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The highest official of the subject of the Russian Federation, also known as the holder of the highest office of subject of the Russian Federation (russian: высшее должностное лицо субъекта Российской Федерации) or the head of the highest executive body of state power of the subject of the Russian Federation (russian: руководитель высшего исполнительного органа государственной власти субъекта Российской Федерации) and colloquially and collectively referred to as the title
Governor A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the Executive (government), executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations, ''governor'' may be t ...

Governor
(russian: губернатор - ''gubernator'') or head of region (russian: глава региона - ''glava regiona''), is the head and the
chief executive A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator officer, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of corporate executives A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co ...
of each of the
federal subjects of Russia The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (russian: ...
, not directly subordinate to the federal authorities, but the political and ceremonial head of the federal subject, all of which are equal constituent entities of Russia. The office is defined by the
Constitution of Russia The Constitution of the Russian Federation () was adopted by national referendum on . Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the ea ...
and Chapters 1, 3 and 4 of Russia's Federal Law No. 184-FZ "On the General Principles of the Organization Of the Legislative (Representative) and Executive Organs Of State Power of the Subjects of the Russian Federation" which came into force in 1999. According to the current revision of the Russian Constitution, the Russian Federation consists of 85 federal subjects therefore there are 85 offices of head of region in Russia (see
List of current heads of federal subjects of Russia The following is a list of heads of the federal subjects of the Russian Federation. Current Former This is a complete list of the former heads of the federal subjects of Russia The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjec ...
). The certain title of office is defined by the federal subject's Constitution or Charter. The names include: Governor, President (russian: президент - ''president''), Head of Administration (russian: глава администрации - ''glava administratsii''), Head of Republic (russian: глава республики - ''glava respubliki''), Mayor (russian: мэр - ''mer''), non-officially and collectively referred to as Governors for short. The official title "Governor" is most used in Russia and traditionally it is used in
Oblasts of Russia An oblast (russian: область) is a type of federal subjects of Russia, federal subject of the Russia, Russian Federation. Overview Oblasts are a constituent polity, political entity in a Federated state, federal union under with represent ...

Oblasts of Russia
. Presidents of Russia's republics,
mayor of Moscow The Mayor of Moscow (russian: Мэр Москвы, Mer Moskvy) is the head and the highest-ranking official of Moscow, who leads the Government of Moscow, the main executive body of the city. Moscow is both a city and separate federal subjec ...
and mayor of St. Petersburg are also governors in this sense. A head of the subject in Russia is said to serve a ''administration'' or ''executive office'', colloquially referred to as ''gubernatorial administration''.


Role and powers

The
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

Constitution
preserves the notion that the country is a
federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, ...

federation
of semi-sovereign federal subjects and that powers not specifically granted to the
federal government A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, ...
are retained by the federal subjects. Federal subjects, therefore, are not administrative divisions. Regional governments in Russia are relatively powerful; each federal subject has its own independent criminal and civil law codes, as well as manages its internal government. The governor thus heads the executive branch in the federal subjects and, depending on the individual jurisdiction, may have considerable control over government budgeting, the power of appointment of many officials (including many judges), and a considerable role in legislation. The governor may also have additional roles, and in many territories the governor has partial or absolute power to commute or
pardon A pardon is a government decision to allow a person to be relieved of some or all of the legal consequences resulting from a criminal conviction. A pardon may be granted before or after conviction for the crime, depending on the laws of the j ...

pardon
a
criminal In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper ...
sentence Sentence(s) or The Sentence may refer to: Common uses * Sentence (law), the punishment a judge gives to a defendant found guilty of a crime * Sentence (linguistics), a grammatical unit of language * Sentence (mathematical logic), a formula not cont ...
. All governors serve five-year terms for no more than two terms in a row. In all federal subjects, the governor is directly elected, and in most cases has considerable practical powers, though this may be moderated by the legislature and in some cases by other elected executive officials. A governor may give an annual address about his achievements in order to satisfy a constitutional stipulation that a governor must report annually (or in older constitutions described as being "from time to time") on the territory or condition of the republic/oblast. Governors of oblasts may also perform ceremonial roles, such as greeting dignitaries, conferring state decorations, issuing symbolic proclamations. The governor may also have an
official residence An official residence is the residence A residence is a place (normally a building) used as a home A home, or domicile, is a space used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for one or many Human, humans. It is a fully or semi shel ...
.


History

In modern Russia, the governor - is the highest official figure in the Russian Federation (territory, region, autonomous region, city), heads the executive branch in the Republics and oblasts of the Russian Federation. On November 30, 1991, Presidential decree of Yeltsin, appointed
Boris Nemtsov Boris Yefimovich Nemtsov ( rus, Борис Ефимович Немцов, p=bɐˈrʲis jɪˈfʲiməvʲɪtɕ nʲɪmˈtsof; 9 October 195927 February 2015) was a Russian physicist and Liberalism in Russia, liberal politician. Nemtsov was one of t ...
to the post of governor of the
Nizhny Novgorod Nizhny Novgorod ( ; rus, links=no, Нижний Новгород, a=Ru-Nizhny Novgorod.ogg, p=ˈnʲiʐnʲɪj ˈnovɡərət), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, known as Gorky () between 1932 and 1990, is the administrative centre of Nizhny Novgo ...

Nizhny Novgorod
region in and the first week of work at the new location, Nemtsov then issued a decree according to which he, the head of the regional government, is to be officially called the governor. Thus, he became the first governor of the new Russia. From 1995 to 2005, governors were elected by the residents of the Russian Federation in the framework of direct, equal and secret ballot. From 2005 to 2012, governors were appointed by the legislative (representative) bodies of subjects of the Russian Federation by the recommendation of the
President of Russia The President of the Russian Federation ( rus, Президент Российской Федерации, Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii), is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (pl ...
. On June 1, 2012, an Act came into force, which returns the direct election of senior officials in the regions. In 2015, governors were restricted to a term of five years, with no more than two consecutive terms.


Demographics


Party

As of September 2021 there are 57 members of
United Russia United Russia ( rus, links=no, Единая Россия, Yedinaya Rossiya, (j)ɪˈdʲinəjə rɐˈsʲijə) is the ruling Political parties in Russia, political party of Russia. United Russia is the largest party in Russia, and it holds 336 (or ...
, 3
Communists Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...
, 3 Liberal Democrats, two members of
A Just Russia A, or a, is the first Letter (alphabet), letter and the first vowel letter of the English alphabet, modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is English alphabet#Letter names, ''a'' (pronounced ), plural En ...

A Just Russia
, and 20 independents serving as governors.


Tenure

For each term, governors serve five years in office. The longest-serving current governor is
Ramzan Kadyrov Ramzan Akhmadovich Kadyrov (russian: Рамзан Ахматович Кадыров, p=rɐˈmzan ɐxˈmatəvʲɪtɕ kɐˈdɨrəf; ce, Къадар Ахьмат-кӏант Рамзан (Qhadar Aẋmat-kiant Ramzan); born 5 October 1976) is a Ch ...
, the
Head of the Chechen Republic The Head of the Chechen Republic (formerly President of the Chechen Republic or President of Chechnya) is the highest office within the political system In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social ...
, in office since 2007. Overall longest-serving governor is Yevgeny Savchenko of
Belgorod Oblast Belgorod Oblast (russian: Белгоро́дская о́бласть, ''Belgorodskaya oblast'') is a federal subjects of Russia, federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the types of inhabited localities in Russia, c ...
, who has served seven consecutive terms from 1993 to 2020.


Gender

The first female governor was
Valentina Bronevich
Valentina Bronevich
who was governor of Koryak Autonomous Okrug from 1996 to 2000. There are currently 84 male state governors and one female governor:
Natalya Komarova Natalya Vladimirovna Komarova (russian: Наталья Владимировна Комарова, born 21 October 1955 in Yazvo, Pskov Oblast Pskov Oblast (russian: Пско́вская о́бласть, ') is a federal subjects of Russia, fed ...
of
Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug–Yugra or Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug–Yugra (Russian and Mansi: Ханты-Мансийский автономный округ — Югра, ''Khanty-Mansiysky avtonomny okrug — Yugra;'' Khanty: Хӑнт ...
.


External links


Президент подписал закон о сокращении сроков выдвижения и рассмотрения кандидатур высших должностных лиц субъектов Федерации
* ''Иванов В. В.''br>Глава субъекта Российской Федерации. История губернаторов. Том I. История. Книга I. — М., 2019. — 600 с.
* ''Иванов В. В.''br>Глава субъекта Российской Федерации. История губернаторов. Том I. История. Книга II. — М., 2019. — 624 с.
{{Subdivisions of the Russian Empire Government of Russia Government occupations Positions of authority