Federal law and ConstitutionThe established and constituted the federal government of four provinces of federation of nation-state, known as . The Constitution reads as: The basic and criminal laws governing the citizens of Pakistan are set down in major parliamentary legislation (a term inherited from the ), such as the , the , and the . By th
Branches of government
Legislative branchThe legislative branch is known as the , a term for legislature inherited from the United Kingdom. The parliament has two houses; * The is the and has 342 members. 272 are elected directly by the people, while 70 seats are reserved for women and religious minorities. * The is the upper house and has 104 senators elected indirectly by members of provincial assemblies for six-year terms. The Parliament enjoys . All the Cabinet ministers as well as the Prime Minister must be members of Parliament (MPs), according to the constitution. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet Ministers are jointly accountable to the Parliament. If there is a policy failure or lapse on the part of the government, all the members of the cabinet are jointly responsible. If a is passed against the government, then the government collapses and a new one must be formed.
Executive branchBy general definition, the of government is the one that has sole and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the . The separation of powers system is designed to distribute authority away from the executive branch – an attempt to preserve individual liberty in response to tyrannical leadership throughout history.
Prime Minister and CabinetThe ( : ; lit: 'Wazir-e- Azam''), is the executive of Pakistan, constitutionally designated as the (CE). Popularly elected by direct elections in the parliament, the Prime minister is responsible for appointing a cabinet as well as running the government operations. The Prime Minister makes key appointments on various important positions, including; * The federal secretaries as head of cabinet- level ministries * The chief secretaries of the provinces * Key administrative and military personnel in the * The chairmen of large public sector organisations and corporations such as NHA, TCP, , PNSC etc. * The chairmen and other members of the federal commissions and public institutions * Ambassadors and High Commissioners to other countries The can have a maximum of 11 percent (50 members including the Prime Minister) of the total strength of the . Each Cabinet member must be a member of Parliament (MP). The chair the Cabinet and are further assisted by the , whose appointment comes from the of Pakistan. Other Ministers are , junior members who report directly to one of the Cabinet Ministers, often overseeing a specific aspect of government. Once appointed by the Prime Minister, all Cabinet Ministers are officially confirmed to their appointment offices by the President in a special oath of ceremony.
PresidentThe is a ceremonial figurehead, a ceremonial representing the unity of the country. Elected for a five-year term by an indirect election, the consisting of members of the Senate, National Assembly and the four provincial assemblies, the president is now not eligible for reelection (18th amendment). However no individual may hold the office for more than two consecutive terms. The president may resign or be impeached and removed from office for incapacity or gross misconduct by a two-thirds vote of the members of the parliament. The President enjoys all constitutional powers and exercises them directly or through officers subordinate to him as per the aforesaid Article 41-Article 47. The President is responsible for making a wide variety of appointments. These include: * of the Four Provinces * The (after concluding the consultation with the Prime Minister) * The Chief Election Commissioner (Consultation required from the Prime Minister) * The and The President, as Head of State also receives the credentials of Ambassadors from other countries, whilst the Prime Minister, as Head of Government, receives credentials of High Commissioners from other members of the Commonwealth, in line with historical tradition. The President is the civilian of the . The President of Pakistan can grant a pardon to or reduce the sentence, reprieve and respite, and remit, suspend or commute any sentence passed by any court, tribunal or other authority, particularly in cases involving a death sentence. The decisions involving pardoning and other rights by the President are independent of the opinion of the Prime Minister or the Parliamentary majority. In most other cases, however, the President exercises his or her executive powers on the advice of the Prime Minister.
Judicial branchPakistan's independent judicial system began under the , and its concepts and procedures resemble those of . Institutional and judicial procedures were later changed, in 1950s, under the influence of American legal system to remove the fundamental rights problems. The judiciary consists of the , Provincial High Courts, District Courts, Anti-terrorism courts, ''Sharia'' courts, and Environmental courts all over the country; Supreme Court being the superior court. The Supreme Court of Pakistan consists of a Chief Justice, and Senior Justices appointed by the President after consultation with the . The Constitution does not fix the number of justices of the Supreme Court, though it can be fixed by Parliament through an act signed by the President.
Judicature transferThe Constitution grants powers to the Supreme Court to make judicature transfers. Although the proceedings in the Supreme Court arise out of the judgement or orders made by the subordinate courts, the Supreme Court reserves the right to transfer any case, appeal or proceedings pending before any High Court to any other High Court.
Supreme Judicial CouncilMisconduct of judges is highly intolerable as is mentioned in the constitution. Under the mainframe of the br>Article 209
Civil serviceThe civil service of Pakistan is the permanent bureaucracy of the Government of Pakistan. The civil servants are the permanent officials of the government, occupying a respected image in the . Civil servants come from different cadres (e.g. , etc.) after passing the CSS examinations. Not all the employees of the Government of Pakistan are civil servants; other employees of the Government of Pakistan come from the scientific institutions, state-owned corporations and commissioned military science circles. In the , the ultimate responsibility for running the administration rests with the elected representatives of the people which are the ministers. These ministers are accountable to the legislatures which are also elected by the people on the basis of universal adult suffrage. The cabinet and its ministers are expected to lay down the policy guidelines, and the civil servants are responsible for implementing and enforcing it.
Federal secretariesThe federal secretaries are the most senior, experienced, and capable officials in the country. Each ministry/division has its Secretary to oversee and enforce the public policy matters. The secretaries, who are basic pay scale (BPS)-22 grade officers, are largely considered to be the most powerful officials in the country. Due to the importance of their respective assignments, there are twelve specific federal secretaries which are considered to be the most vital in the Government of Pakistan. These include the Secretary Establishment (responsible for civil service matters), Secretary Commerce (responsible for trade), Secretary Cabinet (responsible for Cabinet Division), Secretary to the Prime Minister (responsible for Prime Minister's Office), Secretary Interior (responsible for law and order), Secretary Finance (responsible for the country's treasury), Foreign Secretary of Pakistan, Secretary Foreign Affairs (responsible for foreign relations), Maritime Secretary of Pakistan, Secretary Maritime Affairs (responsible for ports and shipping), Power Secretary of Pakistan, Secretary Power (responsible for the electricity and power sector), Planning and Development Secretary of Pakistan, Secretary Planning and Development (responsible for development projects), Petroleum Secretary of Pakistan, Secretary Petroleum (responsible for the petroleum sector) and Pakistan Secretary of Industries and Production, Secretary Industries (responsible for industrial development). Management of major crisis situations in the country and coordination of activities of the various Ministries in such situations are the functions of the Cabinet Secretariat (Pakistan), Cabinet Division. Appointment for the chairman of the Federal Public Service Commission, FPSC, the prestigious body responsible for the recruitment of elite bureaucrats, is made by the President after consulting the Prime Minister, according to Article 242 of the Constitution.
Elections and voting systemSince 1947, Pakistan has an asymmetric , with elected officials at the national (federal), provincial, tribal, and local levels. Constitution has set the limit of government for five years, but if a Vote of no confidence movements takes place in the parliament (and prelude of movements are proved at the Judicial branch), the government falls and immediately replaced with caretaker government initiated by the president (consultation of Prime Minister also required to make such move), in regards to Article 58 of the constitution. There has been four times that the Military coups in Pakistan, martial law has been in effect, and controversially Doctrine of necessity, approved by the supreme court. Through a general election where the leader of the majority winning party is selected to be the Prime Minister. All members of the federal legislature, the Parliament, are directly elected. Elections in Pakistan take place every five years by universal adult suffrage.
Administration and governments
Provincial and Local governmentsThere are four Provincial Governments of Pakistan, provincial governments that rule the four provinces of the state. The List of Chief Ministers in Pakistan, Chief Minister heads the provincial government. All Provincial Assembly of Balochistan, provincial assemblies are unicameral, elected for five years. The appointed by President after consulting the Prime minister, act only as representatives of federal government in the province and do not have any part in running the government. The provincial governments tend to have the greatest influence over most Pakistanis' daily lives. The Provincially Administered Tribal Areas, tribal and Local government in Pakistan, Local government functions at the basic level. It is the third level of government, consisting ''Jirga'' in rural tribal areas.
Taxation and budgetPakistan has a complex taxation system of more than 70 unique taxes administered by at least 37 tax collection institutions of the Government of Pakistan. Taxation is a debated and controversial issue in public and political science circle of the country, and according to the International Development Committee, Pakistan had a lower-than-average tax take. Only 0.57% of Pakistanis, or 768,000 people out of a population of 190 million pay income tax. The Finance Minister of Pakistan presents the annual federal budget in the Parliament in the midst of the year, and it has to be passed by both houses of the . The budget is preceded by an economic survey which outlines the broad direction of the budget and the economic performance of the country for the outgoing financial fiscal year.
National Finance Commission program overviewConstituted under th
Ministries and divisions
Departments* Abdus Salam Centre for Physics ** Center for Earthquake Studies * Academy of Educational Planning and Management *Pakistan Electric Power Company * Accountant General Pakistan Revenues * Airports Security Force * Aiwan-e-Iqbal * Alternative Energy Development Board * Akthar Hameed Khan National Centre for Rural Development * Animal Quarantine Department * Anti-Narcotics Force * Armament Research and Development Establishment * Associated Press of Pakistan * Attorney-General for Pakistan * Auditor General of Pakistan * Pakistan Board of Investment, Board of Investment * Bureau of Emigration and Overseas Employment * Cabinet Committee on National Security (Pakistan), Cabinet Committee on National Security * Capital Development Authority (Islamabad), Capital Development Authority * Central Board of Film Censors * Central Power Purchasing Agency * Chief Commissionerate for Afghan Refugees * Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority, Civil Aviation Authority * College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan * Controller General of Accounts (Pakistan), Controller General of Accounts * Competition Commission of Pakistan * Construction Technology Training Institute * Council for Work and Housing Research * Council of Common Interests * Council of Islamic Ideology * Defence Export Promotion Organization (Pakistan), Defence Export Promotion Organization * Defence Science and Technology Organization (Pakistan), Defence Science and Technology Organisation * Department of Archeology and Museums * Department of Communications Security * Department of Plant Protection (Pakistan), Department of Plant Protection * Department of Stationary and Forms * Directorate General of Civil Defence (Pakistan), Directorate General of Civil Defence ** Civil Defence Academy ** National Institute of Fire Technology * Directorate General of Defence Purchase * Directorate General of Immigration & Passports, Directorate General of Immigration and Passports * Directorate General of Munitions Production * Directorate General of Special Education and Social Welfare * Directorate General of Trade Organisations * Directorate of Electronic Media and Publication * Directorate of Workers Education * Drug Regulatory Authority of Pakistan * Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority * Economic Coordination Committee (Pakistan), Economic Coordination Committee * Election Commission of Pakistan * Employees Old-Age Benefits Institution * ENAR Petrotech Services * Engineering Development Board * Estate Office * Export Development Fund * Export–Import Bank of Pakistan * Export Processing Zone Authority * Evacuee Trust Property Board ** Pakistan Sikh Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee * Federal Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education * Federal Board of Revenue (Pakistan), Federal Board of Revenue ** Directorate General of Intelligence and Investigation * Federal Directorate of Education * Federal Employees Benevolent and Group Insurance Fund * Federal Flood Commission * Federal Government Employees Housing Foundation * Federal Investigation Agency * National Response Centre for Cyber Crime * Federal Land Commission * Federal Ombudsman of Pakistan * Federal Public Service Commission ** Civil Services Academy Lahore, Civil Services Academy * Federal Judicial Academy (Pakistan), Federal Judicial Academy * Financial Monitoring Unit * Fisheries Development Board * Foreign Service of Pakistan ** Foreign Service Academy * Frontier Constabulary * Frontier Corps ** Bajaur Scouts ** Chagai Militia ** Chitral Scouts ** Gilgit Baltistan Scouts ** Kharan Rifles ** Khyber Rifles ** Zhob Militia * The Gazette of Pakistan, Gazette of Pakistan * Geological Survey of Pakistan * Global Change Impact Studies Centre * Government Holdings Private Limited * Government Shipping Office * Gwadar Port, Gwadar Port Authority * Heavy Electrical Complex * Heavy Industries Taxila * Higher Education Commission of Pakistan * Human Organ Transplant Authority * Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan * Ignite National Technology Fund * Institute of Bankers Pakistan * Indus River System Authority * Institute of Regional Studies * Intellectual Property Organisation of Pakistan * Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan * Institute of Cost and Management Accountants of Pakistan * Institute of Optronics * Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad * Intelligence Bureau (Pakistan), Intelligence Bureau * Inter-Services Intelligence * Inter-State Gas Systems Limited * Iqbal Academy Pakistan, Iqbal Academy *ICT Administration, Islamabad Capital Territory Administration ** Capital Territory Police, Islamabad Police *** Islamabad Traffic Police * Karachi Shipyard, Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works * Karachi Port Trust * Khan Research Laboratories * Lakhara Coal Development Company * Law and Justice Commission of Pakistan * Livestock and Dairy Development Board * Management Services Wing * Marine Fisheries Department * Maritime Security Agency * Mercantile Marine Department * Cantonments (Pakistan), Military Lands and Cantonments Department * Military Vehicles Research and Development Establishment * National Academy for Prisons Administration * National Academy of Performing Arts (Pakistan), National Academy of Performing Arts * National Accountability Bureau * National Archives of Pakistan * National Bioethics Committee * National Book Foundation * National Command Authority (Pakistan) ** Centre of Excellence for Nuclear Security ** Strategic Plans Division Force * National Commission for Child Welfare and Development * National Commission for Government Reforms * National Commission for Human Development ** Pakistan Human Development Fund * National Commission for Human Rights * National Commission on the Status of Women * National Counter Terrorism Authority * National Crises Management Cell * National Database and Registration Authority * National Disaster Management Authority (Pakistan), National Disaster Management Authority ** National Institute of Disaster Management * National Education Assessment System * National Education Foundation * National Electric Power Regulatory Authority * National Energy Conservation Centre * National Engineering and Scientific Commission ** Air Weapons Complex ** National Development Complex * NESPAK, National Engineering Services Pakistan * National Fertilizer Corporation * National Fertilizer Marketing Limited * National Forensic Science Agency * National Highway Authority * National Highways & Motorway Police, National Highways and Motorway Police * National Industrial Parks Development and Management Company * National Industrial Relations Commission * National Information Technology Board * National Institute of Electronics (Pakistan), National Institute of Electronics * Lok Virsa Museum, National Institute of Folk and Traditional Heritage * National Institute of Health (Pakistan), National Institute of Health * National Institute of Oceanography (Pakistan), National Institute of Oceanography ** Pakistan Antarctic Programme * National Institute of Population Studies * National Institute of Science and Technical Education * National Insurance Company * National Intelligence Directorate (Pakistan), National Intelligence Directorate * National Language Promotion Department * National Library of Pakistan * National Logistics Cell * National Museum of Pakistan * National Police Academy of Pakistan, National Police Academy * National Police Bureau * National Productivity Organization * National Radio Telecommunications Corporation * National School of Public Policy * National Security Council (Pakistan), National Security Council * National Telecommunication Corporation (Pakistan), National Telecommunication Corporation * National Textile University * National Tariff Commission * National Training Bureau * National Transmission & Despatch Company, National Transmission and Despatch Company * National Transport Research Centre * National University of Sciences and Technology (Pakistan), National University of Sciences and Technology * National Veterinary Lab * National Vocational and Technical Training Commission * Oil and Gas Development Company * Oil and Gas Regulatory Authority * Overseas Employment Corporation * Overseas Pakistani#Overseas Pakistanis Foundation, Overseas Pakistanis Foundation * Pakistan Academy for Rural Development * Pakistan Academy of Letters * Pakistan Aeronautical Complex * Pakistan Agricultural Research Council ** National Agricultural Research Centre * Pakistan Agricultural Storage and Services Corporation * Pak-Arab Refinery, Pak-Arab Refinery Company * ** Inter-Services Public Relations ** Inter Services Selection Board ** National Defence University, Pakistan, National Defence University *** Institute for Strategic Studies, Research and Analysis ** Pakistan Air Force *** Air Intelligence *** Pakistan Air Force Academy ** Pakistan Army *** Defence Housing Authority *** Frontier Works Organisation *** Military Intelligence (Pakistan), Military Intelligence *** Pakistan Military Academy ** Pakistan Navy *** Naval Intelligence (Pakistan), Naval Intelligence *** Pakistan Marines *** Pakistan Naval Academy * Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission ** Chashma Nuclear Power Plant#Nuclear Engineering Training center, CHASNUPP Center for Nuclear Training ** KANUPP Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering ** National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering ** Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology ** Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture ** Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology * Pakistan Bait-ul-Mal * Pakistan Bar Council * Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation * Pakistan Bureau of Statistics * Pakistan Coast Guards * Pakistan Commissioner for Indus Waters * Pakistan Cotton Standards Institute * Pakistan Council for Architects and Town Planners * Pakistan Council for Renewable Energy Technologies * Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources * Pakistan Council for Science and Technology ** National Commission for Science and Technology * Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research * Pakistan Cricket Board * Pakistan Customs * Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority * Pakistan Engineering Company * Pakistan Engineering Council * Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency * Pakistan Gems and Jewellery Development Company * Pakistan Horticulture Development and Export Company * Pakistan Hunting and Sporting Arms Development Company * Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation * Pakistan Industrial Technical Assistance Centre * Pakistan Infrastructure Bank * Pakistan Institute for Parliamentary Services * Pakistan Institute of Fashion and Design * Pakistan Institute of Management * Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences * Pakistan Institute of Public Finance Accountants * Pakistan Institute of Trade and Development * Pakistan International Airlines, Pakistan International Airlines Corporation * Pakistan LNG Limited * Pakistan LNG Terminals Limited * Pakistan Machine Tool Factory * Pakistan Manpower Institute * Pakistan Marine Academy * Pakistan Medical and Dental Council * Pakistan Health Research Council * Pakistan Meteorological Department ** National Agromet Centre * Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation * Pakistan National Accreditation Council * Pakistan National Commission for UNESCO * Pakistan National Council of the Arts * Pakistan Merchant Navy#Pakistan National Shipping Corporation, Pakistan National Shipping Corporation * Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority * Pakistan Nursing Council * Pakistan Oilseed Development Board * Pakistan Ordnance Factories * Pakistan Petroleum * Pakistan Post * Pakistan Public Works Department * Pakistan Railways ** Pakistan Railways Academy * Pakistan Rangers * Pakistan Reinsurance Company Limited * Pakistan Science Foundation ** Pakistan Museum of Natural History ** Pakistan Scientific and Technological Information Center * Pakistan Software Export Board * Pakistan Sports Board * Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority * Pakistan State Oil * Pakistan Steel Mills * Pakistan Stone Development Company * Pakistan Telecommunication Authority * ptcl, Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited * Pakistan Television Corporation ** PTV Academy * PTDC, Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation * Pakistan Veterinary Medical Council * PHA Foundation * Pharmacy Council of Pakistan * Planning Commission (Pakistan), Planning Commission of Pakistan ** National Fertilizer Development Centre ** Pakistan Institute of Development Economics ** Pakistan Planning and Management Institute * Port Qasim, Port Qasim Authority * Power Information Technology Company * Press Council of Pakistan * Printing Corporation of Pakistan * Private Educational Institution Regulatory Authority * Private Power and Infrastructure Board * Public Private Partnership Authority * Public Procurement Regulatory Authority * Quaid-i-Azam Academy, Quaid-e-Azam Academy * Quaid-e-Azam Mazar Management Board * Ruet-e-Hilal Committee * Saindak Metals Limited * Secretariat Training Institute * Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan * Pakistan Small and Medium Enterprise Development Authority, Small and Medium Enterprise Development Authority * Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission, Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission of Pakistan ** Institute of Space and Planetary Astrophysics *** KU Observatory ** Institute of Space Technology ** Pakistan Mission Control Centre ** SUPARCO Satellite Ground Station, Satellite Ground Station ** Sonmiani (space facility), Sonmiani Spaceport ** Tilla Satellite Launch Centre * Special Communications Organization * Staff Welfare Organization * State Bank of Pakistan ** National Institute of Banking and Finance (Pakistan), National Institute of Banking and Finance ** Pakistan Mint * State Life Insurance Corporation of Pakistan * Strategic Export Control Division * Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited * Sui Southern Gas Company * Survey of Pakistan * Technology Upgradation and Skill Development Company * Textile Commissioner's Organization * Trade Development Authority (Pakistan), Trade Development Authority of Pakistan * Trade Dispute Resolution Organization * Trading Corporation of Pakistan * Utility Stores Corporation * Virtual University of Pakistan * Metallurgical Laboratory (Wah), Wah Metallurgical Laboratory * Water and Power Development Authority * Workers Welfare Fund * Zarai Taraqiati Bank Limited * Zoological Survey Department of Pakistan, Zoological Survey Department
See also* Ministry of Finance of the Government of Pakistan * Grade 22 * Statistics Division of the Government of Pakistan * Federal Bureau of Statistics of the Government of Pakistan * Pakistan Institute of International Affairs * Gazette of Pakistan * Economic Coordination Committee * Types of Government Servants in Pakistan * List of provincial governments of Pakistan
External links* * * * *