by the so-called
Innviertel The Innviertel (literally German language, German for "Inn Quarter"; officially called the ''Innkreis''; ) is a traditional Austrian region southeast of the Inn (river), Inn river. It forms the western part of the States of Austria, state of Uppe ...
("
Inn Inns are generally establishments or buildings where travelers can seek lodging Lodging refers to the use of a short-term dwelling In law, a dwelling (also known as a residence or an abode) is a self-contained unit of accommodation ...

Inn
Quarter"), formerly part of Bavaria. * Hereditary Lands (''Erblande'' or ''Erbländer''; mostly used ''Österreichische Erblande'') or German Hereditary Lands (in the Austrian monarchy) or Austrian Hereditary Lands (
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
– 1849/1918): In a narrower sense these were the "original" Habsburg territories, principally Austria (''Oesterreich''), Styria (''Steiermark''), Carinthia (''Kaernten''), Carniola (''Krain''), Tyrol (''Tirol'') and Vorarlberg. In a wider sense the
Lands of the Bohemian Crown The Lands of the Bohemian Crown were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe during the Middle Ages, medieval and early modern periods connected by feudalism, feudal relations under the List of Bohemian monarchs, Bohemian kings. The cro ...
were also included (from 1526; definitively from 1620/27) in the Hereditary Lands. The term was replaced by the term "Crownlands" (see above) in the 1849 March Constitution, but it was also used afterwards.
The ''Erblande'' also included many small territories that were principalities, duchies or counties in other parts of the Holy Roman Empire.


Territories

The territories ruled of the Austrian monarchy changed over the centuries, but the core always consisted of four blocs: * The Hereditary Lands, which covered most of the modern states of
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastli ...

Austria
and
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, lin ...

Slovenia
, as well as territories in northeastern
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of Italy, several islands surrounding it, whose ...

Italy
and (before 1797) southwestern
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the , according to population within city l ...

Germany
. To these were added in 1779 the Inn Quarter of
Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: ''Freistaat Bayern''; ), is a Landlocked country, landlocked Federated state, state (''States of Germany ...

Bavaria
and in 1803 the
Bishoprics In Ecclesiastical polity, church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. History In the later organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided Roman province, prov ...
of Trent and
Brixen Brixen (; it, Bressanone ; lld, Porsenù or ) is a town in South Tyrol in northern Italy, located about north of Bolzano. Geography First mentioned in 901, Brixen is the third largest city and oldest town in the province, and the artistic and ...
. The
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
caused disruptions where many parts of the Hereditary lands were lost, but all these, along with the former
Archbishopric of Salzburg The Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg (german: Fürsterzbistum Salzburg) was an Prince-bishop, ecclesiastical principality and Imperial State, state of the Holy Roman Empire. It comprised the temporalities, secular territory ruled by the archbish ...
, which had previously been temporarily annexed between 1805 and 1809, were recovered at the peace in 1815, with the exception of the Vorlande. The Hereditary provinces included: ** Archduchy of Austria *** Upper Austria *** Lower Austria ** Inner Austria *** Duchy of Styria *** Duchy of Carinthia *** Duchy of Carniola *** The Adriatic Sea, Adriatic port of Trieste *** March of Istria#Habsburg Margraviate, Margraviate of Istria (although much of Istria was Republic of Venice, Venetian territory until 1797) *** Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca ** County of Tyrol (although the Bishoprics of Trent and Brixen dominated what would become the South Tyrol before 1803) ** Further Austria, mostly ruled jointly with Tyrol. *** Vorarlberg (actually a collection of provinces, only united in the 19th century) *** The Vorlande, a group of territories in Breisgau and elsewhere in southwestern Germany lost in 1801 (although the Alsace, Alsatian territories (Sundgau) which had formed a part of it had been lost as early as 1648) ** Grand Duchy of Salzburg (only after 1805) * The
Lands of the Bohemian Crown The Lands of the Bohemian Crown were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe during the Middle Ages, medieval and early modern periods connected by feudalism, feudal relations under the List of Bohemian monarchs, Bohemian kings. The cro ...
. The Bohemian Diet (assembly), Diet ( cs, zemský sněm) elected
Ferdinand Ferdinand is a Germanic nameGermanic given names are traditionally dithematic; that is, they are formed from two elements, by joining a prefix A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the beginning of one w ...

Ferdinand
, later Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I, as king in 1526. Initially consisting of the five lands: ** Kingdom of Bohemia ** Margraviate of Moravia ** Duchies of Silesia, Silesia, Most of Silesia was conquered by Kingdom of Prussia, Prussia in 1740–1742 and the remnants which stayed under Habsburg sovereignty were ruled as Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia (Austrian Silesia). ** Lusatia, was ceded to Saxony in 1635. *** Upper Lusatia *** Lower Lusatia * The Kingdom of Hungary – two-thirds of the former territory that was administered by the medieval Kingdom of Hungary was conquered by the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
and the Princes of vassal Ottoman Principality of Transylvania (1571–1711), Transylvania, while the Habsburg administration was restricted to the western and northern territories of the former kingdom, which remained to be officially referred as the Kingdom of Hungary (1526–1867), Kingdom of Hungary. In 1699, at the end of the Ottoman-Habsburg wars, one part of the territories that were administered by the former medieval Kingdom of Hungary came under Habsburg administration, with some other areas being picked up in 1718 (some of the territories that were part of medieval kingdom, notably those in the south of the Sava and Danube rivers, remained under Ottoman Empire, Ottoman administration). * Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg), Kingdom of Croatia Over the course of its history, other lands were, at times, under Austrian Habsburg rule (some of these territories were secundogenitures, i.e. ruled by other lines of Habsburg dynasty): * Habsburg-occupied Serbia (1686–91), Serbia occupation (1686–1691) * Kingdom of Slavonia (1699–1868) * Transylvania, Grand Principality of Transylvania, between 1699 (Treaty of Karlowitz) and 1867 (Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Ausgleich) * Austrian Netherlands, consisting of most of modern Belgium and Luxembourg (1713–1792) * Duchy of Milan (1713–1797) * Duchy of Mantua (1713–1797) * Kingdom of Naples (1713–1735) * Kingdom of Sardinia (1713–1720) * Kingdom of Serbia (1718–39), Kingdom of Serbia (1718–1739) * Banat of Temeswar (1718–1778) * Banat of Craiova (1718–1739 ''de facto'', 1716–1737) * Kingdom of Sicily (1720–1735) * Duchy of Parma (1735–1748) * Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, in modern Poland and Ukraine (1772–1918) * Duchy of Bukovina (1774–1918) * Habsburg-occupied Serbia (1788–92), Serbia occupation (1788–1792) * New Galicia, the Polish lands, including Kraków, taken in the Third Partition of Poland, Third Partition (1795–1809) * Venetian Province, Venetia (1797–1805) * Kingdom of Dalmatia (1797–1805, 1814–1918) * Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia (1814–1859) * Kraków, which was incorporated into Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, Galicia (1846–1918) * Serbian Vojvodina (1848–1849) de facto entity, officially unrecognized * Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar (1849–1860) * Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (1868–1918) * Sanjak of Novi Pazar occupation (1878–1913) * Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1878–1918) The boundaries of some of these territories varied over the period indicated, and others were ruled by a subordinate (secundogeniture) Habsburg line. The Habsburgs also held the title of
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
between 1438 and 1740, and again from 1745 to 1806.


Characteristics

Within the early modern Habsburg Monarchy, each entity was governed according to its own particular customs. Until the mid 17th century, not all of the provinces were even necessarily ruled by the same person—junior members of the family often ruled portions of the Hereditary Lands as private apanages. Serious attempts at centralization began under Maria Theresa and especially her son Joseph II in the mid to late 18th century, but many of these were abandoned following large scale resistance to Joseph's more radical reform attempts, although a more cautious policy of centralization continued during the revolutionary period and the Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, Metternichian Age of Metternich, period that followed. Another attempt at centralization began in 1849 following the suppression of the various Revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas, revolutions of 1848. For the first time, ministers tried to transform the monarchy into a centralized bureaucratic state ruled from Vienna. The Kingdom of Hungary was placed under martial law, being divided into a series of military districts, the centralized neo-absolutism tried to as well to nullify Hungary's constitution and Diet. Following the Habsburg defeats in the Wars of 1859 and 1866, these policies were step by step abandoned. After experimentation in the early 1860s, the famous Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was arrived at, by which the so-called Dual Monarchy of
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exe ...

Austria-Hungary
was set up. In this system, the Kingdom of Hungary ("Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen.") was an equal sovereign with only a personal union and a joint foreign and military policy connecting it to the other Habsburg lands. Although the non-Hungarian Habsburg lands were referred to as "Austria", received their own central parliament (the ''Reichsrat'', or Imperial Council) and ministries, as their official name – the "Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council". When Bosnia and Herzegovina was Austro-Hungarian annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, annexed (after a long period of Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, occupation and administration), it was not incorporated into either half of the monarchy. Instead, it was governed by the joint Ministry of Finance (Austria-Hungary), Ministry of Finance. Austria-Hungary collapsed under the weight of the various unsolved ethnic problems that came to a head with its defeat in World War I. After its dissolution, the new republics of Republic of German-Austria, Austria (the German-Austrian territories of the Hereditary lands) and the First Hungarian Republic were created. In the peace settlement that followed, significant territories were ceded to Kingdom of Romania, Romania and Kingdom of Italy, Italy and the remainder of the monarchy's territory was shared out among the new states of Second Polish Republic, Poland, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia), and Czechoslovakia.


Other lines

A junior line ruled over the Grand Duchy of Tuscany between 1765 and 1801, and again from 1814 to 1859. While exiled from Tuscany, this line ruled at Salzburg from 1803 to 1805, and in Grand Duchy of Würzburg from 1805 to 1814. Another line ruled the Duchy of Modena from 1814 to 1859, while Marie Louise of Austria, Empress Marie Louise, Napoleon I of France, Napoleon's second wife and the daughter of Austrian Emperor Francis, ruled over the Duchy of Parma between 1814 and 1847. Also, the Second Mexican Empire, from 1863 to 1867, was headed by Maximilian I of Mexico, the brother of Emperor Franz Josef of Austria.


Rulers 1508–1918

The so-called "Habsburg monarchs" or "Habsburg emperors" held many different titles and ruled each kingdom with a different name and position. * Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick III 1452-1493 *
Maximilian IMaximilian I may refer to: *Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, reigned 1486/93–1519 *Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, reigned 1597–1651 *Maximilian I, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1636-1689) *Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria, reigned 1795– ...

Maximilian I
1493–1519 *
Charles VCharles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and offici ...

Charles V
1519–1556 *
Ferdinand IFerdinand I or Fernando I may refer to: People * Ferdinand I of León, ''the Great'' (ca. 1000–1065, king from 1037) * Ferdinand I of Portugal and the Algarve, ''the Handsome'' (1345–1383, king from 1367) * Ferdinand I of Aragon and Sicily, ''of ...

Ferdinand I
1556–1564 * Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian II 1564–1576 * Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolf II 1576–1612 * Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor, Matthias 1612–1619 * 1619–1637 * Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand III 1637–1657 *
Leopold ILeopold I may refer to: *Leopold I, Margrave of Austria (d. 994), first Margrave of Austria *Leopold I, Duke of Austria (1290–1326), co-Duke of Austria and Styria with Frederick I *Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor (1640–1705), Holy Roman Emperor, K ...
1657–1705 * Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph I 1705–1711 * Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VI 1711–1740 * Maria Theresa of Austria, Maria Theresa 1740–1780 (German: Maria Theresia)


Habsburg-Lorraine

* Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph II (1780–1790), known as "the great Reformer" * Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold II (1790–1792), from 1765 to 1790 "Grandduke of Tuscany" * Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II (1792–1835), correctly written "Franz" (became Emperor Francis I of Austria in 1804, at which point numbering starts anew) * Ferdinand I of Austria, Ferdinand I (1835–1848), known as "Ferdinand the Good" German: "Ferdinand der Gütige" * Franz Joseph I of Austria, Francis Joseph I (1848–1916), Brother of Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico * Karl I of Austria, Charles I (1916–1918), last reigning Monarch of Austria-Hungary * Otto von Habsburg, former Head of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and Member of the European Parliament, MEP for Germany 1979–1999 * Karl von Habsburg, current Head of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and Member of the European Parliament, MEP for Austria 1996–1999


Family tree

* Habsburg family tree


In literature

The most famous memoir on the decline of the Habsburg Empire is Stefan Zweig's ''The World of Yesterday''.Giorgio Manacorda (2010
''Nota bibliografica''
in Roth ''La Marcia di Radetzky'', Newton Classici quotation:


See also

* Habsburg Myth * Universal monarchy


Notes


References

* * *


Further reading

* Jean Bérenger, Bérenger, Jean. ''A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1273–1700'' (Routledge, 2013) * Jean Bérenger, Bérenger, Jean. ''A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1700–1918'' (Routledge, 2014) * Robert John Weston Evans, Evans, Robert John Weston.
The Making of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1550–1700: An Interpretation
' (Oxford University Press, 1979) * Evans, R. J. W. "Remembering the Fall of the Habsburg Monarchy One Hundred Years on: Three Master Interpretations" ''Austrian History Yearbook'' (May 2020) Vol. 51, pp 269–291; historiography * Fichtner, Paula Sutter. ''The Habsburg Monarchy, 1490–1848: Attributes of Empire'' (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003) * Henderson, Nicholas. "Joseph II" ''History Today'' (Sept 1955) 5#9 pp 613–621. * Ingrao, Charles. ''The Habsburg Monarchy, 1618–1815'' (2000) * Ingrao, Charles. ''In Quest and Crisis: Emperor Joseph I and the Habsburg Monarchy'' (1979) * Judson, Pieter M. ''The Habsburg Empire: A New History'' (2016) * Kann, Robert A. ''A History of the Habsburg Empire: 1526–1918'' (University of California Press, 1974) * Lieven, Dominic. ''Empire: The Russian empire and its rivals'' (Yale University Press, 2002), comparisons with Russian, British, & Ottoman empires. * Carlile Aylmer Macartney, Macartney, Carlile Aylmer ''The Habsburg Empire, 1790–1918'', New York, Macmillan 1969 * McCagg, Jr., William O. ''A History of the Habsburg Jews, 1670–1918'' (Indiana University Press, 1989) * Mitchell, A. Wess. ''The Grand Strategy of the Habsburg Empire'' (Princeton University Press, 2018) * Oakes, Elizabeth and Eric Roman. ''Austria-Hungary and the Successor States: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present'' (2003) * Alan Sked, Sked, Alan ''The Decline and Fall of the Habsburg Empire, 1815–1918'' (London: Longman, 1989) * Stone, Norman. "The Last Days of the Habsburg Monarchy," ''History Today'' (Aug 1968), Vol. 18 Issue 8, pp 551–560; online * * A. J. P. Taylor, Taylor, A. J. P. ''The Habsburg monarchy, 1809–1918: a history of the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary'', (London: Penguin Books. 2nd ed. 1964)


External links


Habsburg in an email discussion list dealing with the culture and history of the Habsburg Monarchy and its successor states in central Europe since 1500
with discussions, syllabi, book reviews, queries, conferences; edited daily by scholars since 1994. {{DEFAULTSORT:Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Monarchy, Former empires in Europe Former monarchies of Europe Hungary under Habsburg rule, . States and territories established in 1526 1526 establishments in the Holy Roman Empire 16th-century establishments in Europe States and territories disestablished in 1804 1804 disestablishments in the Holy Roman Empire 16th century in Europe 17th century in Europe 18th century in Europe 19th century in Europe Monarchy