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The Government of Pakistan ( ur, , translit=hakúmat-e pákistán) abbreviated as GoP, is a
federal government A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized ...
established by the
Constitution of Pakistan The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ( ur, ), also known as the 1973 Constitution, is the supreme law of Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is ...
as a constituted governing authority of the four provinces, two autonomous territories, and one federal territory of a parliamentary democratic
republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...
, constitutionally called the
Islamic Republic of Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...

Islamic Republic of Pakistan
. Effecting the
Westminster system The Westminster system or Westminster model is a type of parliamentary A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ...
for governing the state, the government is mainly composed of the
executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of state bureaucracy * Executive, a senior management role in an organization ** Chief exec ...
,
legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure ...
, and
judicial The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government i ...
branches, in which all powers are vested by the
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
in the
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
, the
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
and the
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...

Supreme Court
. The powers and duties of these branches are further defined by acts and amendments of the Parliament, including the creation of executive institutions, departments and courts inferior to the
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...

Supreme Court
. By constitutional powers, the
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
promulgates ordinances and passes bills. The President acts as the ceremonial
figurehead In politics, a figurehead is a person who ''de jure In law and government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative ...
while the people-elected
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
acts as the
Chief Executive A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator officer, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of corporate executives A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co ...
(of the executive branch) and is responsible for running the federal government. There is a bicameral Parliament with the
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
as a
Lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated community in Apache County *Chambers, Nebraska *Chambers, We ...
and the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
as an upper house. The most influential officials in the Government of Pakistan are considered to be the Federal Secretaries, who are the highest ranking
bureaucrats A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration of any organization of any size, although the term usually connotes someone within an institution of government or corporate. The term ''bureaucrat'' derives from "burea ...
in the country and run cabinet-level ministries and divisions. The judicial branch systematically contains an apex
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...

Supreme Court
,
Federal Shariat Court The Federal Shariat Court, abbreviated as FSC, is a constitutional court of Pakistan, which has the power to examine and determine whether the laws of the country comply with Sharia Sharia (, ar, ), Islamic law, or Sharia law, is a relig ...
, High courts of five provinces, district,
anti-terrorism Counter-terrorism (also spelled counterterrorism), also known as anti-terrorism, incorporates the practice, military tactics Military tactics encompasses the art of organizing and employing fighting forces on or near the battlefield. They ...
, and the green courts; all inferior to the Supreme Court. The full name of the country is the ''Islamic Republic of Pakistan''. No other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases. The "Pakistan Government" or "Government of Pakistan" are often used in official documents representing the federal government collectively. Also, the terms "Federal" and "National" in government institutions or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government. As the
seat of government The seat of government is (as defined by ''Brewer's Politics'') "the building, complex of buildings or the city from which a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state ...
is in
Islamabad Islamabad (; ur, , translit=Islām Ābād) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or othe ...

Islamabad
, "Islamabad" is commonly used as a
metonym Metonymy () is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of pe ...
for the federal government. On 4 August 2020, the Government released a new political map that maintained the Pakistani claim on
Junagadh Junagadh () is the headquarters of Junagadh district in the States and territories of India, Indian state of Gujarat. Located at the foot of the Girnar, Girnar hills, southwest of Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar (the state capital), it is the sevent ...
,
Manavadar Manavadar is a city and a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which ...
, and
Sir Creek Sir Creek ( ), originally Ban Ganga, is a 96-km (60-mi) tidal estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries ...
. The map also showed the Islands of and
Astola Astola Island, also known as ''Jezira Haft Talar'' (Balochi language, Balochi and ) ''Satadip'' or 'Island of the Seven Hills', is a small uninhabited Pakistani island in the Arabian Sea approximately south of the nearest part of the coast and s ...

Astola
as part of Pakistan for the first time.


Federal law and Constitution

The
Constitution of Pakistan The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ( ur, ), also known as the 1973 Constitution, is the supreme law of Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is ...
established and constituted the federal government of four provinces of federation of nation-state, known as
State of Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English language, English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries by population, fifth-most populous country with a popul ...

State of Pakistan
. The Constitution reads as: The basic
civil Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue, or civility *Civil action, or lawsuit *Civil affairs *Civil and political rights *Civil disobedience *Civil engineering *Civil (journalism), a platform for independent journalism *Civilian, someone not a member ...
and criminal laws governing the citizens of Pakistan are set down in major parliamentary legislation (a term inherited from the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
), such as the
Exit Control ListThe Exit Control Lists (ECL; ur, ) is a system of border control maintained by the Government of Pakistan under Exit from Pakistan (Control) Ordinance, 1981. Those persons on the list are prohibited from leaving Pakistan. Priorities 1. Exit from P ...
, the
Pakistan Penal Code The Pakistan Penal Code (; ), abbreviated as 'PPC'', is a penal code for all offences charged in Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English language, English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a cou ...
, and the
Frontier Crimes Regulations The Frontier Crimes Regulations (FCR) were a special set of laws of British India The provinces of India, earlier presidencies of British India and still earlier, presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in I ...
. By th
Article 246th
an

to the constitution, the Islamic ''
Jirga A jirga (originally jərga or jərgah; Pashto language, Pashto: ) is a traditional assembly of leaders that supposed to make decisions by consensus and according to the teachings of Pashtunwali. A tribal cultural system that predates modern-day ...
'' (or ''Panchayat'') system has become an institution for local governance. The 1950s reforms in the government administration, the constitutional law and jurisprudence in Pakistan have been greatly influenced by the United States Of America ' legal system. Since the 1970s, the traditional jirga-based law has also influenced the country's judicial development.


Branches of government


Legislative branch

The legislative branch is known as the
parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
, a term for legislature inherited from the United Kingdom. The parliament has two houses; * The
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
is the
lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated community in Apache County *Chambers, Nebraska *Chambers, We ...
and has 342 members. 272 are elected directly by the people, while 70 seats are reserved for women and religious minorities. * The
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
is the upper house and has 104 senators elected indirectly by members of provincial assemblies for six-year terms. The Parliament enjoys
parliamentary supremacy Parliamentary sovereignty (also called parliamentary supremacy or legislative supremacy) is a concept in the constitutional law of some parliamentary democracies. It holds that the legislative body has absolute sovereignty Sovereignty is th ...
. All the Cabinet ministers as well as the Prime Minister must be members of Parliament (MPs), according to the constitution. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet Ministers are jointly accountable to the Parliament. If there is a policy failure or lapse on the part of the government, all the members of the cabinet are jointly responsible. If a
vote of no confidence A motion of no confidence, vote of no confidence, or no confidence motion, sometimes in the reverse as a motion of confidence or vote of confidence, is a statement or vote about whether a person in a position of responsibility (government, manager ...
is passed against the government, then the government collapses and a new one must be formed.


Executive branch

By general definition, the
executive branch The executive (short for executive branch or executive power) is the part of government that enforces law, and has Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. In political systems based on the principle ...
of government is the one that has sole
authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of Empiric ...

authority
and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the
separation of powers Separation of powers refers to the division of a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' ...
. The separation of powers system is designed to distribute authority away from the executive branch – an attempt to preserve individual liberty in response to tyrannical leadership throughout history.


Prime Minister and Cabinet

The
Prime Minister of Pakistan A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number In mathematics, the natural numbers are those numbers used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and total order, ordering (as in "this is the ''third'' largest city i ...
(
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonpr ...

Urdu
: ; lit: 'Wazir-e- Azam''), is the executive
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administrat ...
of Pakistan, constitutionally designated as the
Chief Executive A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator officer, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of corporate executives A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co ...
(CE). Popularly elected by direct elections in the parliament, the Prime minister is responsible for appointing a cabinet as well as running the government operations. The Prime Minister makes key appointments on various important positions, including; * The federal secretaries as head of cabinet- level ministries * The chief secretaries of the provinces * Key administrative and military personnel in the
Pakistan Armed Forces The Pakistan Armed Forces (; ) are the Military, combined military forces of Pakistan. It is the List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel, world's sixth-largest military measured by Active duty, active military personn ...
* The chairmen of large public sector organisations and corporations such as NHA, TCP, , PNSC etc. * The chairmen and other members of the federal commissions and public institutions * Ambassadors and High Commissioners to other countries The
Cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing ...
can have a maximum of 11 percent (50 members including the Prime Minister) of the total strength of the
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
. Each Cabinet member must be a member of Parliament (MP). The
Cabinet Ministers A cabinet is a body of high-ranking State (polity), state officials, typically consisting of the Executive (government), executive branch's top leaders. Members of a cabinet are usually called cabinet Minister (government), ministers or secret ...
chair the Cabinet and are further assisted by the
Cabinet Secretary of Pakistan The Cabinet Secretary of Pakistan (Urdu: ) is the Federal Secretary The Federal Secretary (also referred to as the Secretary to the Government of Pakistan) is the highest-ranking position in the Government of Pakistan, occupied by the most senior C ...
, whose appointment comes from the
Civil Services The civil service is a collective term for a sector of government composed mainly of career civil servants hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leaders ...
of Pakistan. Other Ministers are
Ministers of State Minister of State is a title borne by politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or ...
, junior members who report directly to one of the Cabinet Ministers, often overseeing a specific aspect of government. Once appointed by the Prime Minister, all Cabinet Ministers are officially confirmed to their appointment offices by the President in a special oath of ceremony.


President

The
President of Pakistan The President of Pakistan ( ur, , translit=s̤adr-i Pākiṣṭān), officially the President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is the ceremonial head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (p ...
is a ceremonial figurehead, a ceremonial
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
representing the unity of the country. Elected for a five-year term by an indirect election, the
electoral college An electoral college is a set of Voting, electors who are selected to elect a candidate to particular offices. Often these represent different organizations, political parties or Legal entity, entities, with each organization, political party or ...
consisting of members of the Senate, National Assembly and the four provincial assemblies, the president is now not eligible for reelection (18th amendment). However no individual may hold the office for more than two consecutive terms. The president may resign or be impeached and removed from office for incapacity or gross misconduct by a two-thirds vote of the members of the parliament. The President enjoys all constitutional powers and exercises them directly or through officers subordinate to him as per the aforesaid Article 41-Article 47. The President is responsible for making a wide variety of appointments. These include: *
Governors A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (p ...
of the Four Provinces * The
Chief Justice The chief justice is the presiding member of a supreme court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes betwee ...
(after concluding the consultation with the Prime Minister) * The Chief Election Commissioner (Consultation required from the Prime Minister) * The
Attorney General #REDIRECT Attorney general In most common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinio ...
and
Comptroller and Auditor GeneralAn auditor general, also known in some countries as a comptroller general A comptroller is a management-level position responsible for supervising the quality of accountancy, accounting and financial reporting of an organization. A financial comptrol ...
The President, as Head of State also receives the credentials of Ambassadors from other countries, whilst the Prime Minister, as Head of Government, receives credentials of High Commissioners from other members of the Commonwealth, in line with historical tradition. The President is the civilian
Commander in Chief A commander-in-chief or supreme commander is the person who exercises supreme command and control Command and control is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes ... hat A collection of 18th and 19th century men' ...
of the
Pakistan Armed Forces The Pakistan Armed Forces (; ) are the Military, combined military forces of Pakistan. It is the List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel, world's sixth-largest military measured by Active duty, active military personn ...
. The President of Pakistan can grant a pardon to or reduce the sentence, reprieve and respite, and remit, suspend or commute any sentence passed by any court, tribunal or other authority, particularly in cases involving a death sentence. The decisions involving pardoning and other rights by the President are independent of the opinion of the Prime Minister or the Parliamentary majority. In most other cases, however, the President exercises his or her executive powers on the advice of the Prime Minister.


Judicial branch

Pakistan's independent judicial system began under the
British Raj The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the In ...

British Raj
, and its concepts and procedures resemble those of
Anglo-Saxon countries The Anglosphere is a group of English-speaking world, English-speaking nations that share common cultural and historical ties to the United Kingdom, and which today maintain close political, diplomatic and military co-operation. While the nation ...
. Institutional and judicial procedures were later changed, in 1950s, under the influence of American legal system to remove the fundamental rights problems. The judiciary consists of the
Supreme Court of Pakistan The Supreme Court of Pakistan ( ur, ; ''Adālat-e-Uzma Pākistān'') is the apex court in the Judiciary of Pakistan, judicial hierarchy of Pakistan. Established in accordance to thePart VIIof the Constitution of Pakistan, it has ultimate and e ...

Supreme Court of Pakistan
, Provincial High Courts, District Courts, Anti-terrorism courts, ''Sharia'' courts, and Environmental courts all over the country; Supreme Court being the superior court. The Supreme Court of Pakistan consists of a Chief Justice, and Senior Justices appointed by the President after consultation with the
Chief Justice of Pakistan Chief may refer to: Title or rank Military and law enforcement * Chief master sergeant Chief Master Sergeant (CMSgt) is the ninth, and highest, United States Air Force enlisted rank insignia, enlisted rank in the United States Air Force, ...
. The Constitution does not fix the number of justices of the Supreme Court, though it can be fixed by Parliament through an act signed by the President.


Judicature transfer

The Constitution grants powers to the Supreme Court to make judicature transfers. Although the proceedings in the Supreme Court arise out of the judgement or orders made by the subordinate courts, the Supreme Court reserves the right to transfer any case, appeal or proceedings pending before any High Court to any other High Court.


Supreme Judicial Council

Misconduct of judges is highly intolerable as is mentioned in the constitution. Under the mainframe of the
Supreme Judicial Council Supreme may refer to: * Supreme (brand), a clothing brand based in New York * Supreme (comics), a comic book superhero * Supreme (cookery), a term used in cookery * Supreme (film), ''Supreme'' (film), a 2016 Telugu film * Supreme (producer), hip-h ...
br>Article 209
an inquiry into the capacity or conduct of a Judge, who is a member of the Council, may be conducted.


Civil service

The civil service of Pakistan is the permanent bureaucracy of the Government of Pakistan. The civil servants are the permanent officials of the government, occupying a respected image in the
civil society Civil society can be understood as the "third sector" of society, distinct from government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad ...
. Civil servants come from different cadres (e.g.
Pakistan Administrative Service The Pakistan Administrative Service, or PAS ( ur, ) (previously known as the District Management Group or DMG before 1 June 2012) is the most elite and prestigious cadre of the Civil Service of Pakistan. The Pakistan Administrative Service over ...
,
Police Service of Pakistan Law enforcement in Pakistan ( ur, ) is one of the most elite and prestigious cadres of the Civil Service of Pakistan The Central Superior Services (CSS; or Civil Servants) is a permanent elite civil service authority, and the civil service t ...
etc.) after passing the CSS examinations. Not all the employees of the Government of Pakistan are civil servants; other employees of the Government of Pakistan come from the scientific institutions, state-owned corporations and commissioned military science circles. In the
parliamentary democracy A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democracy, democratic government, governance of a sovereign state, state (or subordinate entity) where the Executive (government), executive derives its democratic legitimacy fr ...
, the ultimate responsibility for running the administration rests with the elected representatives of the people which are the ministers. These ministers are accountable to the legislatures which are also elected by the people on the basis of universal adult suffrage. The cabinet and its ministers are expected to lay down the policy guidelines, and the civil servants are responsible for implementing and enforcing it.


Federal secretaries

The federal secretaries are the most senior, experienced, and capable officials in the country. Each ministry/division has its Secretary to oversee and enforce the public policy matters. The secretaries, who are basic pay scale (BPS)-22 grade officers, are largely considered to be the most powerful officials in the country. Due to the importance of their respective assignments, there are twelve specific federal secretaries which are considered to be the most vital in the Government of Pakistan. These include the Secretary Establishment (responsible for civil service matters), Secretary Commerce (responsible for trade), Secretary Cabinet (responsible for Cabinet Division), Secretary to the Prime Minister (responsible for Prime Minister's Office), Secretary Interior (responsible for law and order), Secretary Finance (responsible for the country's treasury), Foreign Secretary of Pakistan, Secretary Foreign Affairs (responsible for foreign relations), Maritime Secretary of Pakistan, Secretary Maritime Affairs (responsible for ports and shipping), Power Secretary of Pakistan, Secretary Power (responsible for the electricity and power sector), Planning and Development Secretary of Pakistan, Secretary Planning and Development (responsible for development projects), Petroleum Secretary of Pakistan, Secretary Petroleum (responsible for the petroleum sector) and Pakistan Secretary of Industries and Production, Secretary Industries (responsible for industrial development). Management of major crisis situations in the country and coordination of activities of the various Ministries in such situations are the functions of the Cabinet Secretariat (Pakistan), Cabinet Division. Appointment for the chairman of the Federal Public Service Commission, FPSC, the prestigious body responsible for the recruitment of elite bureaucrats, is made by the President after consulting the Prime Minister, according to Article 242 of the Constitution.


Elections and voting system

Since 1947, Pakistan has an asymmetric
federal government A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized ...
, with elected officials at the national (federal), provincial, tribal, and local levels. Constitution has set the limit of government for five years, but if a Vote of no confidence movements takes place in the parliament (and prelude of movements are proved at the Judicial branch), the government falls and immediately replaced with caretaker government initiated by the president (consultation of Prime Minister also required to make such move), in regards to Article 58 of the constitution. There has been four times that the Military coups in Pakistan, martial law has been in effect, and controversially Doctrine of necessity, approved by the supreme court. Through a general election where the leader of the majority winning party is selected to be the Prime Minister. All members of the federal legislature, the Parliament, are directly elected. Elections in Pakistan take place every five years by universal adult suffrage.


Administration and governments


Provincial and Local governments

There are four Provincial Governments of Pakistan, provincial governments that rule the four provinces of the state. The List of Chief Ministers in Pakistan, Chief Minister heads the provincial government. All Provincial Assembly of Balochistan, provincial assemblies are unicameral, elected for five years. The
Governors A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (p ...
appointed by President after consulting the Prime minister, act only as representatives of federal government in the province and do not have any part in running the government. The provincial governments tend to have the greatest influence over most Pakistanis' daily lives. The Provincially Administered Tribal Areas, tribal and Local government in Pakistan, Local government functions at the basic level. It is the third level of government, consisting ''Jirga'' in rural tribal areas.


Finances


Taxation and budget

Pakistan has a complex taxation system of more than 70 unique taxes administered by at least 37 tax collection institutions of the Government of Pakistan. Taxation is a debated and controversial issue in public and political science circle of the country, and according to the International Development Committee, Pakistan had a lower-than-average tax take. Only 0.57% of Pakistanis, or 768,000 people out of a population of 190 million pay income tax. The Finance Minister of Pakistan presents the annual federal budget in the Parliament in the midst of the year, and it has to be passed by both houses of the
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
. The budget is preceded by an economic survey which outlines the broad direction of the budget and the economic performance of the country for the outgoing financial fiscal year.


National Finance Commission program overview

Constituted under th
Article 160
of the
Constitution of Pakistan The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ( ur, ), also known as the 1973 Constitution, is the supreme law of Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is ...
by the Constitution, the National Finance Commission Award (NFC) program is a series of planned Economic reforms in Pakistan, economic programs to take control of Balance of payments crisis, financial imbalances and equally manage the financial resources for the four provinces to meet their expenditure liabilities while alleviating the Horizontal Fiscal Imbalance, horizontal fiscal imbalances. According to stipulations and directions of the Constitution, the Provincial Governments of Pakistan, provisional governments and Federal government compete to get higher share of the program's revenues in order to stabilize their own financial status.


Ministries and divisions


Departments

* Abdus Salam Centre for Physics ** Center for Earthquake Studies * Academy of Educational Planning and Management *Pakistan Electric Power Company * Accountant General Pakistan Revenues * Airports Security Force * Aiwan-e-Iqbal * Alternative Energy Development Board * Akthar Hameed Khan National Centre for Rural Development * Animal Quarantine Department * Anti-Narcotics Force * Armament Research and Development Establishment * Associated Press of Pakistan * Attorney-General for Pakistan * Auditor General of Pakistan * Pakistan Board of Investment, Board of Investment * Bureau of Emigration and Overseas Employment * Cabinet Committee on National Security (Pakistan), Cabinet Committee on National Security * Capital Development Authority (Islamabad), Capital Development Authority * Central Board of Film Censors * Central Power Purchasing Agency * Chief Commissionerate for Afghan Refugees * Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority, Civil Aviation Authority * College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan * Controller General of Accounts (Pakistan), Controller General of Accounts * Competition Commission of Pakistan * Construction Technology Training Institute * Council for Work and Housing Research * Council of Common Interests * Council of Islamic Ideology * Defence Export Promotion Organization (Pakistan), Defence Export Promotion Organization * Defence Science and Technology Organization (Pakistan), Defence Science and Technology Organisation * Department of Archeology and Museums * Department of Communications Security * Department of Plant Protection (Pakistan), Department of Plant Protection * Department of Stationary and Forms * Directorate General of Civil Defence (Pakistan), Directorate General of Civil Defence ** Civil Defence Academy ** National Institute of Fire Technology * Directorate General of Defence Purchase * Directorate General of Immigration & Passports, Directorate General of Immigration and Passports * Directorate General of Munitions Production * Directorate General of Special Education and Social Welfare * Directorate General of Trade Organisations * Directorate of Electronic Media and Publication * Directorate of Workers Education * Drug Regulatory Authority of Pakistan * Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority * Economic Coordination Committee (Pakistan), Economic Coordination Committee * Election Commission of Pakistan * Employees Old-Age Benefits Institution * ENAR Petrotech Services * Engineering Development Board * Estate Office * Export Development Fund * Export–Import Bank of Pakistan * Export Processing Zone Authority * Evacuee Trust Property Board ** Pakistan Sikh Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee * Federal Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education * Federal Board of Revenue (Pakistan), Federal Board of Revenue ** Directorate General of Intelligence and Investigation * Federal Directorate of Education * Federal Employees Benevolent and Group Insurance Fund * Federal Flood Commission * Federal Government Employees Housing Foundation * Federal Investigation Agency * National Response Centre for Cyber Crime * Federal Land Commission * Federal Ombudsman of Pakistan * Federal Public Service Commission ** Civil Services Academy Lahore, Civil Services Academy * Federal Judicial Academy (Pakistan), Federal Judicial Academy * Financial Monitoring Unit * Fisheries Development Board * Foreign Service of Pakistan ** Foreign Service Academy * Frontier Constabulary * Frontier Corps ** Bajaur Scouts ** Chagai Militia ** Chitral Scouts ** Gilgit Baltistan Scouts ** Kharan Rifles ** Khyber Rifles ** Zhob Militia * The Gazette of Pakistan, Gazette of Pakistan * Geological Survey of Pakistan * Global Change Impact Studies Centre * Government Holdings Private Limited * Government Shipping Office * Gwadar Port, Gwadar Port Authority * Heavy Electrical Complex * Heavy Industries Taxila * Higher Education Commission of Pakistan * Human Organ Transplant Authority * Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan * Ignite National Technology Fund * Institute of Bankers Pakistan * Indus River System Authority * Institute of Regional Studies * Intellectual Property Organisation of Pakistan * Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan * Institute of Cost and Management Accountants of Pakistan * Institute of Optronics * Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad * Intelligence Bureau (Pakistan), Intelligence Bureau * Inter-Services Intelligence * Inter-State Gas Systems Limited * Iqbal Academy Pakistan, Iqbal Academy *ICT Administration, Islamabad Capital Territory Administration ** Capital Territory Police, Islamabad Police *** Islamabad Traffic Police * Karachi Shipyard, Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works * Karachi Port Trust * Khan Research Laboratories * Lakhara Coal Development Company * Law and Justice Commission of Pakistan * Livestock and Dairy Development Board * Management Services Wing * Marine Fisheries Department * Maritime Security Agency * Mercantile Marine Department * Cantonments (Pakistan), Military Lands and Cantonments Department * Military Vehicles Research and Development Establishment * National Academy for Prisons Administration * National Academy of Performing Arts (Pakistan), National Academy of Performing Arts * National Accountability Bureau * National Archives of Pakistan * National Bioethics Committee * National Book Foundation * National Command Authority (Pakistan) ** Centre of Excellence for Nuclear Security ** Strategic Plans Division Force * National Commission for Child Welfare and Development * National Commission for Government Reforms * National Commission for Human Development ** Pakistan Human Development Fund * National Commission for Human Rights * National Commission on the Status of Women * National Counter Terrorism Authority * National Crises Management Cell * National Database and Registration Authority * National Disaster Management Authority (Pakistan), National Disaster Management Authority ** National Institute of Disaster Management * National Education Assessment System * National Education Foundation * National Electric Power Regulatory Authority * National Energy Conservation Centre * National Engineering and Scientific Commission ** Air Weapons Complex ** National Development Complex * NESPAK, National Engineering Services Pakistan * National Fertilizer Corporation * National Fertilizer Marketing Limited * National Forensic Science Agency * National Highway Authority * National Highways & Motorway Police, National Highways and Motorway Police * National Industrial Parks Development and Management Company * National Industrial Relations Commission * National Information Technology Board * National Institute of Electronics (Pakistan), National Institute of Electronics * Lok Virsa Museum, National Institute of Folk and Traditional Heritage * National Institute of Health (Pakistan), National Institute of Health * National Institute of Oceanography (Pakistan), National Institute of Oceanography ** Pakistan Antarctic Programme * National Institute of Population Studies * National Institute of Science and Technical Education * National Insurance Company * National Intelligence Directorate (Pakistan), National Intelligence Directorate * National Language Promotion Department * National Library of Pakistan * National Logistics Cell * National Museum of Pakistan * National Police Academy of Pakistan, National Police Academy * National Police Bureau * National Productivity Organization * National Radio Telecommunications Corporation * National School of Public Policy * National Security Council (Pakistan), National Security Council * National Telecommunication Corporation (Pakistan), National Telecommunication Corporation * National Textile University * National Tariff Commission * National Training Bureau * National Transmission & Despatch Company, National Transmission and Despatch Company * National Transport Research Centre * National University of Sciences and Technology (Pakistan), National University of Sciences and Technology * National Veterinary Lab * National Vocational and Technical Training Commission * Oil and Gas Development Company * Oil and Gas Regulatory Authority * Overseas Employment Corporation * Overseas Pakistani#Overseas Pakistanis Foundation, Overseas Pakistanis Foundation * Pakistan Academy for Rural Development * Pakistan Academy of Letters * Pakistan Aeronautical Complex * Pakistan Agricultural Research Council ** National Agricultural Research Centre * Pakistan Agricultural Storage and Services Corporation * Pak-Arab Refinery, Pak-Arab Refinery Company *
Pakistan Armed Forces The Pakistan Armed Forces (; ) are the Military, combined military forces of Pakistan. It is the List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel, world's sixth-largest military measured by Active duty, active military personn ...
** Inter-Services Public Relations ** Inter Services Selection Board ** National Defence University, Pakistan, National Defence University *** Institute for Strategic Studies, Research and Analysis ** Pakistan Air Force *** Air Intelligence *** Pakistan Air Force Academy ** Pakistan Army *** Defence Housing Authority *** Frontier Works Organisation *** Military Intelligence (Pakistan), Military Intelligence *** Pakistan Military Academy ** Pakistan Navy *** Naval Intelligence (Pakistan), Naval Intelligence *** Pakistan Marines *** Pakistan Naval Academy * Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission ** Chashma Nuclear Power Plant#Nuclear Engineering Training center, CHASNUPP Center for Nuclear Training ** KANUPP Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering ** National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering ** Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology ** Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture ** Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology * Pakistan Bait-ul-Mal * Pakistan Bar Council * Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation * Pakistan Bureau of Statistics * Pakistan Coast Guards * Pakistan Commissioner for Indus Waters * Pakistan Cotton Standards Institute * Pakistan Council for Architects and Town Planners * Pakistan Council for Renewable Energy Technologies * Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources * Pakistan Council for Science and Technology ** National Commission for Science and Technology * Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research * Pakistan Cricket Board * Pakistan Customs * Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority * Pakistan Engineering Company * Pakistan Engineering Council * Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency * Pakistan Gems and Jewellery Development Company * Pakistan Horticulture Development and Export Company * Pakistan Hunting and Sporting Arms Development Company * Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation * Pakistan Industrial Technical Assistance Centre * Pakistan Infrastructure Bank * Pakistan Institute for Parliamentary Services * Pakistan Institute of Fashion and Design * Pakistan Institute of Management * Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences * Pakistan Institute of Public Finance Accountants * Pakistan Institute of Trade and Development * Pakistan International Airlines, Pakistan International Airlines Corporation * Pakistan LNG Limited * Pakistan LNG Terminals Limited * Pakistan Machine Tool Factory * Pakistan Manpower Institute * Pakistan Marine Academy * Pakistan Medical and Dental Council * Pakistan Health Research Council * Pakistan Meteorological Department ** National Agromet Centre * Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation * Pakistan National Accreditation Council * Pakistan National Commission for UNESCO * Pakistan National Council of the Arts * Pakistan Merchant Navy#Pakistan National Shipping Corporation, Pakistan National Shipping Corporation * Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority * Pakistan Nursing Council * Pakistan Oilseed Development Board * Pakistan Ordnance Factories * Pakistan Petroleum * Pakistan Post * Pakistan Public Works Department * Pakistan Railways ** Pakistan Railways Academy * Pakistan Rangers * Pakistan Reinsurance Company Limited * Pakistan Science Foundation ** Pakistan Museum of Natural History ** Pakistan Scientific and Technological Information Center * Pakistan Software Export Board * Pakistan Sports Board * Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority * Pakistan State Oil * Pakistan Steel Mills * Pakistan Stone Development Company * Pakistan Telecommunication Authority * ptcl, Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited * Pakistan Television Corporation ** PTV Academy * PTDC, Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation * Pakistan Veterinary Medical Council * PHA Foundation * Pharmacy Council of Pakistan * Planning Commission (Pakistan), Planning Commission of Pakistan ** National Fertilizer Development Centre ** Pakistan Institute of Development Economics ** Pakistan Planning and Management Institute * Port Qasim, Port Qasim Authority * Power Information Technology Company * Press Council of Pakistan * Printing Corporation of Pakistan * Private Educational Institution Regulatory Authority * Private Power and Infrastructure Board * Public Private Partnership Authority * Public Procurement Regulatory Authority * Quaid-i-Azam Academy, Quaid-e-Azam Academy * Quaid-e-Azam Mazar Management Board * Ruet-e-Hilal Committee * Saindak Metals Limited * Secretariat Training Institute * Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan * Pakistan Small and Medium Enterprise Development Authority, Small and Medium Enterprise Development Authority * Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission, Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission of Pakistan ** Institute of Space and Planetary Astrophysics *** KU Observatory ** Institute of Space Technology ** Pakistan Mission Control Centre ** SUPARCO Satellite Ground Station, Satellite Ground Station ** Sonmiani (space facility), Sonmiani Spaceport ** Tilla Satellite Launch Centre * Special Communications Organization * Staff Welfare Organization * State Bank of Pakistan ** National Institute of Banking and Finance (Pakistan), National Institute of Banking and Finance ** Pakistan Mint * State Life Insurance Corporation of Pakistan * Strategic Export Control Division * Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited * Sui Southern Gas Company * Survey of Pakistan * Technology Upgradation and Skill Development Company * Textile Commissioner's Organization * Trade Development Authority (Pakistan), Trade Development Authority of Pakistan * Trade Dispute Resolution Organization * Trading Corporation of Pakistan * Utility Stores Corporation * Virtual University of Pakistan * Metallurgical Laboratory (Wah), Wah Metallurgical Laboratory * Water and Power Development Authority * Workers Welfare Fund * Zarai Taraqiati Bank Limited * Zoological Survey Department of Pakistan, Zoological Survey Department


Issues


Corruption


See also

* Ministry of Finance of the Government of Pakistan * Grade 22 * Statistics Division of the Government of Pakistan * Federal Bureau of Statistics of the Government of Pakistan * Pakistan Institute of International Affairs * Gazette of Pakistan * Economic Coordination Committee * Types of Government Servants in Pakistan * List of provincial governments of Pakistan


References


External links

* * * * *
YouTube channel

The President of Pakistan

Senate of Pakistan

National Assembly of Pakistan

Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan

Supreme Court of Pakistan

List of E-Services provided by Government of Pakistan
{{DEFAULTSORT:Government of Pakistan Government of Pakistan, Asian governments Pakistan federal departments and agencies, *