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Judaism Judaism ( he, יהדות, ''Yahadut''; originally from Hebrew , ''Yehudah'', "Kingdom of Judah, Judah", via Ancient Greek, Greek ''Ioudaismos''; the term itself is of Anglo-Latin origin c. 1400) is an Abrahamic primarily ethnic religion co ...
,
God
God
has been conceived in a variety of ways. Traditionally, Judaism holds that Yahweh, the God of
Abraham
Abraham
, Isaac, and
Jacob Jacob (; ; ar, يَعْقُوب '' Yaʿqūb'', gr, Ἰακώβ, ''Iakṓb''), later given the name Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِسْرَائِيل), officially known as the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַ ...
and the national god of the
Israelites The Israelites (; he, בני ישראל ''Bnei Yisra'el'') were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the history of ancient Israel and Judah, tribal and monarchi ...
, delivered the Israelites from slavery in Egypt, and gave them the Law of Moses at biblical Mount Sinai as described in the
Torah Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses) of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: ...
. According to the rationalist stream of Judaism articulated by Maimonides, which later came to dominate much of official traditional Jewish thought, God is understood as the absolute one, indivisible, and incomparable being who is the Creator deity and cause of all existence. God is omnipresent, and therefore incorporeal and purely spiritual. Maimonides affirmed Aristotle's conception of God as the unmoved mover, while correcting several of the latter's philosophical errors such as denial of God as creator and affirmation of the world's eternality. Traditional interpretations of Judaism generally emphasize that God is personal god, personal yet also transcendence (religion), transcendent, while some modern interpretations of Judaism emphasize that God is a force or ideal. The Names of God in Judaism, names of God used most often in the Hebrew Bible are the Tetragrammaton (''YHWH'' Hebrew: ) and Elohim. Other names of God in traditional Judaism include El Shaddai and Shekhinah.


Names

The name of God used most often in the Hebrew Bible is the Tetragrammaton (YHWH he, יהוה). Jews traditionally do not pronounce it, and instead refer to God as ''Names and Titles of God in Judaism#HaShem, HaShem'', literally "the Name". In prayer the Tetragrammaton is substituted with the pronunciation Names of God in Judaism#Adonai, Adonai, meaning "My Lord".


From an Iron Age local god to monotheism

The national god of the Iron Age kingdoms of Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), Israel and Kingdom of Judah, Judah was Yahweh. The precise origins of this god are disputed by skeptical scholars, although they reach back to the early Iron Age and even the Bronze Age, late Bronze Age. The name may have begun as an epithet of El (deity), El, head of the Bronze Age Canaanite pantheon#Pantheon, Canaanite pantheon, but earlier mentions are in Ancient Egyptian literature, Ancient Egyptian texts that place God among the nomads of the southern Transjordan (region), Transjordan. No consensus has been reached by academic skeptics on the origins of monotheism in ancient Israel, but "Yahweh clearly came out of the world of the gods of the Ancient Near East." After evolving from its monolatristic roots, Judaism became strictly monotheism, monotheistic. There is a consensus in orthodox
Judaism Judaism ( he, יהדות, ''Yahadut''; originally from Hebrew , ''Yehudah'', "Kingdom of Judah, Judah", via Ancient Greek, Greek ''Ioudaismos''; the term itself is of Anglo-Latin origin c. 1400) is an Abrahamic primarily ethnic religion co ...
that the God who appeared to Moses and brought Israel's the Exodus, exodus from of Egypt, is the same God worshiped by the universal human ancestors Adam, Eve, and Noah as Elohim and by as El Shaddai, as recounted in the book of Genesis. As God said to Moses at the Burning Bush in the book of Exodus chapter 3, ''“Thus shall you speak to the Israelites: The tetragrammaton, LORD, Elohim, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you: This shall be My name forever, This My appellation for all eternity.'' The worship of multiple gods (polytheism) and the concept of God having multiple persons (as in the doctrine of Trinity) are equally unimaginable in Judaism. The idea of God as a Dualistic cosmology, duality or trinity is heretical in Judaism – it is considered akin to polytheism. Since, according to the mystical conception, all of existence emanates from God, whose ultimate existence is not dependent on anything else, some Hakham, Jewish sages perceived God as interpenetrating the universe, which itself has been thought to be a manifestation of God's existence. According to this line of theological speculation, Judaism can be regarded as being compatible with panentheism, while always affirming genuine monotheism. Kabbalah, Kabbalistic tradition holds that the divine consists of ten ''sefirot'' (attributes or Emanationism, emanations). This has been described as a strand of Judaism which may seem at odds with Jewish commitments to strict monotheism, but Kabbalists have consistently emphasized that their traditions are strictly monotheistic. Any belief that an intermediary between humanity and God could be used, whether necessary or even optional, has traditionally been considered heretical. Maimonides writes that Some rabbinic authorities disagreed with this view. Notably, Nachmanides was of the opinion that it is permitted to ask the angels to beseech God on our behalf. This argument manifests notably in the Selichot prayer called "Machnisay Rachamim", a request to the angels to intercede with God.


Godhead

Godhead refers to the aspect or substratum of that lies behind God's actions or properties (i.e., it is the essence of God).


Rationalistic conception

In the philosophy of Maimonides and other Jewish-rationalistic philosophers, there is little which can be known about the Godhead, other than its existence, and even this can only be asserted equivocally.


Kabbalistic conception

In Kabbalistic thought, the term "Godhead" usually refers to the concept of ''Ein Sof '' (אין סוף), which is the aspect of God that lies beyond the emanations (''sephirot''). The "knowability" of the Godhead in Kabbalistic thought is no better than what is conceived by rationalist thinkers. As Jacobs (1973) puts it, "Of God as God is in Godself—Ein Sof—nothing can be said at all, and no thought can reach there".


Properties which are attributed to God

In modern articulations of traditional Judaism, God has been speculated to be the Eternity, eternal, omnipotent and omniscient Creator god, creator of the universe, and the source of morality.


Creative

Maimonides describes God in this fashion: "The foundation of all foundations and the pillar of wisdom is to know that there is a Primary Being who brought into being all existence. All the beings of the heavens, the earth, and what is between them came into existence only from the truth of His being."


Omniscient

Jews often describe God as omniscient,"Jewish Beliefs about God" in ''C/JEEP Curriculum Guide'' American Jewish Committee
/ref> although some prominent medieval Jewish philosophers held that God does not have complete foreknowledge of human acts. Gersonides, for example, argued that God knows the choices open to each individual, but that God does not know the choices that an individual will make. Abraham ibn Daud believed that God was not omniscient or omnipotent with respect to human action.


Omnipotent

Jews often describe God as omnipotent, and see that idea as rooted in the Hebrew Bible. Some modern Jewish theologians have argued that God is not omnipotent, however, and have found many biblical and classical sources to support this view. The traditonal view is that God has the power to intervene in the world.


Omnipresent

''"That the Lord, He is God in heaven above and upon the earth beneath"'' (Deut. 4.39) Maimonides infers from this verse that the Holy One is omnipresent and therefore incorporeal, for ''a corporeal being is incapable of being in two places simultaneously.''


Incorporeal and non-gendered

''"To whom will ye liken me, that I should be equal?"'' (Isa. 40,25) Maimonides infers from this verse that, ''had He been corporeal, He would be like other bodies'' Although God is referred to in the Tanakh with masculine imagery and grammatical forms, traditional Jewish philosophy does not attribute gender of God in Judaism, gender to God. Although Jewish aggadah, aggadic literature and Jewish mysticism do on occasion refer to God using gendered language, for poetic or other reasons, this language was never understood by Jews to imply that God is gender-specific. Some modern Jewish thinkers take care to articulate God outside of the gender binary, a concept seen as not applicable to God. Kabbalistic tradition holds that emanations from the divine consist of ten Aspect (religion), aspects, called ''sefirot''.


Unimaginable

The
Torah Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses) of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: ...
often ascribes human features to God, however, many other passages describes God as formless and otherworldly. Judaism is aniconism, aniconic, meaning it overly lacks material, physical representations of both the natural and supernatural worlds. Furthermore, the worship of idols is strictly forbidden. The traditional view, elaborated by figures such as Maimonides, reckons that God is wholly incomprehensible and therefore impossible to envision, resulting in a historical tradition of "divine incorporeality". As such, attempting to describe God's "appearance" in practical terms is considered disrespectful to the deity and thus is deeply taboo, and arguably heretical.


Morally Good


Conceptions of God


Personal

Most of classical Judaism views God as a personal god, meaning that humans can have a relationship with God and vice versa. Rabbi Samuel S. Cohon wrote that "God as conceived by Judaism is not only the First Cause, the Creative Power, and the World Reason, but also the living and loving Father of Men. He is not only cosmic but also personal....Jewish monotheism thinks of God in terms of definite character or personality, while pantheism is content with a view of God as impersonal." This is shown in the Jewish liturgy, such as in the Adon Olam hymn, which includes a "confident affirmation" that "He is my God, my living God...Who hears and answers."Samuel S. Cohon. ''What We Jews Believe'' (1931). Union of American Hebrew Congregations. Edward Kessler writes that Hebrew Bible "portrays an encounter with a God who cares passionately and who addresses humanity in the quiet moments of its existence."Edward Kessler, ''What Do Jews Believe?: The Customs and Culture of Modern Judaism'' (2007). Bloomsbury Publishing: pp. 42-44. List of Chief Rabbis of the United Hebrew Congregations, British chief rabbi Jonathan Sacks suggests that God "is not distant in time or detached, but passionately engaged and present". The "predicate 'personal' as applied to God" does not necessarily mean that God is Incorporeality, corporeal or Anthropomorphism, anthropomorphic, views that Jewish sages sometimes rejected; rather, "personality" refers not to physicality, but to "inner essence, psychical, rational, and moral". However, other traditional Jewish texts, for example, the Shi'ur Qomah of the Merkabah mysticism, Heichalot literature, describe the measurements of limbs and body parts of God. Jews believe that "God can be experienced" but also that "God cannot be understood," because "God is utterly unlike humankind" (as shown in God's response to Moses when Moses asked for God's name: "I Am that I Am"). Anthropomorphic statements about God "are understood as linguistic metaphors, otherwise it would be impossible to talk about God at all". According to some speculations in traditional Judaism, people's actions do not have the ability to affect God positively or negatively. The Book of Job in the Hebrew Bible states: "Gaze at the heavens and see, and view the skies, which are higher than you. If you sinned, how do you harm God, and if your transgressions are many, what do you do to God? If you are righteous, what do you give God? Or what does God take from your hand? Your wickedness [affects] a person like yourself, and your righteousness a child of humanity." However, a corpus of traditional Kabbalah, Kabbalistic texts describe theurgic practices that manipulate the supernal realms, and Practical Kabbalah (Hebrew: קבלה מעשית‬) texts instruct adepts in the use of white magic. A notion that God is in need of human beings has been propounded by Abraham Joshua Heschel. Because God is in search of people, God is accessible and available through time and place to whoever seeks Him, leading to a spiritual intensity for the individual as well. This accessibility leads to a God who is present, involved, near, intimate, and concerned for and vulnerable to what happens in this world.


Non-personal

Although the dominant strain in Judaism is that God is personal, modern Jewish thinkers claim that there is an "alternate stream of tradition exemplified by ... Maimonides", who, along with several other Jewish philosophers, rejected the idea of a personal God. Modern Jewish thinkers who have rejected the idea of a personal God have sometimes affirmed that God is nature, the ethical ideal, or a force or process in the world. Baruch Spinoza offers a pantheist view of God. In his thought, God is everything and everything is God. Thus, there can be conceived no substance but God. In this model, one can speak of God and nature interchangeably. Although Spinoza was excommunicated from the Jewish community of Amsterdam, Spinoza's concept of God was revived by later Jews, especially Israeli secular Zionists. Hermann Cohen rejected Spinoza's idea that God can be found in nature, but agreed that God was not a personal being. Rather, he saw God as an ideal, an archetype of morality.Hermann Cohen, ''Reason and Hope: Selections from the Jewish Writings of Hermann Cohen'', trans. Eva Jospe (New York,: Norton, 1971), 223. Not only can God not be identified with nature, but God is also incomparable to anything in the world. This is because God is “One,” unique and unlike anything else. One loves and worships God through living ethically and obeying His moral law: “love of God is love of morality.” Similarly, for Emmanuel Levinas, God is ethics, so one is brought closer to God when justice is rendered to the Other. This means that one experiences the presence of God through one's relation to other people. To know God is to know what must be done, so it does not make sense to speak of God as what God is, but rather what God commands.Emmanuel Levinas, ''Difficult Freedom: Essays on Judaism'', trans. Sean Hand (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990), 223. For Mordecai Kaplan, the founder of Reconstructionist Judaism, God is not a person, but rather a force within the universe that is experienced; in fact, anytime something worthwhile is experienced, that is God. God is the sum of all natural processes that allow people to be self-fulfilling, the power that makes for salvation. Thus, Kaplan's God is abstract, not carnate, and intangible. It is important to note that, in this model, God exists within this universe; for Kaplan, there is nothing supernatural or otherworldly. One loves this God by seeking out truth and goodness. Kaplan does not view God as a person but acknowledges that using personal God-language can help people feel connected to their heritage and can act as “an affirmation that life has value.” Likewise, Rabbi Zalman Schachter-Shalomi, the founder of the Jewish Renewal movement, views God as a process. To aid in this transition in language, he uses the term “godding,” which encapsulates God as a process, as ''the'' process that the universe is doing, has been doing, and will continue to do. This term means that God is emerging, growing, adapting, and evolving with creation. Despite this, conventional God-language is still useful in nurturing spiritual experiences and can be a tool to relate to the infinite, although it should not be confused with the real thing. According to the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life's 2008 U.S. Religious Landscape Survey, Americans who identify as Jewish by religion are twice as likely to favor ideas of God as "an impersonal force" over the idea that "God is a person with whom people can have a relationship".http://www.pewforum.org/files/2013/05/report-religious-landscape-study-full.pdf, p. 164


See also

* God in Abrahamic religions * Holocaust theology * Holy Spirit (Judaism) * Shekhinah (divine presence)


References


Further reading

* {{DEFAULTSORT:God In Judaism God in Judaism, Conceptions of God Jewish theology Yahweh