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Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("
the gospel #REDIRECT The gospel#REDIRECT The gospel In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jes ...
"), but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was set out. In this sense a gospel can be defined as a loose-knit, episodic narrative of the words and deeds of
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it ...

Jesus
, culminating in his trial and death and concluding with various reports of his post-resurrection appearances. The four canonical gospels were probably written between AD 66 and 110. All four were anonymous (the modern names were added in the 2nd century), almost certainly none were by eyewitnesses, and all are the end-products of long
oral The word oral may refer to: Relating to the mouth * Relating to the mouth, the first portion of the alimentary canal that primarily receives food and liquid **Oral administration of medicines ** Oral examination (also known as an oral exam or oral ...
and written transmission.
Mark Mark may refer to: Currency * Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark The Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark (Bosnian Bosnian may refer to: *Anything related to the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina or its inhabitants *Anything related to Bo ...
was the first to be written, using a variety of sources; the authors of Matthew and Luke, acting independently, used Mark for their narrative of Jesus's career, supplementing it with the collection of sayings called the
Q document The Q source (also called Q document, Q Gospel, or Q from german: Quelle, meaning "source") is a hypothetical written collection of primarily Jesus Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, '' Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 BC AD 30 / 33 ...
and additional material unique to each; and there is a near-consensus that
John John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) * John (surname), including a list of people who have the name John John may also refer to: New Testament Works ...
had its origins as a "signs" source (or gospel) that circulated within a
Johannine community The term Johannine community refers to a hypothetical ancient Christian community, which placed great emphasis on the teachings of Jesus Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, '' Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 BC AD 30 / 33), also ref ...
. The contradictions and discrepancies between the first three and John make it impossible to accept both traditions as equally reliable. Modern scholars are cautious of relying on the gospels uncritically, but nevertheless, they do provide a good idea of the public career of Jesus, and critical study can attempt to distinguish the original ideas of Jesus from those of the later authors. Many non-canonical gospels were also written, all later than the four canonical gospels, and like them advocating the particular theological views of their various authors. Important examples include the
Gospel of Thomas The Gospel of Thomas (also known as the Coptic Gospel of Thomas) is an extra-canonical sayings gospel. It was discovered near Nag Hammadi Nag Hammadi ( ; ar, نجع حمادى ) is a city in Upper Egypt Upper Egypt ( ar, صعيد م ...

Gospel of Thomas
, the
Gospel of Peter The Gospel of Peter ( el, κατά Πέτρον ευαγγέλιον, ''kata Petron euangelion''), or Gospel according to Peter, is an ancient text concerning Jesus Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, '' Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 ...

Gospel of Peter
, the
Gospel of Judas The Gospel of Judas is a non-canonical Gnostic gospel The Nag Hammadi library (also known as the "Chenoboskion Manuscripts" and the "Gnostic Gospels") is a collection of early Christian and Gnostic texts discovered near the Upper Egyptian tow ...
, the
Gospel of Mary The Gospel of Mary is a book considered non-canonical in Christian orthodoxy discovered in 1896 in a 5th-century papyrus Papyrus ( ) is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface. It was made from th ...

Gospel of Mary
,
infancy gospelsInfancy gospels (Greek: ''protoevangelion'') are a genre of religious texts that arose in the 2nd century. They are part of New Testament apocrypha, and provide accounts of the birth and early life of Jesus. The texts are of various and uncertain or ...
such as the
Gospel of James ''Annunciation to Joachim and Anna'', fresco by Gaudenzio Ferrari, 1544–45 (detail) The Gospel of James (or the Protoevangelium of James)The original title was "The Birth of Mary"; it has many names, including the "Infancy Gospel of James", the ...
(the first to introduce the
perpetual virginity of Mary The perpetual virginity of Mary is one of the four Marian dogmas of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the world's oldest and largest conti ...
), and gospel harmonies such as the
Diatessaron The ''Diatessaron'' ( syr, ܐܘܢܓܠܝܘܢ ܕܡܚܠܛܐ, Ewangeliyôn Damhalltê; c. 160–175 AD) is the most prominent early , and was created by , an and ascetic. Tatian sought to combine all the textual material he found in the four s— ...
.


Etymology

''Gospel'' is the
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
translation of
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
, meaning "good news"; this may be seen from analysis of ( "good" + "messenger" +
diminutive A diminutive is a root word A root (or root word) is the core of a word that is irreducible into more meaningful elements. In morphology, a root is a morphologically simple unit which can be left bare or to which a prefix A prefix is an aff ...
suffix). The Greek term was
Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s and 1930s to replace traditional writing sy ...
as in the
Vulgate The Vulgate (; also called , ) is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, ...
, and translated into
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
as . In Old English, it was translated as ( "good" + "news"). The Old English term was retained as in
Middle English Bible translations Middle English Bible translations (1066-1500) covers the age of Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century ...
and hence remains in use also in
Modern English Modern English (sometimes New English or NE (ME) as opposed to Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th cen ...

Modern English
.


Canonical gospels


Contents

The four canonical gospels share the same basic outline of the life of Jesus: he begins his public ministry in conjunction with that of
John the Baptist John the Baptist ''Yohanān HaMatbil''; la, Ioannes Baptista; grc-gre, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, ''Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs'' or , ''Iōánnēs ho baptízōn'', or , ''Iōánnēs ho pródromos'';Wetterau, Bruce. ''World history' ...

John the Baptist
, calls disciples, teaches and heals and confronts the
Pharisees The Pharisees (; Hebrew: ''Pərūšīm'') were a social movement and a school of thought in the Levant during the time of Second Temple Judaism. After the Siege of Jerusalem (AD 70), destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, Pharisaic belie ...
, dies on the cross, and is raised from the dead. Each has its own distinctive understanding of him and his divine role and scholars recognise that the differences of detail between the gospels are irreconcilable, and any attempt to harmonise them would only disrupt their distinct theological messages. Mark never calls him "God" or claims that he existed prior to his earthly life, apparently believes that he had a normal human parentage and birth, makes no attempt to trace his ancestry back to
King David David (; ) (traditional spelling), , ''Dāwūd''; grc-koi, Δαυΐδ, Dauíd; la, Davidus, David; gez , ዳዊት, ''Dawit''; xcl, Դաւիթ, ''Dawitʿ''; cu, Давíдъ, ''Davidŭ''; possibly meaning "beloved one". is described in th ...
or
Adam Adam (; Aramaic Aramaic (: ''Arāmāyā''; : ; : ; ) is a language that originated among the in the ancient , at the end of the , and later became one of the most prominent languages of the . During its three thousand years long his ...

Adam
, and originally had no post-resurrection appearances, although Mark 16:7, in which the young man discovered in the tomb instructs the women to tell "the disciples and Peter" that Jesus will see them again in Galilee, hints that the author knew of the tradition. Matthew and Luke base their narratives of the life of Jesus on that in Mark, but each makes subtle changes, Matthew stressing Jesus's divine nature – for example, the "young man" who appears at Jesus' tomb in Mark becomes a radiant angel in Matthew. Similarly, the miracle stories in Mark confirm Jesus' status as an emissary of God (which was Mark's understanding of the Messiah), but in Matthew they demonstrate divinity. Luke, while following Mark's plot more faithfully than does Matthew, has expanded on the source, corrected Mark's grammar and syntax, and eliminated some passages entirely, notably most of chapters 6 and 7. John, the most overtly theological, is the first to make Christological judgements outside the context of the narrative of Jesus's life. Matthew, Mark and Luke are termed the
synoptic gospels The gospel Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel#REDIRECT The gospel In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testame ...
because they present very similar accounts of the life of Jesus while John presents a significantly different picture of Jesus's career, omitting any mention of his ancestry, birth and childhood, his
baptism Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian rite of initiation, admission and Adoption (theology), adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity. It may be pe ...

baptism
,
temptation Temptation is a desire to engage in short-term urges for enjoyment that threatens long-term goals.Webb, J.R. (Sep 2014). Incorporating Spirituality into Psychology of temptation: Conceptualization, measurement, and clinical implications. Spi ...
and transfiguration. John's chronology and arrangement of incidents is also distinctly different, clearly describing the passage of three years in Jesus's ministry in contrast to the single year of the synoptics, placing the
cleansing of the Temple The cleansing of the Temple narrative tells of Jesus expelling the merchants and the money changers from the Second Temple, Temple, and occurs in all four canonical gospels of the New Testament. The scene is a common motif in Christian art. In t ...
at the beginning rather than at the end, and the
Last Supper Image:The Last Supper - Leonardo Da Vinci - High Resolution 32x16.jpg, 500px, alt=''The Last Supper'' by Leonardo da Vinci - Clickable Image, Depictions of the Last Supper in Christian art have been undertaken by artistic masters for centuries, ...

Last Supper
on the day before
Passover Passover, also called Pesach (; he, פֶּסַח '), is a major Jewish holiday Jewish holidays, also known as Jewish festivals or ''Yamim Tovim'' ( he, ימים טובים, , Good Days, or singular , in transliterated Translitera ...
instead of being a Passover meal. The Gospel of John is the only gospel to call Jesus God. In contrast to Mark, where Jesus hides his identity as messiah, in John he openly proclaims it.


Composition

Like the rest of the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
, the four gospels were written in Greek. The Gospel of Mark probably dates from c. AD 66–70, Matthew and Luke around AD 85–90, and John AD 90–110. Despite the traditional ascriptions, all four are anonymous and most scholars agree that none were written by eyewitnesses. A few conservative scholars defend the traditional ascriptions or attributions, but for a variety of reasons the majority of scholars have abandoned this view or hold it only tenuously. In the immediate aftermath of Jesus' death his followers expected him to return at any moment, certainly within their own lifetimes, and in consequence there was little motivation to write anything down for future generations, but as eyewitnesses began to die, and as the missionary needs of the church grew, there was an increasing demand and need for written versions of the founder's life and teachings. The stages of this process can be summarised as follows: * Oral traditions – stories and sayings passed on largely as separate self-contained units, not in any order; * Written collections of miracle stories, parables, sayings, etc., with oral tradition continuing alongside these; * Written proto-gospels preceding and serving as sources for the gospels – the dedicatory preface of Luke, for example, testifies to the existence of previous accounts of the life of Jesus. * Gospels formed by combining proto-gospels, written collections and still-current oral tradition. Mark is generally agreed to be the first gospel; it uses a variety of sources, including conflict stories (Mark 2:1–3:6), apocalyptic discourse (4:1–35), and collections of sayings, although not the sayings gospel known as the
Gospel of Thomas The Gospel of Thomas (also known as the Coptic Gospel of Thomas) is an extra-canonical sayings gospel. It was discovered near Nag Hammadi Nag Hammadi ( ; ar, نجع حمادى ) is a city in Upper Egypt Upper Egypt ( ar, صعيد م ...

Gospel of Thomas
and probably not the
Q source The Q source (also called Q document, Q Gospel, or Q from german: Quelle, meaning "source") is a hypothetical A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation An explanation is a set of statements usually constructed to desc ...
used by Matthew and Luke. The authors of Matthew and Luke, acting independently, used Mark for their narrative of Jesus's career, supplementing it with the collection of sayings called the
Q document The Q source (also called Q document, Q Gospel, or Q from german: Quelle, meaning "source") is a hypothetical written collection of primarily Jesus Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, '' Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 BC AD 30 / 33 ...
and additional material unique to each called the
M source M source, which is sometimes referred to as M document, or simply M, comes from the M in "Matthean material". It is a hypothetical textual source for the Gospel of Matthew The Gospel according to Matthew ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ ...
(Matthew) and the
L source In textual criticism of the New Testament Textual criticism of the New Testament is the textual criticism, analysis of the manuscripts of the New Testament, whose goals include identification of transcription errors, analysis of versions, and att ...
(Luke). Mark, Matthew and Luke are called the
synoptic gospels The gospel Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel#REDIRECT The gospel In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testame ...
because of the close similarities between them in terms of content, arrangement, and language. The authors and editors of John may have known the synoptics, but did not use them in the way that Matthew and Luke used Mark. There is a near-consensus that this gospel had its origins as a "signs" source (or gospel) that circulated within the
Johannine community The term Johannine community refers to a hypothetical ancient Christian community, which placed great emphasis on the teachings of Jesus Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, '' Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 BC AD 30 / 33), also ref ...
(the community that produced John and the three epistles associated with the name), later expanded with a Passion narrative and a series of discourses. All four also use the Jewish scriptures, by quoting or referencing passages, or by interpreting texts, or by alluding to or echoing biblical themes. Such use can be extensive: Mark's description of the
Parousia Parousia (; el, παρουσία) is an ancient Greek word meaning presence, arrival, or official visit. Classical usage From the Ptolemaic period to the second century of the common era "parousia" was used in the East as a technical expression t ...
(second coming) is made up almost entirely of quotations from scripture. Matthew is full of quotations and
allusion Allusion is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persua ...
s, and although John uses scripture in a far less explicit manner, its influence is still pervasive. Their source was the Greek version of the scriptures, called the
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals Roman numerals are a that originated in and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe wel ...
– they do not seem familiar with the original Hebrew.


Genre and historical reliability

The consensus among modern scholars is that the gospels are a subset of the ancient genre of ''bios'', or
ancient biography''Ancient biography'', or ''bios'', as distinct from modern biography, was a genre of Greek (and Roman) literature interested in describing the goals, achievements, failures, and character of ancient historical persons and whether or not they should ...
. Ancient biographies were concerned with providing examples for readers to emulate while preserving and promoting the subject's reputation and memory; the gospels were never simply biographical, they were
propaganda Propaganda is communication that is primarily used to Social influence, influence an audience and further an Political agenda, agenda, which may not be Objectivity (journalism), objective and may be selectively presenting facts to encourage a pa ...
and ''
kerygma Kerygma (from the ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: ...
'' (preaching). As such, they present the Christian message of the second half of the first century AD, and as Luke's attempt to link the birth of Jesus to the
census of Quirinius The Census of Quirinius was a census of Judea Judea or Judaea, and the modern version of Judah (; from he, יהודה, Hebrew language#Modern Hebrew, Standard ''Yəhūda'', Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian ''Yehūḏā''; el, Ἰουδαία ...
demonstrates, there is no guarantee that the gospels are historically accurate. The majority view among critical scholars is that the authors of Matthew and Luke have based their narratives on Mark's gospel, editing him to suit their own ends, and the contradictions and discrepancies between these three and John make it impossible to accept both traditions as equally reliable. In addition, the gospels we read today have been edited and corrupted over time, leading
Origen Origen of Alexandria, ''Ōrigénēs''; Coptic language, Coptic: Ϩⲱⲣⲓⲕⲉⲛ Origen's Greek name ''Ōrigénēs'' () probably means "child of Horus" (from , "Horus", and , "born"). ( 184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was an ...

Origen
to complain in the 3rd century that "the differences among manuscripts have become great, ... ecause copyistseither neglect to check over what they have transcribed, or, in the process of checking, they make additions or deletions as they please". Most of these are insignificant, but many are significant, an example being Matthew 1:18, altered to imply the pre-existence of Jesus. For these reasons modern scholars are cautious of relying on the gospels uncritically, but nevertheless they do provide a good idea of the public career of Jesus, and critical study can attempt to distinguish the original ideas of Jesus from those of the later authors. Scholars usually agree that John is not without historical value: certain of its sayings are as old or older than their synoptic counterparts, its representation of the
topography Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surface Relief map of Sierra Nevada, Spain Terrain or relief (also topographical Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surfaces. The topography of an ...
around
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
is often superior to that of the synoptics, its testimony that Jesus was executed before, rather than on, Passover, might well be more accurate, and its presentation of Jesus in the garden and the prior meeting held by the Jewish authorities are possibly more historically plausible than their synoptic parallels. Nevertheless, it is highly unlikely that the author had direct knowledge of events, or that his mentions of the
Beloved Disciple The phrase "the disciple whom Jesus loved" ( el, ὁ μαθητὴς ὃν ἠγάπα ὁ Ἰησοῦς, ) or, in John 20:2; "the disciple beloved of Jesus" (, ), is used six times in the Gospel of John The Gospel according to John ( el, ...
as his source should be taken as a guarantee of his reliability.


Textual history and canonisation

The oldest gospel text known is , a fragment of John dating from the first half of the 2nd century. The creation of a Christian canon was probably a response to the career of the heretic
Marcion Marcion of Sinope (; Ancient Greek, Greek: ; 85 – c. 160) was an Diversity in early Christian theology, early Christian theologian, an Evangelism, evangelist, and an important figure in early Christianity. Marcion preached that the benevo ...

Marcion
(c. 85–160), who established a canon of his own with just one gospel, the gospel of Luke, which he edited to fit his own theology. The
Muratorian canon The Muratorian fragment, also known as the Muratorian Canon or Canon Muratori, is a copy of perhaps the oldest known list of most of the books of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, trans ...
, the earliest surviving list of books considered (by its own author at least) to form Christian scripture, included Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.
Irenaeus of Lyons Irenaeus (; grc-gre, Εἰρηναῖος ''Eirēnaios''; c. 130 – c. 202 AD) was a Greeks, Greek bishop noted for his role in guiding and expanding Christianity, Christian communities in the southern regions of present-day France and, more ...
went further, stating that there must be four gospels and only four because there were four corners of the Earth and thus the Church should have four pillars.


Non-canonical (apocryphal) gospels

The many apocryphal gospels arose from the 1st century onward, frequently under assumed names to enhance their credibility and authority, and often from within branches of Christianity that were eventually branded heretical. They can be broadly organised into the following categories: *
Infancy gospelsInfancy gospels (Greek: ''protoevangelion'') are a genre of religious texts that arose in the 2nd century. They are part of New Testament apocrypha, and provide accounts of the birth and early life of Jesus. The texts are of various and uncertain or ...
: arose in the 2nd century, include the
Gospel of James ''Annunciation to Joachim and Anna'', fresco by Gaudenzio Ferrari, 1544–45 (detail) The Gospel of James (or the Protoevangelium of James)The original title was "The Birth of Mary"; it has many names, including the "Infancy Gospel of James", the ...
, also called the Protoevangelium, which was the first to introduce the concept of the Perpetual Virginity of Mary, and the
Infancy Gospel of Thomas The ''Infancy Gospel of Thomas'' is a biographical A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a person's life. It involves more than just the basic facts like education, work, relationships, and death; it portrays a person ...
(not to be confused with the unrelated Coptic
Gospel of Thomas The Gospel of Thomas (also known as the Coptic Gospel of Thomas) is an extra-canonical sayings gospel. It was discovered near Nag Hammadi Nag Hammadi ( ; ar, نجع حمادى ) is a city in Upper Egypt Upper Egypt ( ar, صعيد م ...

Gospel of Thomas
), both of which related many miraculous incidents from the life of Mary and the childhood of Jesus that are not included in the canonical gospels. * Ministry gospels * Sayings gospels and agrapha * Passion, resurrection and post-resurrection gospels * Gospel harmonies: in which the four canonical gospels are combined into a single narrative, either to present a consistent text or to produce a more accessible account of Jesus' life. The apocryphal gospels can also be seen in terms of the communities which produced them: * The Jewish-Christian gospels are the products of Christians of Jewish origin who had not given up their Jewish identity: they regarded Jesus as the messiah of the Jewish scripture, but did not agree that he was God, an idea which, although central to Christianity as it eventually developed, is contrary to Jewish beliefs. *
Gnostic Gnosticism (from grc, γνωστικός, gnōstikós, , 'having knowledge') is a collection of religious ideas and systems which coalesced in the late 1st century AD among Judaism, Jewish and Early Christianity, early Christian sects. These ...
gospels uphold the idea that the universe is the product of a hierarchy of gods, of whom the Jewish god is a rather low-ranking member. Gnosticism holds that Jesus was entirely "spirit", and that his earthly life and death were therefore only an appearance, not a reality. Many Gnostic texts deal not in concepts of
sin In a religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecies, ...

sin
and
repentance Repentance is reviewing one's actions and feeling contritionIn Christianity, contrition or contriteness (from the Latin ''contritus'' 'ground to pieces', i.e. crushed by guilt) is repentance for sins one has committed. The remorseful person is s ...
, but with
illusion An illusion is a distortion of the sense A sense is a biological system used by an organism for sensation, the process of gathering information about the world and responding to Stimulus (physiology), stimuli. (For example, in the human body, t ...
and
enlightenment Enlightenment, enlighten or enlightened may refer to: Age of Enlightenment * Age of Enlightenment, period in Western intellectual history from the late 17th to late 18th century, centered in France but also encompassing: ** Midlands Enlightenment ...
. } , - ,
Protoevangelium of James ''Annunciation to Joachim and Anna'', fresco by Gaudenzio Ferrari, 1544–45 (detail) The Gospel of James (or the Protoevangelium of James)The original title was "The Birth of Mary"; it has many names, including the "Infancy Gospel of James", the ...
, , Mid 2nd c. , , Birth and early life of Mary, and birth of Jesus , - ,
Gospel of Marcion Claire Clivaz has speculated that Papyrus 69 could be regarded as "a witness to a Marcionite edition of Luke's Gospel". The Gospel of Marcion, called by its adherents the Gospel of the Lord, was a text used by the mid-2nd-century Christian teache ...
, , Mid 2nd c. , ,
Marcion of Sinope Marcion of Sinope (; Greek: ; 85 – c. 160) was an early Christian theologian, evangelist, and an important figure in early Christianity The history of Christianity concerns the Christianity, Christian religion, Christendom, Christi ...
, c. 150, had a much shorter version of the gospel of Luke, differing substantially from what has now become the standard text of the gospel and far less oriented towards the Jewish scriptures. Marcion's critics said that he had edited out the portions of Luke he did not like, though Marcion argued that his was the more genuinely original text. He is said to have rejected all other gospels, including those of Matthew, Mark and especially John, which he alleged had been forged by
Irenaeus Irenaeus (; grc-gre, Εἰρηναῖος ''Eirēnaios''; c. 130 – c. 202 AD) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Rep ...
. , - ,
Secret Gospel of Mark The Secret Gospel of Mark or the Mystic Gospel of Mark ( Greek: τοῦ Μάρκου τὸ μυστικὸν εὐαγγέλιον, ''tou Markou to mystikon euangelion''), also the Longer Gospel of Mark, is a putative longer and secret or mystic ver ...
, , Uncertain , , Allegedly a longer version of Mark written for an elect audience , - ,
Gospel of Judas The Gospel of Judas is a non-canonical Gnostic gospel The Nag Hammadi library (also known as the "Chenoboskion Manuscripts" and the "Gnostic Gospels") is a collection of early Christian and Gnostic texts discovered near the Upper Egyptian tow ...
, , Late 2nd c. , , Purports to tell the story of the gospel from the perspective of Judas, the disciple who is usually said to have betrayed Jesus. It paints an unusual picture of the relationship between Jesus and Judas, in that it appears to interpret Judas's act not as betrayal, but rather as an act of obedience to the instructions of Jesus. The text was recovered from a cave in Egypt by a thief and thereafter sold on the black market until it was finally discovered by a collector who, with the help of academics from Yale and Princeton, was able to verify its authenticity. The document itself does not claim to have been authored by Judas (it is, rather, a gospel about Judas), and is known to date to at least 180 AD. , - ,
Gospel of Barnabas The Gospel of Barnabas is a book depicting the life of Jesus, which claims to be by the biblical Barnabas Barnabas (; Aramaic: ܒܪ ܐܒܐ; Greek language, Greek: Βαρνάβας), born Joseph, was according to tradition an early Christians, C ...
, , 14th–16th c. , , Contradicts the ministry of Jesus in canonical New Testament and strongly denies Pauline doctrine, but has clear parallels with Islam, mentioning Muhammad as Messenger of God. Jesus identifies himself as a prophet, not the son of God.


See also

* Agrapha *
Apocalyptic literature Apocalyptic literature is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usage, it normally describes a Category ...
* ''
The Aquarian Gospel of Jesus the Christ The ''Aquarian Gospel of Jesus the Christ'' (full title: ''The Aquarian Gospel of Jesus the Christ: The Philosophic and Practical Basis of the Religion of the Aquarian Age of the World and of the Church Universal'') is a book by Levi H. Dowling. It ...
'' *
Authorship of the Bible Table I gives an overview of the periods and dates ascribed to the various books of the Bible. Tables II, III and IV outline the conclusions of the majority of contemporary scholars on the composition of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or ...
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Bodmer Papyri The Bodmer Papyri are a group of twenty-two papyri Papyrus ( ) is a material similar to thick paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically or chemically processing cellulose fibres derived from wood, Textile, rags, p ...
* Dating the Bible * Fifth gospel (genre) *
The gospel #REDIRECT The gospel#REDIRECT The gospel In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jes ...
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Gospel (liturgy) The Gospel in Christian liturgy Christian liturgy is a pattern for worship used (whether recommended or prescribed) by a Christian congregation or denomination on a regular basis. The term liturgy Liturgy is the customary public worship perfo ...
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Gospel harmony A gospel harmony is an attempt to compile the canonical gospels of the Christianity, Christian New Testament into a single account. This may take the form either of a single, merged narrative, or a tabular format with one column for each gospel, t ...
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Gospel in Islam Injil ( ar, wikt:إنجيل, إنجيل, ʾInjīl, alternative spellings: ''Ingil'' or ''Injeel'') is the Arabic name for the The gospel, Gospel of Jesus Jesus in Islam, (Isa). This ''Injil'' is described by the Qur'an as one of the four Islamic ...
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Gospel of Marcion Claire Clivaz has speculated that Papyrus 69 could be regarded as "a witness to a Marcionite edition of Luke's Gospel". The Gospel of Marcion, called by its adherents the Gospel of the Lord, was a text used by the mid-2nd-century Christian teache ...
* Jesusism *
Jewish-Christian gospels Jewish Christians ( he, יהודים נוצרים, yehudim notzrim) were the followers of a Jewish religious sect that emerged in Judea Judea or Judaea, and the modern version of Judah (; from he, יהודה, Hebrew language#Modern Hebrew ...


Notes


References


Citations


Bibliography

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External links


A detailed discussion of the textual variants in the gospels
nbsp;– covering about 1200 variants on 2000 pages.

nbsp;– the Greek text of the New Testament: specifically the Westcott-Hort text from 1881, combined with the NA26/27 variants.

A web tool for finding corresponding passages in the Gospels {{Authority control Christian genres
Christian terminology Words or phrases used to refer to concepts associated with Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings o ...
Greek-language books