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Geneva ( ; french: Genève ) frp, Genèva ; german: link=no, Genf ; it, Ginevra ; rm, Genevra is the second-most populous city in
Switzerland ). Swiss law does not designate a ''capital'' as such, but the federal parliament and government are in Bern, while other federal institutions, such as the federal courts, are in other cities (Bellinzona, Lausanne, Luzern, Neuchâtel, St. Gall ...
(after
Zürich Zürich () is the list of cities in Switzerland, largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich. It is located in north-central Switzerland, at the northwestern tip of Lake Zürich. As of January 2020, the municipality has 43 ...
) and the most populous city of
Romandy Romandy (french: Romandie or )Before World War I, the term French Switzerland (french: Suisse française) waalso used german: Romandie or , it, Romandia, rm, Romanda) is the Swiss French, French-speaking part of western Switzerland. In 2020, ...
, the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Situated in the south west of the country, where the Rhône exits
Lake Geneva , image = Lake Geneva by Sentinel-2.jpg , caption = Satellite image , image_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry = , location = Switzerland, France , coords = , lake_type = Glacial lak ...
, it is the capital of the
Republic and Canton of Geneva The Canton of Geneva, officially the Republic and Canton of Geneva (french: link=no, République et canton de Genève; frp, Rèpublica et canton de Geneva; german: Republik und Kanton Genf; it, Repubblica e Cantone di Ginevra; rm, Republica e ...
. The city of Geneva () had a population 201,818 in 2019 (Jan. estimate) within its small municipal territory of , but the
Canton of Geneva The Canton of Geneva, officially the Republic and Canton of Geneva (french: link=no, République et canton de Genève; frp, Rèpublica et canton de Geneva; german: Republik und Kanton Genf; it, Repubblica e Cantone di Ginevra; rm, Republica e ...
(the city and its closest Swiss
suburb A suburb (more broadly suburban area) is an area within a metropolitan area, which may include Commercial area, commercial and mixed-use development, mixed-use, that is primarily a residential area. A suburb can exist either as part of a ...
s and
exurb An exurb (or alternately: exurban area) is an area outside the typically denser inner suburbs, suburban area, at the edge of a metropolitan area, which has some economic and commuting connection to the metro area, low housing density, and grow ...
s) had a population of 499,480 (Jan. 2019 estimate) over , and together with the suburbs and exurbs located in the canton of
Vaud Vaud ( ; french: (Canton de) Vaud, ; german: (Kanton) Waadt, or ), more formally the canton of Vaud, is one of the Canton of Switzerland, 26 cantons forming the Switzerland, Swiss Confederation. It is composed of ten districts and its capital c ...
and in the French departments of
Ain Ain (, ; frp, En) is a département in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in Eastern France. Named after the Ain river, it is bordered by the Saône and Rhône rivers. Ain is located on the country's eastern edge, on the Swiss border, w ...
and
Haute-Savoie Haute-Savoie (; Franco-Provençal, Arpitan: ''Savouè d'Amont'' or ''Hiôta-Savouè''; en, Upper Savoy) or '; it, Alta Savoia. is a Departments of France, department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Regions of France, region of Southeastern France, ...
the cross-border Geneva
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region that consists of a densely populated urban area, urban agglomeration and its surrounding territories sharing Industry (economics), industries, commercial areas, Transport infrastructure, transport net ...
as officially defined by
Eurostat Eurostat ('European Statistical Office'; DG ESTAT) is a Directorate-General of the European Commission The European Commission (EC) is the Executive (government), executive of the European Union (EU). It operates as a cabinet government, ...
, which extends over ,As of 2020, the Eurostat-defined
Functional Urban Area The larger urban zone (LUZ), or functional urban area (FUA), is a measure of the population and expanse of metropolitan area, metropolitan and surrounding areas which may or may not be exclusively urban. It consists of a city and its commuting zo ...
of Geneva was made up of 93 Swiss communes and 158 French communes
Federal Statistical Office spreadsheet listing the Swiss and French communes of the Geneva Functional Urban Area

Land area of the 93 Swiss communes: 555.1 km² (source

.
Land area of the 158 French communes: 1737.1 km² (source

.
had a population of 1,032,750 in Jan. 2019 (Swiss estimates and French census).As of 2020, the Eurostat-defined
Functional Urban Area The larger urban zone (LUZ), or functional urban area (FUA), is a measure of the population and expanse of metropolitan area, metropolitan and surrounding areas which may or may not be exclusively urban. It consists of a city and its commuting zo ...
of Geneva was made up of 93 Swiss communes and 158 French communes
Federal Statistical Office spreadsheet listing the Swiss and French communes of the Geneva Functional Urban Area

Population of the 93 Swiss communes in January 2019: 599,556 (source

.
Population of the 158 French communes in January 2019: 433,194 (source

.
Since 2013, the Canton of Geneva, the
Nyon District Nyon District is a district in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. The seat of the district is the city of Nyon. Geography Nyon has an area, , of . Of this area, or 42.0% is used for agricultural purposes, while or 44.7% is forested. Of the res ...
(in the canton of Vaud), and the (literally 'Metropolitan hub of the French Genevan territory'), this last one a federation of eight French intercommunal councils, have formed ("Greater Geneva"), a Local Grouping of Transnational Cooperation ( in French, a public entity under Swiss law) in charge of organizing cooperation within the cross-border metropolitan area of Geneva (in particular metropolitan transports). The extends over Grand Genève is made up of: *Canton of Geneva (245.8 km

*District of Nyon (307.4 km

*Genevois français (1443.2 km²), itself made up of CA Thonon Agglomération (238.9 km

CA Annemasse-les Voirons-Agglomération (78.2 km

CC Arve et Salève (99.3 km

CC du Pays Rochois (93.9 km

CC Faucigny-Glières (150.7 km

CC du Genevois (151.5 km

CA du Pays de Gex (404.9 km

and CC du Pays Bellegardien (225.8 km

and had a population of 1,025,316 in Jan. 2019 (Swiss estimates and French census), 58.5% of them living on Swiss territory, and 41.5% on French territory.Grand Genève is made up of: *Canton of Geneva (499,480 inh. in Jan. 201

*District of Nyon (100,685 inh. in Jan. 201

*Genevois français (425,151 inh. in Jan. 2019), itself made up of CA Thonon Agglomération (90,531 inh

CA Annemasse-les Voirons-Agglomération (90,562 inh

CC Arve et Salève (20,074 inh

CC du Pays Rochois (28,369 inh

CC Faucigny-Glières (27,181 inh

CC du Genevois (48,312 inh

CA du Pays de Gex (98,257 inh

and CC du Pays Bellegardien (21,865 inh

Geneva is a global city, a financial centre, and a worldwide centre for diplomacy due to the presence of numerous
international organization An international organization or international organisation (see spelling differences), also known as an intergovernmental organization or an international institution, is a stable set of norms and rules meant to govern the behavior of states a ...
s, including the headquarters of many agencies of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization whose stated purposes are to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be ...
and the
Red Cross The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is a Humanitarianism, humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million Volunteering, volunteers, members and staff worldwide. It was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure re ...
. Geneva hosts the highest number of international organizations in the world. It is also where the
Geneva Conventions file:Geneva Convention 1864 - CH-BAR - 29355687.pdf, upright=1.15, Original document in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions are four Treaty, treaties, and three additional Protocol (diplomacy), protocols, that establish international law ...
were signed, which chiefly concern the treatment of wartime non-combatants and
prisoners of war A prisoner of war (POW) is a person who is held Captivity, captive by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict. The earliest recorded usage of the phrase "prisoner of war" dates back to 1610. Belligerents hold priso ...
. Together with, for instance,
New York City New York, often called New York City or NYC, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also the L ...
(global headquarters of the UN),
Basel Basel ( , ), also known as Basle ( ),french: Bâle ; it, Basilea ; rm, label=Sutsilvan, Basileia; other rm, Basilea . is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river High Rhine, Rhine. Basel is Switzerland's List of cities in Switzerland, th ...
(Bank for International Settlements), and
Strasbourg Strasbourg (, , ; german: Straßburg ; gsw, label=Bas Rhin Alsatian dialect, Alsatian, Strossburi , gsw, label=Haut Rhin Alsatian dialect, Alsatian, Strossburig ) is the Prefectures in France, prefecture and largest city of the Grand Est Re ...
(Council of
Europe Europe is a large peninsula conventionally considered a continent in its own right because of its great physical size and the weight of its history and traditions. Europe is also considered a Continent#Subcontinents, subcontinent of Eurasia ...
), Geneva is a city serving as the headquarters of one of the most important international organizations, without being the capital of a country. In 2021, Geneva was ranked as the world's ninth most important
financial centre A financial centre (British English, BE), financial center (American English, AE), or financial hub, is a location with a concentration of Global financial system#Participants, participants in banking, asset management, insurance or financial ...
for competitiveness by the Global Financial Centres Index, fifth in Europe behind London, Zürich, Frankfurt and Luxembourg. In 2019, Geneva was ranked among the ten most liveable cities in the world by Mercer together with Zürich and
Basel Basel ( , ), also known as Basle ( ),french: Bâle ; it, Basilea ; rm, label=Sutsilvan, Basileia; other rm, Basilea . is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river High Rhine, Rhine. Basel is Switzerland's List of cities in Switzerland, th ...
. The city has been referred to as the world's most compact metropolis and the "Peace Capital". In 2019, Mercer ranked Geneva as the thirteenth most expensive city in the world. In a
UBS UBS Group AG is a multinational Investment banking, investment bank and financial services company founded and based in Switzerland. Co-headquartered in the cities of Zürich and Basel, it maintains a presence in all major financial centres ...
ranking of global cities in 2018, Geneva was ranked first for gross earnings, second most expensive, and fourth in
purchasing power Purchasing power is the amount of goods and services that can be purchased with a unit of currency. For example, if one had taken one unit of currency to a store in the 1950s, it would have been possible to buy a greater number of items than would ...
.


Name

The city was mentioned in
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known as Latium) around present-day Rome, but through ...
texts, by
Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; ; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman. A member of the First Triumvirate, Caesar led the Roman armies in the Gallic Wars before defeating his political rival Pompey in Caes ...
, with the spelling ''Genava'', probably from the Celtic from the stem ("bend, knee"), in the sense of a bending river or
estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime environment ...
, an etymology shared with the Italian port city of
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; lij, Zêna ). is the capital of the Regions of Italy, Italian region of Liguria and the List of cities in Italy, sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits. As of t ...
(in Italian ''Genova'').John T. Koch, ''Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia'', ABC-CLIO, 2006, p. 1513. The medieval
county of Geneva The County of Geneva, largely corresponding to the later Genevois province, originated in the tenth century, in the Burgundian Kingdom of Arles (Arelat) which fell to the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire was a Polity, political entity ...
in
Middle Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Literary Latin used in Roman Catholic Church, Roman Catholic Western Europe during the Middle Ages. In this region it served as the primary written language, though local languages were also written to varying deg ...
was known as ''pagus major Genevensis'' or ''Comitatus Genevensis'' (also ''Gebennensis''). After 1400 it became the '' Genevois'' province of
Savoy Savoy (; frp, Savouè ; french: Savoie ) is a cultural-historical region in the Western Alps. Situated on the cultural boundary between Occitania and Piedmont, the area extends from Lake Geneva in the north to the Dauphiné in the south. Savo ...
(albeit not extending to the city proper, until the
reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in ...
of the seat of the Bishop of Geneva).


History

Geneva was an Allobrogian border town, fortified against the
Helvetii The Helvetii ( , Gaulish: *''Heluētī''), anglicized as Helvetians, were a Celtic tribe or tribal confederation occupying most of the Swiss plateau at the time of their contact with the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC. According to Jul ...
tribe, when the Romans took it in 121 BC. It became Christian under the Late
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Romanum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Roman Republic, Republican period of ancient Rome. As a polity, it included large territorial holdings aro ...
, and acquired its first
bishop A bishop is an ordained clergy member who is entrusted with a position of Episcopal polity, authority and oversight in a religious institution. In Christianity, bishops are normally responsible for the governance of dioceses. The role or offic ...
in the 5th century, having been connected to the Bishopric of Vienne in the 4th. In the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the late 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the Post-classical, post-classical period of World history (field), global history. It began with t ...
, Geneva was ruled by a
count Count (feminine: countess) is a historical title of nobility in certain European countries, varying in relative status, generally of middling rank in the hierarchy of nobility.L. G. Pine, Pine, L. G. ''Titles: How the King Became His Majesty'' ...
under the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire was a Polity, political entity in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central, and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, dissolution i ...
until the late 14th century, when it was granted a charter giving it a high degree of self-governance. Around this time, the
House of Savoy The House of Savoy ( it, Casa Savoia) was a royal dynasty that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small Alps, Alpine County of Savoy, county north-west of Ita ...
came to at least nominally dominate the city. In the 15th century, an
oligarchic Oligarchy (; ) is a conceptual form of power structure in which Power (social and political), power rests with a small number of people. These people may or may not be distinguished by one or several characteristics, such as nobility, fame, weal ...
republican government emerged with the creation of the Grand Council. In the first half of the 16th century, the
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in ...
reached the city, causing religious strife, during which Savoy rule was thrown off and Geneva allied itself with the
Swiss Confederacy The Old Swiss Confederacy or Swiss Confederacy (German language, Modern German: ; historically , after the Swiss Reformation, Reformation also , "Confederation of the Swiss") was a loose confederation of independent small states (, German or ...
. In 1541, with Protestantism on the rise,
John Calvin John Calvin (; frm, Jehan Cauvin; french: link=no, Jean Calvin ; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French Christian theology, theologian, pastor and Protestant Reformers, reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal ...
, the
Protestant Protestantism is a branch of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Na ...
Reformer and proponent of
Calvinism Calvinism (also called the Reformed Tradition, Reformed Protestantism, Reformed Christianity, or simply Reformed) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the Christian theology, theological tradition and forms of Christianity, Christ ...
, became the spiritual leader of the city and established the
Republic of Geneva The Canton of Geneva, officially the Republic and Canton of Geneva (french: link=no, République et canton de Genève; frp, Rèpublica et canton de Geneva; german: Republik und Kanton Genf; it, Repubblica e Cantone di Ginevra; rm, Republica e ...
. By the 18th century, Geneva had come under the influence of
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptized Catholics worldwide . It is among the world's oldest and largest international institutions, and has played a ...
France, which cultivated the city as its own. France tended to be at odds with the ordinary townsfolk, which inspired the failed
Geneva Revolution of 1782 The Geneva Revolution of 1782 (french: La révolution genevoise de 1782) was a short-lived attempt to broaden the franchise and include men of modest means in the republican government of the oligarchic Genevan city-state A city-state is an in ...
, an attempt to win representation in the government for men of modest means. In 1798, revolutionary France under the
Directory Directory may refer to: * Directory (computing), or folder, a file system structure in which to store computer files * Directory (OpenVMS command) * Directory service, a software application for organizing information about a computer network's u ...
annexed Geneva. At the end of the
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic Wars, Europe ...
, on 1June 1814, Geneva was admitted to the
Swiss Confederation ). Swiss law does not designate a ''capital'' as such, but the federal parliament and government are in Bern, while other federal institutions, such as the federal courts, are in other cities (Bellinzona, Lausanne, Luzern, Neuchâtel, St. Gall ...
. In 1907, the separation of Church and State was adopted. Geneva flourished in the 19th and 20th centuries, becoming the seat of many international organizations.


Geography


Topography

Geneva is located at 46°12' North, 6°09' East, at the south-western end of
Lake Geneva , image = Lake Geneva by Sentinel-2.jpg , caption = Satellite image , image_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry = , location = Switzerland, France , coords = , lake_type = Glacial lak ...
, where the Rhône flows out. It is surrounded by three mountain chains, each belonging to the Jura: the Jura main range lies north-westward, the Vuache southward, and the Salève south-eastward. The city covers an area of , while the area of the canton is , including the two small
exclave An enclave is a territory (or a small territory apart of a larger one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state or entity. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to deno ...
s of Céligny in
Vaud Vaud ( ; french: (Canton de) Vaud, ; german: (Kanton) Waadt, or ), more formally the canton of Vaud, is one of the Canton of Switzerland, 26 cantons forming the Switzerland, Swiss Confederation. It is composed of ten districts and its capital c ...
. The part of the lake that is attached to Geneva has an area of and is sometimes referred to as ''petit lac'' (small lake). The canton has only a border with the rest of Switzerland. Of of border, 103 are shared with France, the Département de l'Ain to the north and west and the Département de la Haute-Savoie to the south and east. Of the land in the city, , or 1.5%, is used for agricultural purposes, while , or 3.1%, is forested. The rest of the land, , or 91.8%, is built up (buildings or roads), , or 3.1%, is either rivers or lakes and , or 0.1%, is wasteland.Swiss Federal Statistical Office-Land Use Statistics
2009 data accessed 25 March 2010.
Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 3.4%, housing and buildings made up 46.2% and transportation infrastructure 25.8%, while parks, green belts and sports fields made up 15.7%. Of the agricultural land, 0.3% is used for growing crops. Of the water in the municipality, 0.2% is composed of lakes and 2.9% is rivers and streams. The altitude of Geneva is and corresponds to the altitude of the largest of the Pierres du Niton, two large rocks emerging from the lake which date from the last ice age. This rock was chosen by General
Guillaume Henri Dufour Guillaume Henri Dufour (15 September 178714 July 1875) was a Swiss military officer, structural engineer and topographer. He served under Napoleon I and held the Swiss office of General (Switzerland), General four times in his career, firstly i ...
as the reference point for surveying in Switzerland. The second main river of Geneva is the Arve, which flows into the Rhône just west of the city centre.
Mont Blanc Mont Blanc (french: Mont Blanc ; it, Monte Bianco , both meaning "white mountain") is the highest mountain in the Alps and Western Europe, rising above sea level. It is the List of European ultra-prominent peaks, second-most prominent mountai ...
can be seen from Geneva and is an hour's drive from the city.


Climate

The climate of Geneva is a
temperate climate In geography, the temperate climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes (23.5° to 66.5° N/S of Equator), which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth. These zones generally have wider temperature ranges throughout t ...
, more specifically an
oceanic climate An oceanic climate, also known as a marine climate, is the humid temperate climate sub-type in Köppen climate classification, Köppen classification ''Cfb'', typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, generally featuring ...
(
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, nota ...
: Cfb). Winters are cool, usually with light frosts at night and thawing conditions during the day. Summers are relatively warm. Precipitation is adequate and is relatively well-distributed throughout the year, although autumn is slightly wetter than other seasons. Ice storms near Lac Léman are normal in the winter: Geneva can be affected by the
Bise The Bise (French: ''La Bise'') is a cold, dry wind in Switzerland which blows through the Swiss Plateau The Swiss Plateau or Central Plateau (german: Schweizer Mittelland; french: plateau suisse; it, altopiano svizzero) is one of the three ma ...
, a north-easterly wind. This can lead to severe icing in winter. In summer, many people swim in the lake and patronise public beaches such as Genève Plage and the Bains des Pâquis. The city, in certain years, receives snow during colder months. The nearby mountains are subject to substantial snowfall and are suitable for skiing. Many world-renowned ski resorts such as Verbier and
Crans-Montana Crans-Montana is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the district of Sierre (district), Sierre in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Valais, Switzerland. On 1 January 2017 the former municipalities of Chermignon, Mollens, Valais, ...
are less than three hours away by car. Mont Salève (), just across the border in France, dominates the southerly view from the city centre, and
Mont Blanc Mont Blanc (french: Mont Blanc ; it, Monte Bianco , both meaning "white mountain") is the highest mountain in the Alps and Western Europe, rising above sea level. It is the List of European ultra-prominent peaks, second-most prominent mountai ...
, the highest of the Alpine range, is visible from most of the city, towering high above
Chamonix Chamonix-Mont-Blanc ( frp, Chamôni), more commonly known as Chamonix, is a commune in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of southeastern France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a coun ...
, which, along with Morzine, Le Grand Bornand, La Clusaz, and resorts of the Grand Massif such as Samoens, Morillon, and Flaine, are the closest French skiing destinations to Geneva. During the years 2000–2009, the mean yearly temperature was 11 °C and the mean number of sunshine-hours per year was 2003. The highest temperature recorded in Genève–Cointrin was in July 2015, and the lowest temperature recorded was −20.0 °C (−4.0 °F) in February 1956.


Politics


Coat of arms


Administrative divisions

The city is divided into eight ''quartiers'', or districts, sometimes composed of several neighbourhoods. On the left bank are: (1) Jonction, (2) Centre,
Plainpalais Plainpalais is a neighbourhood in Geneva, Switzerland, and a former Municipalities of the canton of Geneva, municipality of the Canton of Geneva. It is mentioned in Mary Shelley's ''Frankenstein'' in chapter 6, volume 1. Argentine author Jorge ...
, and Acacias; (3) Eaux-Vives; and (4) Champel. The right bank includes: (1) Saint-Jean and Charmilles; (2) Servette and Petit-Saconnex; (3) Grottes and Saint-Gervais; and (4) Paquis and Nations.


Government

The Administrative Council (Conseil administratif) constitutes the executive government of the city of Geneva and operates as a collegiate authority. It is composed of five councilors (french: link=no, Conseiller administratif/ Conseillère administrative), each presiding over a department. The president of the executive department acts as mayor (''la maire/le maire''). In the governmental year 2021–2022, the Administrative Council is presided over by ''Madame la maire de Genève'' Frédérique Perler. Departmental tasks, coordination measures and implementation of laws decreed by the Municipal Council are carried out by the Administrative Council. Elections for the Administrative Council are held every five years. The current term of (''la législature'') is from 1June 2020 to 31May 2025. The delegates are elected by means of a system of Majorz. The mayor and vice change each year, while the heads of the other departments are assigned by the collegiate. The executive body holds its meetings in the Palais Eynard, near the Parc des Bastions. , Geneva's Administrative Council is made up of two representatives each of the Social Democratic Party (PS) and the
Green Party A green party is a formally organized political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about po ...
(PES), and one member of the Christian Democratic Party (PDC). This gives the left-wing parties four out of the five seats and, for the first time in history, a female majority. The last election was held on 15March/5April 2020. Except for the mayor, all other councillors have been elected for the first time.


Parliament

The Municipal Council (Conseil municipal) holds
legislative power A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with the Executive (government), executive and Judiciary, ...
. It is made up of 80 members, with elections held every five years. The Municipal Council makes regulations and by-laws that are executed by the Administrative Council and the administration. The delegates are selected by means of a system of
proportional representation Proportional representation (PR) refers to a type of electoral system under which subgroups of an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. The concept applies mainly to geographical (e.g. states, regions) and political divi ...
with a seven percent threshold. The sessions of the Municipal Council are public. Unlike members of the Administrative Council, members of the Municipal Council are not politicians by profession, and they are paid a fee based on their attendance. Any resident of Geneva allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the Municipal Council. The Council holds its meetings in the Town Hall (''Hôtel de Ville''), in the old city. The last election of the Municipal Council was held on 15March 2020 for the (''législature'') of 2020–2025. Currently, the Municipal Council consists of: 19 members of the Social Democratic Party (PS), 18 Green Party (PES), 14 Les Libéraux-Radicaux (PLR), 8 Christian Democratic People's Party (PDC); 7
Geneva Citizens' Movement The Geneva Citizens' Movement (french: Mouvement Citoyens Genevois), abbreviated to MCG, is a Populism, populist List of political parties in Switzerland, political party in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. On its own initiative, it started, and ...
(MCG), 7 ''Ensemble à Gauche'' (an alliance of the left parties PST-POP (''Parti Suisse du Travail – Parti Ouvrier et Populaire'') and solidaritéS), 6
Swiss People's Party The Swiss People's Party (german: Schweizerische Volkspartei, SVP; rm, Partida populara Svizra, PPS), also known as the Democratic Union of the Centre (french: Union démocratique du centre, UDC; it, Unione Democratica di Centro, UDC), is a nati ...
(UDC).


Elections


National Council

In the 2019 federal election for the
Swiss National Council The National Council (german: Nationalrat; french: Conseil national; it, Consiglio nazionale; rm, Cussegl naziunal) is the lower house of the Federal Assembly (Switzerland), Federal Assembly of Switzerland, the upper house being the Council o ...
the most popular party was the
Green Party A green party is a formally organized political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about po ...
which received 26% (+14.6) of the vote. The next seven most popular parties were the PS (17.9%, -5.9), PLR (15.1%, -2.4), the UDC (12.6%, -3.7), the PdA/ solidaritéS (10%, +1.3), the PDC (5.4%, -5.3), the pvl (5%, +2.9), and MCR (4.9%, -2.7). In the federal election a total of 34,319 votes were cast, and the
voter turnout In political science, voter turnout is the participation rate (often defined as those who cast a ballot) of a given election. This can be the percentage of Voter registration, registered voters, Suffrage, eligible voters, or all Voting age, voting ...
was 39.6%. In the 2015 federal election for the
Swiss National Council The National Council (german: Nationalrat; french: Conseil national; it, Consiglio nazionale; rm, Cussegl naziunal) is the lower house of the Federal Assembly (Switzerland), Federal Assembly of Switzerland, the upper house being the Council o ...
the most popular party was the PS which received 23.8% of the vote. The next five most popular parties were the PLR (17.6%), the UDC (16.3%), the
Green Party A green party is a formally organized political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about po ...
(11.4%), the PDC (10.7%), and the solidaritéS (8.8%). In the federal election a total of 36,490 votes were cast, and the
voter turnout In political science, voter turnout is the participation rate (often defined as those who cast a ballot) of a given election. This can be the percentage of Voter registration, registered voters, Suffrage, eligible voters, or all Voting age, voting ...
was 44.1%.


Metropolitan cooperation

The city centre of Geneva is located only from the border of
France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic, Pacific Ocean, Pac ...
. As a result, the
urban area An urban area, built-up area or urban agglomeration is a human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can rang ...
and the
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region that consists of a densely populated urban area, urban agglomeration and its surrounding territories sharing Industry (economics), industries, commercial areas, Transport infrastructure, transport net ...
largely extend across the border on French territory. Due to the small size of the municipality of Geneva () and extension of the urban area over an international border, official bodies of transnational cooperation were developed as early as the 1970s to manage the cross-border Greater Geneva area at a metropolitan level. In 1973, a Franco-Swiss agreement created the ''Comité régional franco-genevois'' ("Franco-Genevan Regional Committee", CRFG in French). In 1997 an 'Urban planning charter' of the CRFG defined for the first time a planning territory called ''agglomération franco-valdo-genevoise'' ("Franco-
Vaud Vaud ( ; french: (Canton de) Vaud, ; german: (Kanton) Waadt, or ), more formally the canton of Vaud, is one of the Canton of Switzerland, 26 cantons forming the Switzerland, Swiss Confederation. It is composed of ten districts and its capital c ...
-Genevan urban area"). 2001 saw the creation of a ''Comité stratégique de développement des transports publics régionaux'' ("Strategic Committee for the Development of Regional Public Transports", DTPR in French), a committee which adopted in 2003 a 'Charter for Public Transports', first step in the development of a metropolitan, cross-border
commuter rail Commuter rail, or suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that primarily operates within a metropolitan area, connecting Commuting, commuters to a Downtown, central city from adjacent suburbs or commuter towns. Generally commuter r ...
network (see Léman Express). In 2004, a public transnational body called ''Projet d’agglomération franco-valdo-genevois'' ("Franco-Vaud-Genevan urban area project") was created to serve as the main body of metropolitan cooperation for the planning territory defined in 1997, with more local French councils taking part in this new public body than in the CRFG created in 1973. Finally in 2012 the ''Projet d’agglomération franco-valdo-genevois'' was renamed ''
Grand Genève Grand Genève ("Greater Geneva" in English) is a Local Grouping of Transnational Cooperation (in French: ''groupement local de coopération transfrontalière'', or GLCT), a public entity under Swiss law, in charge of organizing cooperation within ...
'' ("Greater Geneva"), and the following year it was transformed into a Local Grouping of Transnational Cooperation (GLCT in French), a public entity under Swiss law, which now serves as the executive body of the ''Grand Genève''. The ''Grand Genève'' GLCT is made up of the
Canton of Geneva The Canton of Geneva, officially the Republic and Canton of Geneva (french: link=no, République et canton de Genève; frp, Rèpublica et canton de Geneva; german: Republik und Kanton Genf; it, Repubblica e Cantone di Ginevra; rm, Republica e ...
, the
Nyon District Nyon District is a district in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. The seat of the district is the city of Nyon. Geography Nyon has an area, , of . Of this area, or 42.0% is used for agricultural purposes, while or 44.7% is forested. Of the res ...
(in the canton of Vaud), and the ''Pôle métropolitain du Genevois français'' (literally "Metropolitan hub of the French Genevan territory"), this last one a federation of eight French intercommunal councils in
Ain Ain (, ; frp, En) is a département in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in Eastern France. Named after the Ain river, it is bordered by the Saône and Rhône rivers. Ain is located on the country's eastern edge, on the Swiss border, w ...
and
Haute-Savoie Haute-Savoie (; Franco-Provençal, Arpitan: ''Savouè d'Amont'' or ''Hiôta-Savouè''; en, Upper Savoy) or '; it, Alta Savoia. is a Departments of France, department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Regions of France, region of Southeastern France, ...
. The ''Grand Genève'' GLCT extends over and had a population of 1,025,316 in Jan. 2019 (Swiss estimates and French census), 58.5% of them living on Swiss territory, and 41.5% on French territory.


International relations

Geneva does not have any
sister A sister is a woman or a girl who shares one or more parents with another individual; a female sibling. The male counterpart is a brother. Although the term typically refers to a family, familial relationship, it is sometimes used endearingly to r ...
relationships with other cities. It declares itself related to the entire world.


Demographics


Population

The city of Geneva (''ville de Genève'') had a population 201,818 in 2019 (Jan. estimate) within its small municipal territory of . The city of Geneva is at the centre of the Geneva
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region that consists of a densely populated urban area, urban agglomeration and its surrounding territories sharing Industry (economics), industries, commercial areas, Transport infrastructure, transport net ...
, a
Functional Urban Area The larger urban zone (LUZ), or functional urban area (FUA), is a measure of the population and expanse of metropolitan area, metropolitan and surrounding areas which may or may not be exclusively urban. It consists of a city and its commuting zo ...
(as per
Eurostat Eurostat ('European Statistical Office'; DG ESTAT) is a Directorate-General of the European Commission The European Commission (EC) is the Executive (government), executive of the European Union (EU). It operates as a cabinet government, ...
methodology) which extends over Swiss territory (entire
Canton of Geneva The Canton of Geneva, officially the Republic and Canton of Geneva (french: link=no, République et canton de Genève; frp, Rèpublica et canton de Geneva; german: Republik und Kanton Genf; it, Repubblica e Cantone di Ginevra; rm, Republica e ...
and part of the canton of
Vaud Vaud ( ; french: (Canton de) Vaud, ; german: (Kanton) Waadt, or ), more formally the canton of Vaud, is one of the Canton of Switzerland, 26 cantons forming the Switzerland, Swiss Confederation. It is composed of ten districts and its capital c ...
) and French territory (parts of the departments of
Ain Ain (, ; frp, En) is a département in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in Eastern France. Named after the Ain river, it is bordered by the Saône and Rhône rivers. Ain is located on the country's eastern edge, on the Swiss border, w ...
and
Haute-Savoie Haute-Savoie (; Franco-Provençal, Arpitan: ''Savouè d'Amont'' or ''Hiôta-Savouè''; en, Upper Savoy) or '; it, Alta Savoia. is a Departments of France, department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Regions of France, region of Southeastern France, ...
). The Geneva Functional Urban Area covers a land area of (24.2% in Switzerland, 75.8% in France) and had 1,032,750 inhabitants in Jan. 2019 (Swiss estimates and French census), 58,1% of them on Swiss territory and 41.9% on French territory. The Geneva metropolitan area is one of the fastest growing in Europe. Its population rose from 870,208 in Jan. 2008 to 1,032,750 in Jan. 2019, which means the metropolitan area registered a population growth rate of +1.57% per year during those 11 years. Growth is higher in the French part of the metropolitan area (+2.01% per year between 2008 and 2019) than in the Swiss part (+1.29% per year between 2008 and 2019), as Geneva attracts many French commuters due to high Swiss salaries and a favorable Franco-Swiss tax regime for French residents working in Switzerland. The official language of Geneva (both the city and the canton) is French. English is also common due to the high number of anglophone immigrants and foreigners working in international institutions and in the bank sector. , 128,622 or 72.3% of the population speaks French as a first language, with English being the second most common (7,853 or 4.4%) language. 7,462 inhabitants speak Spanish (or 4.2%), 7,320 speak Italian (4.1%), 7,050 speak German (4.0%) and 113 people who speak Romansh. As a result of
immigration Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle as Permanent residency, permanent residents or Naturalization, naturalize ...
flows in the 1960s and 1980s, Portuguese is also spoken by a considerable proportion of the population. In the city of Geneva, , 48% of the population are resident foreign nationals. For a list of the largest groups of foreign residents see the cantonal overview. Over the last 10 years (1999–2009), the population has changed at a rate of 7.2%; a rate of 3.4% due to migration and at a rate of 3.4% due to births and deaths.Swiss Federal Statistical Office
accessed 25 April 2011/
, the gender distribution of the population was 47.8% male and 52.2% female. The population was made up of 46,284 Swiss men (24.2% of the population) and 45,127 (23.6%) non-Swiss men. There were 56,091 Swiss women (29.3%) and 43,735 (22.9%) non-Swiss women.Canton of Geneva Statistical Office
''Population résidante du canton de Genève, selon l'origine et le sexe, par commune, en mars 2011'' accessed 18 April 2011.
approximately 24.3% of the population of the municipality were born in Geneva and lived there in 200043,296. A further 11,757 or 6.6% who were born in the same canton, while 27,359 or 15.4% were born elsewhere in Switzerland, and 77,893 or 43.8% were born outside of Switzerland. In , there were 1,147 live births to Swiss citizens and 893 births to non-Swiss citizens, and in the same time span there were 1,114 deaths of Swiss citizens and 274 non-Swiss citizen deaths. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens increased by 33, while the foreign population increased by 619. There were 465 Swiss men and 498 Swiss women who emigrated from Switzerland. At the same time, there were 2933 non-Swiss men and 2662 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland. The total Swiss population change in 2008 (from all sources, including moves across municipal borders) was an increase of 135 and the non-Swiss population increased by 3181 people. This represents a
population growth rate Population growth is the increase in the number of people in a population or dispersed group. Actual global human population growth amounts to around 83 million annually, or 1.1% per year. The World population, global population has grown from 1 b ...
of 1.8%.Swiss Federal Statistical Office – Superweb database – Gemeinde Statistics 1981–2008
accessed 19 June 2010.
, children and teenagers (0–19 years old) make up 18.2% of the population, while adults (20–64 years old) make up 65.8% and seniors (over 64 years old) make up 16%. , there were 78,666 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 74,205 married individuals, 10,006 widows or widowers and 15,087 individuals who are divorced.STAT-TAB Thema 40 – Eidgenössische Volkszählung (34)
accessed 2 February 2011.
, there were 86,231 private households in the municipality, and an average of 1.9 persons per household. There were 44,373 households that consist of only one person and 2,549 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 89,269 households that answered this question, 49.7% were households made up of just one person and there were 471 adults who lived with their parents. Of the rest of the households, there are 17,429 married couples without children, 16,607 married couples with children. There were 5,499 single parents with a child or children. There were 1,852 households that were made up of unrelated people and 3,038 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing. , there were 743 single family homes (or 10.6% of the total) out of a total of 6,990 inhabited buildings. There were 2,758 multi-family buildings (39.5%), along with 2,886 multi-purpose buildings that were mostly used for housing (41.3%) and 603 other use buildings (commercial or industrial) that also had some housing (8.6%). Of the single family homes, 197 were built before 1919, while 20 were built between 1990 and 2000. The greatest number of single family homes (277) were built between 1919 and 1945.Swiss Federal Statistical Office STAT-TAB – Datenwürfel für Thema 09.2 – Gebäude und Wohnungen
accessed 28 January 2011.
, there were 101,794 apartments in the municipality. The most common apartment size was 3 rooms of which there were 27,084. There were 21,889 single room apartments and 11,166 apartments with five or more rooms. Of these apartments, a total of 85,330 apartments (83.8% of the total) were permanently occupied, while 13,644 apartments (13.4%) were seasonally occupied and 2,820 apartments (2.8%) were empty. , the construction rate of new housing units was 1.3 new units per 1000 residents. , the average price to rent an average apartment in Geneva was 1163.30
Swiss franc The Swiss franc is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein. It is also legal tender in the Italian exclave of Campione d'Italia which is surrounded by Swiss territory. The Swiss National Bank (SNB) issues banknotes and the fe ...
s (CHF) per month (US$930, £520, €740 approx. exchange rate from 2003). The average rate for a one-room apartment was 641.60 CHF (US$510, £290, €410), a two-room apartment was about 874.46 CHF (US$700, £390, €560), a three-room apartment was about 1126.37 CHF (US$900, £510, €720) and a six or more room apartment cost an average of 2691.07 CHF (US$2150, £1210, €1720). The average apartment price in Geneva was 104.2% of the national average of 1116 CHF.Swiss Federal Statistical Office-Rental prices
2003 data accessed 26 May 2010.
The vacancy rate for the municipality, , was 0.25%. In June 2011, the average price of an apartment in and around Geneva was 13,681 CHF per square metre (). The average can be as high as 17,589
Swiss franc The Swiss franc is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein. It is also legal tender in the Italian exclave of Campione d'Italia which is surrounded by Swiss territory. The Swiss National Bank (SNB) issues banknotes and the fe ...
s (CHF) per square metre () for a luxury apartment and as low as 9,847 Swiss francs (CHF) for an older or basic apartment. For houses in and around Geneva, the average price was 11,595 Swiss francs (CHF) per square metre () (June 2011), with a lowest price per square metre () of 4,874 Swiss francs (CHF), and a maximum price of 21,966 Swiss francs (CHF).


Historical population

William Monter calculates that the city's total population was 12,000–13,000 in 1550, doubling to over 25,000 by 1560. The historical population is given in the following chart: Colors= id:lightgrey value:gray(0.9) id:darkgrey value:gray(0.8) ImageSize = width:1100 height:500 PlotArea = height:350 left: 100 bottom:90 right:100 Legend = columns:3 left:220 top:70 columnwidth:160 AlignBars = justify DateFormat = x.y Period = from:0 till:180000 TimeAxis = orientation:vertical AlignBars = justify ScaleMajor = gridcolor:darkgrey increment:20000 start:0 ScaleMinor = gridcolor:lightgrey increment:5000 start:0 Colors= id:TO value:yellowgreen legend:Total id:FR value:teal legend:French_Speaking id:GE value:green legend:German_Speaking id:CA value:lightpurple legend:Catholic id:PR value:oceanblue legend:Protestant id:SW value:red legend:Swiss PlotData= color:yellowgreen width:40 mark:(line,white) align:center bar:1850 from:start till:37724 text:"37,724" color:TO bar:1870 from:start till:60004 text:"60,004" color:TO bar:1888 from:start till:75709 text:"75,709" color:TO bar:1900 from:start till:97359 text:"97,359" color:TO bar:1910 from:start till:115243 text:"115,243" color:TO bar:1930 from:start till:124121 text:"124,121" color:TO bar:1950 from:start till:145473 text:"145,473" color:TO bar:1970 from:start till:173618 text:"173,618" color:TO bar:1990 from:start till:171042 text:"171,042" color:TO bar:2000 from:start till:177964 text:"177,964" color:TO LineData = points:(300,111)(400,113) color:GE points:(400,113)(500,118) color:GE points:(500,118)(600,126) color:GE points:(600,126)(700,130) color:GE points:(700,130)(800,128) color:GE points:(800,128)(900,109) color:GE points:(900,109)(1000,104) color:GE points:(300,209)(400,241) color:FR points:(400,241)(500,259) color:FR points:(500,259)(600,271) color:FR points:(600,271)(700,306) color:FR points:(700,306)(800,307) color:FR points:(800,307)(900,309) color:FR points:(900,309)(1000,340) color:FR points:(100,112)(200,143) color:CA points:(200,143)(300,153) color:CA points:(300,153)(400,177) color:CA points:(400,177)(500,194) color:CA points:(500,194)(600,186) color:CA points:(600,186)(700,204) color:CA points:(700,204)(800,266) color:CA points:(800,266)(900,245) color:CA points:(900,245)(1000,219) color:CA points:(100,141)(200,158) color:PR points:(200,158)(300,171) color:PR points:(300,171)(400,187) color:PR points:(400,187)(500,198) color:PR points:(500,198)(600,218) color:PR points:(600,218)(700,236) color:PR points:(700,236)(800,217) color:PR points:(800,217)(900,157) color:PR points:(900,157)(1000,141) color:PR points:(100,147)(200,166) color:SW points:(200,166)(300,182) color:SW points:(300,182)(400,204) color:SW points:(400,204)(500,221) color:SW points:(500,221)(600,270) color:SW points:(600,270)(700,321) color:SW points:(700,321)(800,314) color:SW points:(800,314)(900,282) color:SW points:(900,282)(1000,284) color:SW


Religion

The recorded 66,491 residents (37.4% of the population) as Catholic, while 41,289 people (23.20%) belonged to no church or were agnostic or
atheist Atheism, in the broadest sense, is an absence of belief in the existence of Deity, deities. Less broadly, atheism is a rejection of the belief that any deities exist. In an even narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that ther ...
, 24,105 (13.5%) belonged to the
Swiss Reformed Church The Protestant Church in Switzerland (PCS), (EKS); french: Église évangélique réformée de Suisse (EERS); it, Chiesa evangelica riformata in Svizzera (CERiS); rm, Baselgia evangelica refurmada da la Svizra (BRRS) formerly named Federation o ...
, and 8,698 (4.89%) were
Muslim Muslims ( ar, المسلمون, , ) are people who adhere to Islam Islam (; ar, ۘالِإسلَام, , ) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text considered by Muslims to be the ...
. There were also 3,959 members of an
Orthodox church Orthodox Church may refer to: * Eastern Orthodox Church The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 mi ...
(2.22%), 220 individuals (or about 0.12% of the population) who belonged to the
Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland The Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland is an Old Catholic denomination in Switzerland ). Swiss law does not designate a ''capital'' as such, but the federal parliament and government are in Bern, while other federal institutions, suc ...
, 2,422 (1.36%) who belonged to another Christian church, and 2,601 people (1.46%) who were Jewish. There were 707 individuals who were Buddhist, 474 who were Hindu and 423 who belonged to another church. 26,575 respondents (14.93%) did not answer the question. According to 2012 statistics by Swiss Bundesamt für Statistik 49.2% of the population were
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of ...
, (34.2%
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptized Catholics worldwide . It is among the world's oldest and largest international institutions, and has played a ...
, 8.8% Swiss Reformed (organized in the Protestant Church of Geneva) and 6.2% other Christians, mostly other
Protestants Protestantism is a Christian denomination, branch of Christianity that follows the theological tenets of the Reformation, Protestant Reformation, a movement that began seeking to reform the Catholic Church from within in the 16th century agai ...
), 38% of Genevans were
non-religious Irreligion or nonreligion is the absence or rejection of religion, or indifference to it. Irreligion takes many forms, ranging from the casual and unaware to full-fledged philosophies such as atheism and agnosticism, secular humanism and anti ...
, 6.1% were
Muslim Muslims ( ar, المسلمون, , ) are people who adhere to Islam Islam (; ar, ۘالِإسلَام, , ) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text considered by Muslims to be the ...
and 1.6% were Jews. Geneva has historically been considered a
Protestant Protestantism is a branch of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Na ...
city and was known as the ''Protestant Rome'' due to it being the base of
John Calvin John Calvin (; frm, Jehan Cauvin; french: link=no, Jean Calvin ; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French Christian theology, theologian, pastor and Protestant Reformers, reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal ...
, William Farel,
Theodore Beza Theodore Beza ( la, Theodorus Beza; french: Théodore de Bèze or ''de Besze''; June 24, 1519 – October 13, 1605) was a French people, French Calvinist Protestant theologian, Protestant reformer, reformer and scholar who played an important ...
and other
Protestant reformers Protestant Reformers were those theologians whose careers, works and actions brought about the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century. In the context of the Reformation, Martin Luther was the first reformer (sharing his views publicly in 15 ...
. Over the past century, substantial immigration from France and other predominantly
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptized Catholics worldwide . It is among the world's oldest and largest international institutions, and has played a ...
countries, as well as general secularization, has changed its religious landscape. As a result, three times as many Roman Catholics as Protestants lived in the city in 2000, while a large number of residents were members of neither group. Geneva forms part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lausanne, Geneva and Fribourg. The
World Council of Churches The World Council of Churches (WCC) is a worldwide Christianity , Christian inter-church organization founded in 1948 to work for the cause of ecumenism. Its full members today include the Assyrian Church of the East, the Oriental Orthodox Chur ...
and the
Lutheran World Federation The Lutheran World Federation (LWF; german: Lutherischer Weltbund) is a global Communion (religion), communion of national and regional Lutheran denominations headquartered in the Ecumenical Centre in Geneva, Switzerland. The federation was fou ...
both have their headquarters at the Ecumenical Centre in Grand-Saconnex, Geneva. The
World Communion of Reformed Churches The World Communion of Reformed Churches (WCRC) is the largest association of Calvinist churches in the world. It has 230 member denominations in 108 countries, together claiming an estimated 80 million people, thus being List of the largest Prote ...
, a worldwide organization of
Presbyterian Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition within Protestantism that broke from the Roman Catholic Church in Scotland by John Knox, who was a priest at St. Giles Cathedral (Church of Scotland). Presbyterian churches derive their nam ...
,
Continental Reformed Continental Reformed Protestantism is a part of the Calvinism, Calvinist tradition within Protestantism that traces its origin in the European continent. Prominent subgroups are the Dutch Reformed, the Swiss Reformed, the Reformed Church of Franc ...
,
Congregational Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches or Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Calvinist tradition practising Congregationalist polity, congregationalist church governance, in which each Wiktionary:congregation, c ...
and other
Calvinist Calvinism (also called the Reformed Tradition, Reformed Protestantism, Reformed Christianity, or simply Reformed) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John C ...
churches gathering more than 80 million people around the world was based here from 1948 until 2013. The executive committee of the
World Communion of Reformed Churches The World Communion of Reformed Churches (WCRC) is the largest association of Calvinist churches in the world. It has 230 member denominations in 108 countries, together claiming an estimated 80 million people, thus being List of the largest Prote ...
voted in 2012 to move its offices to
Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 535,932 (2021) inhabitants make it the List of cities in Germany by population, 13th-largest city in Germa ...
, Germany, citing the high costs of running the ecumenical organization in Geneva, Switzerland. The move was completed in 2013. Likewise, the
Conference of European Churches The Conference of European Churches (CEC) was founded in 1959 to promote reconciliation, dialogue and friendship between the churches of Europe at a time of growing Cold War political tensions and divisions. In its commitment to Europe as a who ...
have moved their headquarters from Geneva to Brussels.


"Protestant Rome"

Prior to the
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in ...
the city was ''de jure'' and ''de facto''
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptized Catholics worldwide . It is among the world's oldest and largest international institutions, and has played a ...
. Reaction to the new movement varied across Switzerland.
John Calvin John Calvin (; frm, Jehan Cauvin; french: link=no, Jean Calvin ; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French Christian theology, theologian, pastor and Protestant Reformers, reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal ...
went to Geneva in 1536 after William Farel encouraged him to do so. In Geneva, the Catholic bishop had been obliged to seek exile in 1532. Geneva became a stronghold of
Calvinism Calvinism (also called the Reformed Tradition, Reformed Protestantism, Reformed Christianity, or simply Reformed) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the Christian theology, theological tradition and forms of Christianity, Christ ...
. Some of the tenets created there influenced Protestantism as a whole. St. Pierre Cathedral was where Calvin and his
Protestant reformers Protestant Reformers were those theologians whose careers, works and actions brought about the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century. In the context of the Reformation, Martin Luther was the first reformer (sharing his views publicly in 15 ...
preached. It constituted the epicentre of the newly developing Protestant thought that would later become known as the
Reformed tradition Calvinism (also called the Reformed Tradition, Reformed Protestantism, Reformed Christianity, or simply Reformed) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the Christian theology, theological tradition and forms of Christianity, Christ ...
. Many prominent Reformed theologians operated there, including William Farel and
Theodore Beza Theodore Beza ( la, Theodorus Beza; french: Théodore de Bèze or ''de Besze''; June 24, 1519 – October 13, 1605) was a French people, French Calvinist Protestant theologian, Protestant reformer, reformer and scholar who played an important ...
, Calvin's successor who progressed Reformed thought after his death. Geneva was a shelter for Calvinists, but at the same time it persecuted Roman Catholics and others considered heretics. The case of
Michael Servetus Michael Servetus (; es, Miguel Serveto as real name; french: Michel Servet; also known as ''Miguel Servet'', ''Miguel de Villanueva'', ''Revés'', or ''Michel de Villeneuve''; 29 September 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553) was a Spanish th ...
, an early
Nontrinitarian Nontrinitarianism is a form of Christianity that rejects the mainstream Christian theology, Christian doctrine of the Trinity—the belief that God in Christianity, God is three distinct Hypostasis (philosophy and religion), hypostases or perso ...
, is notable. Condemned by both Catholics and Protestants alike, he was arrested in Geneva and burnt at the stake as a heretic by order of the city's Protestant governing council. John Calvin and his followers denounced him, and possibly contributed to his sentence. In 1802, during its annexation to France under
Napoleon I Napoleon Bonaparte ; it, Napoleone Bonaparte, ; co, Napulione Buonaparte. (born Napoleone Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821), later known by his regnal name Napoleon I, was a French military commander and political leader who ...
, the Diocese of Geneva was united with the Diocese of Chambéry, but the 1814 Congress of Vienna and the 1816 Treaty of Turin stipulated that in the territories transferred to a now considerably extended Geneva, the Catholic religion was to be protected and that no changes were to be made in existing conditions without an agreement with the Holy See. Napoleon's common policy was to emancipate Catholics in Protestant-majority areas, and the other way around, as well as emancipating Jews. In 1819, the city of Geneva and 20 parishes were united to the Diocese of Lausanne by
Pope Pius VII Pope Pius VII ( it, Pio VII; born Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti; 14 August 1742 – 20 August 1823), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 14 March 1800 to his death in August 1823. Chiaramonti was also a m ...
and in 1822, the non-Swiss territory was made into the Diocese of Annecy. A variety of concord with the civil authorities came as a result of the
separation of church and state The separation of church and state is a philosophical and Jurisprudence, jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the State (polity), state. Conceptually, the term refers to ...
, enacted with strong Catholic support in 1907.


Crime

In 2014 the incidence of crimes listed in the Swiss Criminal Code in Geneva was 143.9 per thousand residents. During the same period the rate of drug crimes was 33.6 per thousand residents. The rate of violations of immigration, visa and work permit laws was 35.7 per thousand residents.


Cityscape


Heritage sites of national significance

There are 82 buildings or sites in Geneva that are listed as Swiss heritage sites of national significance, and the entire old city of Geneva is part of the
Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites The Federal Inventory of Heritage Sites (ISOS) is part of a 1981 Ordinance of the Swiss Federal Council implementing the Federal Law on the Protection of Nature and Cultural Heritage. Sites of national importance Types The types are based on t ...
. Religious buildings: Cathedral St-Pierre et Chapel des Macchabés, Notre-Dame Church, Russian church, St-Germain Church, Temple de la Fusterie, Temple de l'Auditoire Civic buildings: Former Arsenal and Archives of the City of Genève, Former Crédit Lyonnais, Former Hôtel Buisson, Former Hôtel du Résident de France et Bibliothèque de la Société de lecture de Genève, Former école des arts industriels, Archives d'État de Genève (Annexe), Bâtiment des forces motrices, Bibliothèque de Genève, Library juive de Genève «Gérard Nordmann», Cabinet des estampes, Centre d'Iconographie genevoise, Collège Calvin, École Geisendorf, University Hospital of Geneva (HUG), Hôtel de Ville et tour Baudet, Immeuble Clarté at Rue Saint-Laurent 2 and 4, Immeubles House Rotonde at Rue Charles-Giron 11–19, Immeubles at Rue Beauregard 2, 4, 6, 8, Immeubles at Rue de la Corraterie 10–26, Immeubles at Rue des Granges 2–6, Immeuble at Rue des Granges 8, Immeubles at Rue des Granges 10 and 12, Immeuble at Rue des Granges 14, Immeuble and Former Armory at Rue des Granges 16, Immeubles at Rue Pierre Fatio 7 and 9, House de Saussure at Rue de la Cité 24, House Des arts du Grütli at Rue du Général-Dufour 16, House Royale et les deux immeubles à côté at Quai Gustave Ador 44–50, Tavel House at Rue du Puits-St-Pierre 6, Turrettini House at Rue de l'Hôtel-de-Ville 8 and 10, Brunswick Monument, Palais de Justice, Palais de l'Athénée, Palais des Nations with library and archives of the SDN and ONU, Palais Eynard et Archives de la ville de Genève, Palais Wilson, Parc des Bastions avec Mur des Réformateurs, Place de Neuve et Monument du Général Dufour, Pont de la Machine, Pont sur l'Arve, Poste du Mont-Blanc, Quai du Mont-Blanc, Quai et Hôtel des Bergues, Quai Général Guisan and English Gardens, Quai Gustave-Ador and
Jet d'eau The Jet d'Eau (, ''Water-Jet'') is a large fountain in Geneva, Switzerland and is one of the city's most famous landmarks, being featured on the city's official tourism web site and on the official logo for Geneva's hosting of group stage matches ...
, Télévision Suisse Romande,
University of Geneva The University of Geneva (French: ''Université de Genève'') is a public university, public research university located in Geneva, Switzerland. It was founded in 1559 by John Calvin as a Theology, theological seminary. It remained focused on t ...
, Victoria Hall. Archeological sites: Foundation Baur and Museum of the arts d'Extrême-Orient, Parc et campagne de la Grange and Library (neolithic shore settlement/Roman villa),
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a historic period, lasting approximately from 3300 BC to 1200 BC, characterized by the use of bronze Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin and often with the addition of ...
shore settlement of Plonjon, Temple de la Madeleine archeological site, Temple Saint-Gervais archeological site, Old City with Celtic,
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter ...
and medieval villages. Museums, theaters, and other cultural sites: Conservatoire de musique at Place Neuve 5, Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques, Fonds cantonal d'art contemporain, Ile Rousseau and statue,
Institut et Musée Voltaire The Institut et Musée Voltaire is a museum in Geneva dedicated to the life and works of Voltaire. The museum is housed in Les Délices, which was Voltaire's home from 1755 until 1760. The property was bought by the city of Geneva in 1929, and the ...
with Library and Archives, Mallet House and Museum international de la Réforme, Musée Ariana, Museum of Art and History, Museum d'art moderne et contemporain, Museum d'ethnographie, Museum of the International Red Cross, Musée Rath, Natural History Museum, Plainpalais Commune Auditorium, Pitoëff Theatre, Villa Bartholoni at the Museum of History and Science. International organizations:
International Labour Organization The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency whose mandate is to advance social and economic justice by setting international labour standards. Founded in October 1919 under the League of Nations, it is the first and ol ...
(ILO),
International Committee of the Red Cross The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC; french: Comité international de la Croix-Rouge) is a aid agency, humanitarian organization which is based in Geneva, Switzerland, and it is also a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate. State parti ...
,
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is a United Nations agency mandated to aid and Humanitarian protection, protect refugees, Internally displaced person, forcibly displaced communities, and Statelessness, stateless peopl ...
(UNHCR),
World Meteorological Organization The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for promoting international cooperation on atmospheric science, climatology, hydrology and ...
,
World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization Globalization is social change associated with increased connectivity among societies and their elements and the explosive evolution of transportation and telecommunica ...
,
International Telecommunication Union The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for many matters related to information and communication technologies. It was established on 17 May 1865 as the International Telegraph Unio ...
, World
YMCA YMCA, sometimes regionally called the Y, is a worldwide youth organization based in Geneva, Switzerland, with more than 64 million beneficiaries in 120 countries. It was founded on 6 June 1844 by George Williams (philanthropist), Georg ...
. Geneva saint peter.JPG, St. Pierre Cathedral Vue aile sud College Calvin.JPG, Collège Calvin IKRK Hauptquartier.jpg,
International Committee of the Red Cross The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC; french: Comité international de la Croix-Rouge) is a aid agency, humanitarian organization which is based in Geneva, Switzerland, and it is also a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate. State parti ...
(CICR) Botanical Garden Geneva 2006 803.JPG, Conservatory and Botanical Garden of the City of Geneva Basilique Notre-Dame, Genève.jpg, Notre-Dame Church Eglise Orthodoxe Russe de Geneve.jpg,
Russian Orthodox Church , native_name_lang = ru , image = Moscow July 2011-7a.jpg , imagewidth = , alt = , caption = Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow, Russia Russia (, , ), or the Russian Fed ...
Genf UNHCR.JPG,
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is a United Nations agency mandated to aid and Humanitarian protection, protect refugees, Internally displaced person, forcibly displaced communities, and Statelessness, stateless peopl ...
(UNHCR) Hotel de Ville Geneva.jpg, Hôtel de Ville and the Tour Baudet Voltaire Museum.JPG,
Institut et Musée Voltaire The Institut et Musée Voltaire is a museum in Geneva dedicated to the life and works of Voltaire. The museum is housed in Les Délices, which was Voltaire's home from 1755 until 1760. The property was bought by the city of Geneva in 1929, and the ...
Musee Reforme.JPG, Mallet House and Museum international de la Réforme Tavel House.JPG, Tavel House Brunswick Monument.jpg, Brunswick Monument Musée d'Art et d'Histoire (46745210785).jpg, Musée d'Art et d'Histoire Villa La Grange.jpg, The Villa La Grange


Society and culture


Media

The city's main newspaper is the daily '' Tribune de Genève'', with a readership of about 187,000. '' Le Courrier'' mainly focuses on Geneva. Both ''
Le Temps ''Le Temps'' (Literal translation, literally "The Time") is a Swiss French-language daily newspaper published in Berliner (format), Berliner format in Geneva by Le Temps SA. It is the sole nationwide French-language non-specialised daily newspa ...
'' (headquartered in Geneva) and '' Le Matin'' are widely read in Geneva, but cover the whole of
Romandy Romandy (french: Romandie or )Before World War I, the term French Switzerland (french: Suisse française) waalso used german: Romandie or , it, Romandia, rm, Romanda) is the Swiss French, French-speaking part of western Switzerland. In 2020, ...
. Geneva is the main media center for French-speaking Switzerland. It is the headquarters for the numerous French language radio and television networks of the
Swiss Broadcasting Corporation The Swiss Broadcasting Corporation (german: Schweizerische Radio- und Fernsehgesellschaft; french: Société suisse de radiodiffusion et télévision; it, Società svizzera di radiotelevisione; rm, Societad Svizra da Radio e Televisiun; SRG ...
, known collectively as
Radio Télévision Suisse Radio is the technology of signaling and communicating Communication (from la, communicare, meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is usually defined as the transmission of information. The term may also refer to the message c ...
. While both networks cover the whole of
Romandy Romandy (french: Romandie or )Before World War I, the term French Switzerland (french: Suisse française) waalso used german: Romandie or , it, Romandia, rm, Romanda) is the Swiss French, French-speaking part of western Switzerland. In 2020, ...
, special programs related to Geneva are sometimes broadcast on some of the local radio frequencies. Other local radio stations broadcast from the city, including YesFM ( FM 91.8 MHz), Radio Cité (non-commercial radio, FM 92.2 MHz), OneFM (FM 107.0 MHz, also broadcast in
Vaud Vaud ( ; french: (Canton de) Vaud, ; german: (Kanton) Waadt, or ), more formally the canton of Vaud, is one of the Canton of Switzerland, 26 cantons forming the Switzerland, Swiss Confederation. It is composed of ten districts and its capital c ...
), and
World Radio Switzerland World Radio Switzerland (WRS) is the only 24-hour, English-language broadcast radio station in Switzerland. Until October 2013, it broadcast on 101.7 MHz FM broadcasting, FM in the Lake Geneva region, and now continues on Digital Audio Broa ...
(FM 88.4 MHz). Léman Bleu is a local TV channel, founded in 1996 and distributed by cable. Due to the proximity to France, many French television channels are also available.


Traditions and customs

Geneva observes '' Jeûne genevois'' on the first Thursday following the first Sunday in September. By local tradition, this commemorates the date news of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of Huguenots reached Geneva. Geneva celebrates ''
L'Escalade ''L'Escalade'', or ''Fête de l'Escalade'' (from escalade, the act of scaling defensive walls), is an annual festival in Geneva, Switzerland, held each December commemorating the defeat of an attempt to conquer the Protestantism, Protestant ci ...
'' on the weekend nearest 12 December, celebrating the defeat of the surprise attack of troops sent by
Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy Charles Emmanuel I ( it, Carlo Emanuele di Savoia; 12 January 1562 – 26 July 1630), known as the Great, was the Duke of Savoy from 1580 to 1630. He was nicknamed (, in context "the Hot-Headed") for his rashness and military aggression. Being ...
during the night of 11–12 December 1602. Festive traditions include chocolate cauldrons filled with vegetable-shaped marzipan treats and the Escalade procession on horseback in seventeenth century armour. Geneva has also been organizing a 'Course de l'Escalade', which means 'Climbing Race'. This race takes place in Geneva's Old Town, and has been popular across all ages. Non-competitive racers dress up in fancy costumes, while walking in the race. Since 1818, a particular chestnut tree has been used as the official "herald of the spring" in Geneva. The ''sautier'' (secretary of the Parliament of the Canton of Geneva) observes the tree and notes the day of arrival of the first bud. While this event has no practical effect, the sautier issues a formal
press release A press release is an official statement delivered to members of the news media for the purpose of providing information, creating an official statement, or making an announcement directed for public release. Press releases are also considere ...
and the local newspaper will usually mention the news. As this is one of the world's oldest records of a plant's reaction to climatic conditions, researchers have been interested to note that the first bud has been appearing earlier and earlier in the year. During the 19th century many dates were in March or April. In recent years, they have usually been in late February (sometimes earlier). In 2002, the first bud appeared unusually early, on 7 February, and then again on 29 December of the same year. The following year, one of the hottest years recorded in Europe, was a year with no bud. In 2008, the first bud also appeared early, on 19 February.


Music and festivals

The
opera house An opera house is a theater (structure), theatre building used for performances of opera. It usually includes a Stage (theatre), stage, an orchestra pit, audience seating, and backstage facilities for costumes and building sets. While some venu ...
, the Grand Théâtre de Genève, which officially opened in 1876, was partly destroyed by a fire in 1951 and reopened in 1962. It has the largest stage in Switzerland. It features opera and dance performances, recitals, concerts and, occasionally, theatre. The Victoria Hall is used for classical music concerts. It is the home of the
Orchestre de la Suisse Romande The Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (OSR) is a Swiss symphony orchestra, based in Geneva at the Victoria Hall (Geneva), Victoria Hall. In addition to symphony concerts, the OSR performs as the opera orchestra in productions at the Grand Théâtre ...
. Every summer the Fêtes de Genève (Geneva Festival) are organised in Geneva. According to
Radio Télévision Suisse Radio is the technology of signaling and communicating Communication (from la, communicare, meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is usually defined as the transmission of information. The term may also refer to the message c ...
in 2013 hundreds of thousands of people came to Geneva to see the annual hour-long grand
firework Fireworks are a class of Explosive, low explosive Pyrotechnics, pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes. They are most commonly used in fireworks displays (also called a fireworks show or pyrotechnics), combining a l ...
display of the Fêtes de Genève."Une heure de feux genevois sur le thème des conquêtes"
, www.rts.ch (page visited on 11 August 2013).
An annual music festival takes place in June. Groups of artists perform in different parts of the city. In 2016 the festival celebrated its 25th anniversary. Further annual festivals are the ''Fête de l'Olivier,'' a festival of Arabic music, organized by the ICAM since 1980, and the ''Genevan Brass Festival'', founded by Christophe Sturzenegger in 2010.


Education

The Canton of Geneva's public school system has ''écoles primaires'' (ages 4–12) and ''cycles d'orientation'' (ages 12–15). Students can leave school at 15, but secondary education is provided by ''collèges'' (ages 15–19), the oldest of which is the Collège Calvin, which could be considered one of the oldest public schools in the world, ''écoles de culture générale'' (15–18/19) and the ''écoles professionnelles'' (15–18/19). The ''écoles professionnelles'' offer full-time courses and part-time study as part of an apprenticeship. Geneva also has a number of private schools. In 2011 89,244 (37.0%) of the population had completed non-mandatory upper secondary education, and 107,060 or (44.3%) had completed additional higher education (either university or a Fachhochschule). Of the 107,060 who completed tertiary schooling, 32.5% were Swiss men, 31.6% were Swiss women, 18.1% were non-Swiss men and 17.8% were non-Swiss women. During the 2011–2012 school year, there were a total of 92,311 students in the Geneva school system (primary to university). The education system in the Canton of Geneva has eight years of primary school, with 32,716 students. The secondary school program consists of three lower, obligatory years of schooling, followed by three to five years of optional, advanced study. There were 13,146 lower-secondary students who attended schools in Geneva. There were 10,486 upper-secondary students from the municipality along with 10,330 students who were in a professional, non-university track program. An additional 11,797 students were attending private schools. Geneva is home to the
University of Geneva The University of Geneva (French: ''Université de Genève'') is a public university, public research university located in Geneva, Switzerland. It was founded in 1559 by John Calvin as a Theology, theological seminary. It remained focused on t ...
where approximately 16,500 students are regularly enrolled. In 1559
John Calvin John Calvin (; frm, Jehan Cauvin; french: link=no, Jean Calvin ; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French Christian theology, theologian, pastor and Protestant Reformers, reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal ...
founded the Geneva Academy, a theological and humanist seminary. In the 19th century the academy lost its ecclesiastic links and in 1873, with the addition of a medical faculty, it became the University of Geneva. In 2011 it was ranked European university. The
Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, or the Geneva Graduate Institute (french: Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement), abbreviated IHEID, is a government-accredited postgraduate institution ...
was among the first academic institutions in the world to teach international relations. It is one of Europe's most prestigious institutions, offering MA and PhD programmes in anthropology and sociology, law, political science, history, economics, international affairs, and development studies. The oldest international school in the world is the
International School of Geneva The International School of Geneva (in French language, French: ''Ecole Internationale de Genève''), also known as "Ecolint" or "The International School", is a private, non-profit international school based in Geneva, Switzerland. Founded in 1 ...
, founded in 1924 along with the
League of Nations The League of Nations (french: link=no, Société des Nations ) was the first worldwide Intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. It was founded on 10 January 1920 by ...
. The Geneva School of Diplomacy and International Relations is a private, for-profit university in the grounds of the Château de Penthes.
CERN The European Organization for Nuclear Research, known as CERN (; ; ), is an intergovernmental organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world. Established in 1954, it is based in a northwestern suburb of Gene ...
(the European Organization for Nuclear Research) is probably the best known of Geneva's educational and research facilities, most recently for the
Large Hadron Collider The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and highest-energy Collider, particle collider. It was built by the CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) between 1998 and 2008 in collaboration with over 10,000 scient ...
. Founded in 1954, CERN was one of Europe's first joint ventures and has developed as the world's largest
particle physics Particle physics or high energy physics is the study of Elementary particle, fundamental particles and fundamental interaction, forces that constitute matter and radiation. The fundamental particles in the universe are classified in the Standa ...
laboratory. Physicists from around the world travel to CERN to research matter and explore the fundamental forces and materials that form the universe. Geneva is home to five major libraries, the ''Bibliothèques municipales Genève'', the ''Haute école de travail social, Institut d'études sociales'', the ''Haute école de santé'', the ''Ecole d'ingénieurs de Genève'' and the ''Haute école d'art et de design''. There were () 877,680 books or other media in the libraries, and in the same year 1,798,980 items were loaned.


Economy

Geneva's economy is largely service-driven and closely linked to the rest of the canton. The city is one of the global leaders in financial centres. Three main sectors dominate the financial sector: commodity trading; trade finance, and wealth management. Around a third of the world's free traded oil, sugar, grains and oil seeds is traded in Geneva. Approximately 22% of the world's cotton is traded in the Lake Geneva region. Other major commodities traded in the canton include steel, electricity, or coffee. Large trading companies have their regional or global headquarters in the canton, such as Bunge,
Cargill Cargill, Incorporated, is a Privately held company, privately held American global food corporation based in Minnetonka, Minnesota, Minnetonka, Minnesota, and incorporated in Wilmington, Delaware. Founded in 1865, it is the largest privatel ...
,
Vitol Vitol is a Swiss-based Multinational corporation, multinational energy and commodity trading company that was founded in Rotterdam in 1966 by Henk Viëtor and Jacques Detiger. Though trading, logistics and distribution are at the core of its busin ...
, Gunvor,
BNP Paribas BNP Paribas is a French international banking group, founded in 2000 from the merger between Banque Nationale de Paris (BNP, "National Bank of Paris") and Paribas, formerly known as the Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas. The full name of the gr ...
, Trafigura or Mercuria Energy Group, in addition to being home to the world's largest shipping company,
Mediterranean Shipping Company Mediterranean Shipping Company S.A. (MSC) is an international shipping line founded by Gianluigi Aponte in Italy in 1970, with headquarters in Switzerland since 1978. The privately held company is owned by the Aponte family. It has been the lar ...
. Commodity trading is sustained by a strong trade finance sector, with large banks such as BCGE, BCP, BNP Paribas, BCV, Crédit Agricole,
Credit Suisse Credit Suisse Group AG is a global Investment banking, investment bank and financial services firm founded and based in Switzerland. Headquartered in Zürich, it maintains offices in all Financial centre, major financial centers around the w ...
, ING, Société Générale, and
UBS UBS Group AG is a multinational Investment banking, investment bank and financial services company founded and based in Switzerland. Co-headquartered in the cities of Zürich and Basel, it maintains a presence in all major financial centres ...
, all having their headquarters in the area for this business. Wealth management is dominated by non-publicly listed banks and private banks, particularly Pictet, Lombard Odier, Edmond de Rothschild Group, Union Bancaire Privée, Mirabaud Group,
Dukascopy Bank Dukascopy Bank is a Swiss online bank which provides online and mobile trading, banking and financial services. Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, it has offices in Riga, Kyiv, Moscow, Kuala Lumpur, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Dubai and Tokyo, with o ...
, Bordier & Cie, Banque SYZ, or REYL & Cie. In addition, the canton is home to the largest concentration of foreign-owned banks in Switzerland, such as HSBC Private Bank,
JPMorgan Chase JPMorgan Chase & Co. is an American Multinational corporation, multinational Investment banking, investment bank and financial services holding company headquartered in City of New York, New York City and Delaware General Corporation Law, inco ...
, or
Arab Bank Arab Bank is one of the largest financial institution Financial institutions, sometimes called banking institutions, are business entities that provide services as intermediaries for different types of financial monetary transactions. Broadl ...
. Behind the financial sector, the next largest major economic sector is watchmaking, dominated by luxury firms
Rolex Rolex SA () is a British-founded Swiss watch designer and manufacturer based in Geneva, Switzerland. Founded in 1905 as ''Wilsdorf and Davis'' by Hans Wilsdorf and Alfred Davis in London, the company registered ''Rolex'' as the brand name of ...
,
Richemont Compagnie Financière Richemont S.A., commonly known as Richemont, is a Switzerland-based luxury goods In economics, a luxury good (or upmarket good) is a good (economics), good for which demand (economics), demand increases more than what is ...
,
Patek Philippe Patek Philippe SA is a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland *Swiss people Places *Swiss, Missouri *Swiss, North Carolina *Swiss, West Virginia *Swiss, Wisconsin Other uses *Swiss-system tournament, in various games ...
, Piaget, Roger Dubuis, and others, whose factories are concentrated in the Les Acacias neighbourhood, as well as the neighbouring municipalities of Plan-les-Ouates,
Satigny Satigny is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality of the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. It is the largest municipality of the canton by land area and the largest wine-producing municipality of the country. Its territory contains the majorit ...
, and
Meyrin Meyrin () is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unit,Article 3(1). country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, constituent state, as well ...
. Trade finance, wealth management, and watchmaking, approximately contribute two thirds of the corporate tax paid in the canton Other large multinationals are also headquartered in the city and canton, such as
Firmenich Firmenich SA is a private Swiss company in the fragrance An aroma compound, also known as an odorant, aroma, fragrance or flavoring, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor. For an individual chemical or class of chemical compounds ...
(in Satigny), and
Givaudan Givaudan () is a Swiss multinational manufacturer of flavours, fragrances and active cosmetic ingredients. As of 2008, it is the world's largest company in the flavour and fragrance An aroma compound, also known as an odorant, aroma, frag ...
(in Vernier), the world's two largest manufacturers of flavours, fragrances and active cosmetic ingredients; SGS, the world's largest inspection, verification, testing and certification services company;
Temenos A ''temenos'' (Greek language, Greek: ; plural: , ''temenē''). is a piece of land cut off and assigned as an official domain, especially to basileus, kings and anax, chiefs, or a piece of land marked off from common uses and dedicated to a god, ...
, a large banking software provider; or the local headquarters for
Procter & Gamble The Procter & Gamble Company (P&G) is an American multinational Final good, consumer goods corporation headquartered in Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, founded in 1837 by William Procter (industrialist), William Procter and James Gamble (industr ...
,
Japan Tobacco International JTI - Japan Tobacco International is the international tobacco division of Japan Tobacco, a leading international tobacco product manufacturer. The holding company is JT International SA and headquartered in Geneva Geneva ( ; french: Genève ...
, or L'Oréal (in Vernier). Although they do not directly contribute to the local economy, the city of Geneva is also host to the world's largest concentration of international organisations and UN agencies, such as the
Red Cross The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is a Humanitarianism, humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million Volunteering, volunteers, members and staff worldwide. It was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure re ...
, the
World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a list of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. The WHO Constitution states its main objective as "the attainme ...
, the
World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization Globalization is social change associated with increased connectivity among societies and their elements and the explosive evolution of transportation and telecommunica ...
, the
International Telecommunication Union The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for many matters related to information and communication technologies. It was established on 17 May 1865 as the International Telegraph Unio ...
, the
World Intellectual Property Organization The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO; french: link=no, Organisation mondiale de la propriété intellectuelle (OMPI)) is one of the 15 specialized agencies of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergover ...
, the
World Meteorological Organization The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for promoting international cooperation on atmospheric science, climatology, hydrology and ...
, and the
International Labour Organization The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency whose mandate is to advance social and economic justice by setting international labour standards. Founded in October 1919 under the League of Nations, it is the first and ol ...
, as well as the European headquarters of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization whose stated purposes are to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be ...
. Its international mindedness, well-connected
airport An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports usually consists of a landing area, which comprises an aerially accessible open space including at least one operationally active surface ...
, and centrality in the continent, also make Geneva a good destination for congresses and trade fairs, of which the largest is the
Geneva Motor Show The Geneva International Motor Show is an annual auto show held in March in the Switzerland, Swiss city of Geneva. The show is hosted at the Palexpo, a convention centre located next to the Geneva Cointrin International Airport. The Salon is org ...
held in
Palexpo Palexpo is a convention center A convention center (American and British English spelling differences, American English; or conference centre in British English) is a large building that is designed to hold a Convention (meeting), conventi ...
. Agriculture is commonplace in the hinterlands of Geneva, particularly wheat and wine. Despite its relatively small size, the canton produces around 10% of the Swiss wine and has the highest vineyard density in the country. The largest strains grown in Geneva are gamay, chasselas, pinot noir, gamaret, and chardonnay. , Geneva had an unemployment rate of 3.9%. , there were five people employed in the primary economic sector and about three businesses involved in this sector. 9,783 people were employed in the
secondary sector In macroeconomics, the secondary sector of the economy is an economic sector in the Three-sector model, three-sector theory that describes the role of manufacturing. It encompasses Industry (economics), industries that Production (economics), pr ...
and there were 1,200 businesses in this sector. 134,429 people were employed in the
tertiary sector The tertiary sector of the economy, generally known as the service sector, is the third of the three economic sector One classical breakdown of economic activity distinguishes three-sector model, three sectors: * Primary sector of the ec ...
, with 12,489 businesses in this sector. There were 91,880 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, with women making up 47.7% of the workforce. , the total number of
full-time equivalent Full-time equivalent (FTE), or whole time equivalent (WTE), is a unit that indicates the workload of an employed person (or student) in a way that makes workloads or class loads comparable across various contexts. FTE is often used to measure a ...
jobs was 124,185. The number of jobs in the primary sector was four, all of which were in agriculture. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 9,363 of which 4,863 or (51.9%) were in manufacturing and 4,451 (47.5%) were in construction. The number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 114,818. In the tertiary sector; 16,573 or 14.4% were in wholesale or retail sales or the repair of motor vehicles, 3,474 or 3.0% were in the movement and storage of goods, 9,484 or 8.3% were in a hotel or restaurant, 4,544 or 4.0% were in the information industry, 20,982 or 18.3% were the insurance or financial industry, 12,177 or 10.6% were technical professionals or scientists, 10,007 or 8.7% were in education and 15,029 or 13.1% were in health care. , there were 95,190 workers who commuted into the municipality and 25,920 workers who commuted away. The municipality is a net importer of workers, with about 3.7 workers entering the municipality for every one leaving. About 13.8% of the workforce coming into Geneva are coming from outside Switzerland, while 0.4% of the locals commute out of Switzerland for work.Swiss Federal Statistical Office – Statweb
accessed 24 June 2010.
Of the working population, 38.2% used public transportation to get to work, and 30.6% used a private car.


Sport

Ice hockey Ice hockey (or simply hockey) is a team sport played on ice skates, usually on an Ice rink, ice skating rink with Ice hockey rink, lines and markings specific to the sport. It belongs to a family of sports called hockey. In ice hockey, two o ...
is one of the most popular sports in Geneva. Geneva is home to Genève-Servette HC, which plays in the
National League The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, known simply as the National League (NL), is the older of two leagues constituting Major League Baseball (MLB) in the United States and Canada, and the world's oldest extant professional team s ...
(NL). They play their home games in the 7,135-seat Patinoire des Vernets. In 2008, 2010 and 2021 the team made it to the league finals but lost to the
ZSC Lions The Zürcher Schlittschuh Club Lions (ZSC Lions) are a professional ice hockey Ice hockey (or simply hockey) is a team sport played on ice skates, usually on an Ice rink, ice skating rink with Ice hockey rink, lines and markings specific ...
,
SC Bern Schlittschuh Club Bern (''Ice-skating Club Bern'' in English language, English) is an ice hockey team based in Bern, Switzerland. They play in the National League (ice hockey), National League (NL), the top tier of the Swiss hockey league system. ...
and EV Zug respectively. The team was by far the most popular one in both the city and the canton of Geneva, drawing three times more spectators than the
football Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, Kick (football), kicking a Football (ball), ball to score a Goal (sport), goal. Unqualified, Football (word), the word ''football'' normally means the form of football tha ...
team in 2017. Since the return of Servette FC in the
Swiss Super League The Swiss Super League (known as the Credit Suisse Credit Suisse Group AG is a global Investment banking, investment bank and financial services firm founded and based in Switzerland. Headquartered in Zürich, it maintains offices in all ...
, however, both teams have similar attendance numbers. The town is home to Servette FC, a football club founded in 1890 and named after a borough on the right bank of the Rhône. It is the most successfull football club in
Romandy Romandy (french: Romandie or )Before World War I, the term French Switzerland (french: Suisse française) waalso used german: Romandie or , it, Romandia, rm, Romanda) is the Swiss French, French-speaking part of western Switzerland. In 2020, ...
, and the third in Switzerland overall, with 17 league titles and 7 Swiss Cups. The home of Servette FC is the 30,000-seat Stade de Genève. Servette FC plays in the Credit Suisse Super League. Étoile Carouge FC and Urania Genève Sport also play in the city. Geneva is home to the basketball team Lions de Genève, 2013 and 2015 champions of the Swiss Basketball League. The team plays its home games in the ''Pavilion des Sports''. Geneva Jets Australian Football Club have been playing
Australian Football Australian football, also called Australian rules football or Aussie rules, or more simply football or footy, is a contact sport played between two teams of 18 players on an Australian rules football playing field, oval field, often a modifie ...
in the AFL Switzerland league since 2019.


Infrastructure


Transportation

The city is served by the
Geneva Airport Geneva Airport ,, german: Flughafen Genf, it, Aeroporto di Ginevra, rm, Eroport de Genevra formerly and still unofficially known as Cointrin Airport, is the international airport An international airport is an airport An air ...
. It is connected by Geneva Airport railway station (french: link=no, Gare de Genève-Aéroport) to both the
Swiss Federal Railways Swiss Federal Railways (german: link=no, Schweizerische Bundesbahnen, ''SBB''; french: link=no, Chemins de fer fédéraux suisses, ''CFF''; it, Ferrovie federali svizzere, ''FFS'') is the national railway company of Switzerland. It is usuall ...
network and the French
SNCF The Société nationale des chemins de fer français (; abbreviated as SNCF ; French for "National society of French railroads") is France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Eur ...
network, including links to Paris, Lyon,
Marseille Marseille ( , , ; also spelled in English as Marseilles; oc, Marselha ) is the Prefectures in France, prefecture of the France, French Departments of France, department of Bouches-du-Rhône and capital of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regio ...
and
Montpellier Montpellier (, , ; oc, Montpelhièr ) is a city in southern France near the Mediterranean Sea. One of the largest urban centres in the region of Occitania (administrative region), Occitania, Montpellier is the prefecture of the Departments of ...
by
TGV The TGV (french: Train à Grande Vitesse, "high-speed train"; previously french: TurboTrain à Grande Vitesse, label=none) is France's intercity high-speed rail High-speed rail (HSR) is a type of rail system that runs significantly faste ...
. Geneva is connected to the motorway systems of both Switzerland ( A1 motorway) and France. Public transport by bus, trolleybus or tram is provided by '' Transports Publics Genevois''. In addition to an extensive coverage of the city centre, the network extends to most of the municipalities of the Canton, with a few lines reaching into France. Public transport by boat is provided by the Mouettes Genevoises, which link the two banks of the lake within the city, and by the '' Compagnie Générale de Navigation sur le lac Léman'' which serves more distant destinations such as
Nyon Nyon (; outdated German language, German: or ; outdated Italian language, Italian: , ) is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in Nyon District in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Vaud in Switzerland. It is located some 25 kilomet ...
, Yvoire, Thonon, Évian,
Lausanne Lausanne ( , , , ) ; it, Losanna; rm, Losanna. is the capital and largest city of the Swiss French speaking canton of Vaud. It is a hilly city situated on the shores of Lake Geneva, about halfway between the Jura Mountains and the Alps, and fac ...
and
Montreux Montreux (, , ; frp, Montrolx) is a Swiss municipalities of Switzerland, municipality and List of towns in Switzerland, town on the shoreline of Lake Geneva at the foot of the Swiss Alps, Alps. It belongs to the district of Riviera-Pays-d'Enhaut ...
using both modern diesel vessels and vintage
paddle steamers A paddle steamer is a steamship A steamship, often referred to as a steamer, is a type of steam-powered vessel, typically ocean-faring and seaworthy, that is propelled by one or more steam engines that typically move (turn) propellers or P ...
. Trains operated by
Swiss Federal Railways Swiss Federal Railways (german: link=no, Schweizerische Bundesbahnen, ''SBB''; french: link=no, Chemins de fer fédéraux suisses, ''CFF''; it, Ferrovie federali svizzere, ''FFS'') is the national railway company of Switzerland. It is usuall ...
connect the airport to the main station of Cornavin in six minutes. Regional train services are being developed towards Coppet and Bellegarde. At the city limits two new railway stations have been opened since 2002: Genève-Sécheron (close to the UN and the
Botanical Gardens A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens, an ...
) and Lancy-Pont-Rouge. In 2011 work started on the CEVA rail (Cornavin – Eaux-Vives – Annemasse) project, first planned in 1884, which will connect Cornavin with the Cantonal hospital, Eaux-Vives railway station and
Annemasse Annemasse (; Arpitan: ''Anemâsse'') is a commune in the Haute-Savoie Haute-Savoie (; Franco-Provençal, Arpitan: ''Savouè d'Amont'' or ''Hiôta-Savouè''; en, Upper Savoy) or '; it, Alta Savoia. is a Departments of France, department in the ...
, in France. The link between the main railway station and the
classification yard A classification yard (American English, American and Canadian English (Canadian National Railway use)), marshalling yard (British English, British, Hong Kong English, Hong Kong, Indian English, Indian, Australian English, Australian, and Canadian ...
of La Praille already exists; from there, the line runs mostly underground to the Hospital and Eaux-Vives, where it links to the existing line to France. The line fully opened in December 2019, as part of the Léman Express regional rail network. In May 2013, the demonstrator electric bus system with a capacity of 133 passengers commenced between
Geneva Airport Geneva Airport ,, german: Flughafen Genf, it, Aeroporto di Ginevra, rm, Eroport de Genevra formerly and still unofficially known as Cointrin Airport, is the international airport An international airport is an airport An air ...
and
Palexpo Palexpo is a convention center A convention center (American and British English spelling differences, American English; or conference centre in British English) is a large building that is designed to hold a Convention (meeting), conventi ...
. The project aims to introduce a new system of mass transport with electric "flash" recharging of the buses at selected stops while passengers are disembarking and embarking. Taxis in Geneva can be difficult to find, and may need to be booked in advance, especially in the early morning or at peak hours. Taxis can refuse to take babies and children because of seating legislation. An ambitious project to close 200 streets in the centre of Geneva to cars was approved by the Geneva cantonal authorities in 2010 and was planned to be implemented over a span of four years (2010–2014), though , work on the project has yet to be started.


Utilities

Water, natural gas and electricity are provided to the
municipalities of the Canton of Geneva The following are the 45 municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unit,Article 3(1). country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, constituent sta ...
by the state-owned Services Industriels de Genève, known as SIG. Most of the drinking water (80%) is extracted from the
lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a Depression (geology), basin, surrounded by land, and distinct from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the World Ocean, oce ...
; the remaining 20% is provided by
groundwater Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in rock and Pore space in soil, soil pore spaces and in the fractures of stratum, rock formations. About 30 percent of all readily available freshwater in the world is groundwater. A unit ...
, originally formed by infiltration from the Arve. 30% of the Canton's electricity needs is locally produced, mainly by three
hydroelectric Hydroelectricity, or hydroelectric power, is Electricity generation, electricity generated from hydropower (water power). Hydropower supplies one sixth of the world's electricity, almost 4500 TWh in 2020, which is more than all other Renewabl ...
dams on the Rhône (Seujet, Verbois and Chancy-Pougny). In addition, 13% of the electricity produced in the Canton is from the burning of waste at the waste incineration facility of Les Cheneviers. The remaining needs (57%) are covered by imports from other cantons in Switzerland or other European countries; SIG buys only electricity produced by renewable methods, and in particular does not use electricity produced using
nuclear reactor A nuclear reactor is a device used to initiate and control a fission nuclear chain reaction or nuclear fusion reactions. Nuclear reactors are used at nuclear power plants for electricity generation and in nuclear marine propulsion. Heat from nu ...
s or
fossil fuels A fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon-containing material formed naturally in the Earth's crust from the remains of dead plants and animals that is extracted and combustion, burned as a fuel. The main fossil fuels are coal, petroleum, oil, and natura ...
. Natural gas is available in the City of Geneva, as well as in about two-thirds of the municipalities of the canton, and is imported from Western Europe by the Swiss company Gaznat. SIG also provides telecommunication facilities to carriers,
service provider A service provider (SP) is an organization that provides services, such as consulting, legal, real estate, communications, storage, and processing services, to other organizations. Although a service provider can be a sub-unit of the organization t ...
s and large enterprises. From 2003 to 2005, "Voisin, voisine" a fibre to the Home pilot project with a
triple play In baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball sport played between two team sport, teams of nine players each, taking turns batting (baseball), batting and Fielding (baseball), fielding. The game occurs over the course o ...
offering was launched to test the
end-user In product development, an end user (sometimes end-user) is a person who ultimately uses or is intended to ultimately use a product. The end user stands in contrast to users who support or maintain the product, such as sysops, system administrato ...
market in the Charmilles district.


International organisations

Geneva is the European headquarters of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization whose stated purposes are to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be ...
, in the Palace of Nations building, up the hill from the headquarters of the former League of Nations. Several agencies are headquartered in Geneva, including the
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is a United Nations agency mandated to aid and Humanitarian protection, protect refugees, Internally displaced person, forcibly displaced communities, and Statelessness, stateless peopl ...
, the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, the
World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a list of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. The WHO Constitution states its main objective as "the attainme ...
, the
International Labour Organization The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency whose mandate is to advance social and economic justice by setting international labour standards. Founded in October 1919 under the League of Nations, it is the first and ol ...
,
International Telecommunication Union The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for many matters related to information and communication technologies. It was established on 17 May 1865 as the International Telegraph Unio ...
, the International Baccalaureate Organization and the
World Intellectual Property Organization The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO; french: link=no, Organisation mondiale de la propriété intellectuelle (OMPI)) is one of the 15 specialized agencies of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergover ...
. Apart from the UN agencies, Geneva hosts many inter-governmental organizations, such as the
World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization Globalization is social change associated with increased connectivity among societies and their elements and the explosive evolution of transportation and telecommunica ...
, the South Centre, the
World Meteorological Organization The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for promoting international cooperation on atmospheric science, climatology, hydrology and ...
, the
World Economic Forum The World Economic Forum (WEF) is an international non-governmental organization, international non-governmental and Lobbying organization, lobbying organisation based in Cologny, canton of Geneva, Switzerland. It was founded on 24 January 197 ...
, the
International Organization for Migration The International Organization for Migration (IOM) is a UN agency, United Nations agency that provides services and advice concerning human migration, migration to governments and migrants, including internally displaced persons, refugees, and mi ...
, the
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) is a worldwide humanitarian aid organization that reaches 160 million people each year through its 192-member National Societies. It acts before, during and after disast ...
and the
International Committee of the Red Cross The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC; french: Comité international de la Croix-Rouge) is a aid agency, humanitarian organization which is based in Geneva, Switzerland, and it is also a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate. State parti ...
. The
Maison de la Paix The Maison de la paix (literally: ''House of Peace'') is a building owned by the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, Switzerland. The building was designed by Eric Ott of Neuchâtel's IPAS firm. It serves as ...
building hosts the three Geneva centres supported by the Swiss Confederation: the International Centre for Humanitarian Demining, the Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces and the Geneva Centre for Security Policy, as well as other organisations active in the field of peace, international affairs and sustainable development. Organizations on the European level include the
European Broadcasting Union The European Broadcasting Union (EBU; french: Union européenne de radio-télévision, links=no, UER) is an alliance of Public broadcasting, public service media organisations whose countries are within the European Broadcasting Area or who ar ...
(EBU) and
CERN The European Organization for Nuclear Research, known as CERN (; ; ), is an intergovernmental organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world. Established in 1954, it is based in a northwestern suburb of Gene ...
(the European Organization for Nuclear Research) which is the world's largest particle physics laboratory. The Geneva Environment Network (GEN) publishes the Geneva Green Guide, an extensive listing of Geneva-based global organisations working on environmental protection and sustainable development. A website, jointly run by the Swiss Government, the
World Business Council for Sustainable Development The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) is a CEO-led organization of over 200 multinational company, international companies. The Council is also connected to 60 national and regional business councils and partner organiz ...
, the
United Nations Environment Programme The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is responsible for coordinating responses to environmental issues within the United Nations system. It was established by Maurice Strong, its first director, after the Declaration of the United Natio ...
and the
International Union for Conservation of Nature The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of nat ...
, includes accounts of how NGOs, business, government and the UN cooperate. By doing so, it attempts to explain why Geneva has been picked by so many NGOs and UN bodies as their headquarters' location. The
World Organization of the Scout Movement The World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM ) is the largest international Scouting organization. WOSM has 173 members. These members are recognized national Scout organizations, which collectively have around 43 million participants. WOSM ...
and the World Scout Bureau Central Office are headquartered in Geneva.


Notable people


A–C

* Alfredo Aceto (born 1991), a visual artist *
Gustave Ador Gustave Ador (23 December 1845 – 31 March 1928) was a Switzerland, Swiss politician. In 1919, he became President of the Confederation (Switzerland), President of the Confederation. Biography Origins Ador was born in Cologny, a municipality of ...
(1845–1928), statesman, President of the
Red Cross The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is a Humanitarianism, humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million Volunteering, volunteers, members and staff worldwide. It was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure re ...
(ICRC) * David Aebischer (born 1978), ice hockey goaltender, 2001
Stanley Cup The Stanley Cup (french: La Coupe Stanley) is the championship trophy awarded annually to the National Hockey League (NHL) Stanley Cup playoffs, playoff champion. It is the oldest existing trophy to be awarded to a professional sports franchis ...
champion * Jacques-Laurent Agasse (1767–1849), animal and landscape painter * Jeff Agoos (born 1968), retired American soccer defender, 134 caps for the US team * Henri-Frédéric Amiel (1821–1881), moral philosopher, poet and critic * Gustave Amoudruz (1885–1963), sports shooter, bronze medallist at the
1920 Summer Olympics The 1920 Summer Olympics (french: Jeux olympiques d'été de 1920; nl, Olympische Zomerspelen van 1920; german: Olympische Sommerspiele 1920), officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad (french: Jeux de la VIIe olympiade; nl, Spelen van ...
*
Adolphe Appia Adolphe Appia (1 September 1862 – 29 February 1928), son of Red Cross co-founder Louis Appia, was a Switzerland, Swiss architect and theorist of stage lighting and décor. Early life Adolphe Appia was raised in Geneva, Switzerland, in a "stri ...
(1862–1928), architect and theorist of
stage lighting Stage lighting is the craft of lighting as it applies to the production of theater, dance, opera, and other performance arts.
and décor. *
Philip Arditti Philip Arditti also credited as Philip Ishak Arditti, is a Turkish theatre and television actor of Jewish Sephardic descent, famous for his role as Uday Hussein in the four episode ''House of Saddam'' television docudrama. He also appeared in th ...
(born c. 1980), British/Jewish Sephardic theatre and television actor *
Aimé Argand François-Pierre-Amédée Argand, known as Ami Argand (5 July 1750 – 14 or 24 October 1803) was a Genevan physicist A physicist is a scientist who specializes in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and ener ...
(1750–1803), physicist and chemist, invented the
Argand lamp The Argand lamp is a type of oil lamp invented in 1780 by Aimé Argand. Its output is 6 to 10 candelas, brighter than that of earlier lamps. Its more complete combustion of the candle wick and oil than in other lamps required much less frequent ...
*
Jean-Robert Argand Jean-Robert Argand (, , ; July 18, 1768 – August 13, 1822) was an List of amateur mathematicians, amateur mathematician. In 1806, while managing a bookstore in Paris, he published the idea of geometrical interpretation of complex numbers known as ...
(1768–1822), amateur mathematician, published the
Argand diagram In mathematics Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in m ...
*
Martha Argerich Martha Argerich (; Eastern Catalan: ɾʒəˈɾik born 5 June 1941) is an Argentine classical concert pianist A pianist ( , ) is an individual musician who plays the piano. Since most forms of Western music can make use of the piano, pian ...
(born 1941), an Argentine classical concert pianist *
John Armleder John Armleder (born 1948, in Geneva) is a Swiss people, Swiss performance artist, painter, sculptor, critic, and curator. His work is based on his involvement with Fluxus in the 1960s and 1970s, when he created performance art pieces, installations ...
(born 1948), performance artist, painter, sculptor, critic and curator * Germaine Aussey (1909–1979), née Agassiz, an actress of Swiss origin who settled in Geneva in 1960 * Alexandre Bardinon (born 2002), racing driver * Pierre Bardinon (1931–2012), businessman and car collector * Mathias Beche (born 1986), racing driver * Jean-Luc Bideau (born 1940), film actor *
Ernest Bloch Ernest Bloch (July 24, 1880 – July 15, 1959) was a Switzerland, Swiss-born Americans, American composer. Bloch was a preeminent artist in his day, and left a lasting legacy. He is recognized as one of the greatest Swiss composers in history. As ...
(1880–1959), US composer of Swiss origin * Roger Bocquet (1921–1994), footballer who won 48 caps for Switzerland * Raoul Marie Joseph Count de Boigne (1862–1949), a French sports shooter, bronze medallist at the
1908 Summer Olympics The 1908 Summer Olympics (officially the Games of the IV Olympiad and also known as London 1908) were an International sport, international multi-sport event held in London, England, United Kingdom, from 27 April to 31 October 1908. Th ...
* Caroline Boissier-Butini (1786–1836), pianist and composer * François Bonivard (1493–1570), Geneva ecclesiastic, historian and libertine *
Charles Bonnet Charles Bonnet (; 13 March 1720 – 20 May 1793) was a Genevan naturalist and philosophical writer. He is responsible for coining the term ''phyllotaxis In botany, phyllotaxis () or phyllotaxy is the arrangement of leaf, leaves on a plant st ...
(1720–1793), naturalist and philosophical writer *
Jorge Luis Borges Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo (; ; 24 August 1899 – 14 June 1986) was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator, as well as a key figure in Spanish literature, Spanish-language and international literatur ...
(1899–1986), Argentine short-story writer, studied at the Collège de Genève * Marc-Théodore Bourrit (1739–1819), traveller and writer *
Nicolas Bouvier Nicolas Bouvier (6 March 1929 in Lancy – 17 February 1998) was a 20th-century Swiss traveller, writer, picture editor and photographer. He studied in Geneva in the 1950s and lived there later between his travels. Life Bouvier was born at Gran ...
(1929–1998), writer and photographer * Clotilde Bressler-Gianoli (1875–1912), an Italian opera singer * Christiane Brunner (born 1947), politician, lawyer and trade union champion * Mickaël Buffaz (born 1979), French cyclist * Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui (1694–1748), Genevan legal and political theorist * Cécile Butticaz (1884–1966), engineer * Kate Burton (born 1957), actress, the daughter of actor
Richard Burton Richard Burton (; born Richard Walter Jenkins Jr.; 10 November 1925 – 5 August 1984) was a Welsh People, Welsh actor. Noted for his baritone voice, Burton established himself as a formidable Shakespearean actor in the 1950s, and he gave a ...
*
John Calvin John Calvin (; frm, Jehan Cauvin; french: link=no, Jean Calvin ; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French Christian theology, theologian, pastor and Protestant Reformers, reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal ...
(1509–1564), influential theologian, reformer *
Augustin Pyramus de Candolle Augustin Pyramus (or Pyrame) de Candolle (, , ; 4 February 17789 September 1841) was a Swiss people, Swiss botany, botanist. René Louiche Desfontaines launched de Candolle's botanical career by recommending him at a herbarium. Within a couple ...
(1778–1841), botanist, worked on plant classification *
Clint Capela Clint N'Dumba Capela (born May 18, 1994) is a Swiss professional basketball player for the Atlanta Hawks of the National Basketball Association (NBA). He is the Hawks' franchise leader in career field-goal percentage, having led the NBA in the sa ...
(born 1994), professional basketball player * Jean de Carro (1770–1857), Vienna-based physician, promoted vaccination against smallpox *
Isaac Casaubon Isaac Casaubon (; ; 18 February 1559 – 1 July 1614) was a classics, classical scholar and philologist, first in France and then later in England. His son Méric Casaubon was also a classical scholar. Life Early life He was born in Geneva ...
(1559–1614), a classical scholar and philologist * Méric Casaubon (1599–1671), son of
Isaac Casaubon Isaac Casaubon (; ; 18 February 1559 – 1 July 1614) was a classics, classical scholar and philologist, first in France and then later in England. His son Méric Casaubon was also a classical scholar. Life Early life He was born in Geneva ...
, a French-English classical scholar * Mike Castro de Maria (born 1972), electronic music composer * Jean-Jacques Challet-Venel (1811–1893), politician, on the
Swiss Federal Council The Federal Council (german: Bundesrat; french: Conseil fédéral; it, Consiglio federale; rm, Cussegl federal) is the executive body of the federal government of the Switzerland, Swiss Confederation and serves as the collective head of state ...
1864–1872 * Alfred Edward Chalon RA (1780–1860), portrait painter * John James Chalon RA (1778–1854), painter of landscapes, marine scenes and animal life * Marguerite Champendal (1870–1928), first Genevan to have obtained her doctorate in medicine at the University of Geneva (1900) * Henri Christiné (1867–1941), French composer of sparkling, witty, jazzy musical plays *
Victor Cherbuliez Charles Victor Cherbuliez (; 19 July 1829 – 1 or 2 July 1899)Victor Cherbuliez
in the Historical Dic ...
(1829–1899), novelist and author * Étienne Clavière (1735–1793), banker and politician of the French revolution *
Paulo Coelho Paulo Coelho de Souza (, ; born 24 August 1947) is a Brazilian lyricist and novelist and a member of the Brazilian Academy of Letters since 2002. His novel ''The Alchemist (novel), The Alchemist'' became an international best-seller and he has ...
(born 1947), Brazilian lyricist and novelist, author of '' The Alchemist'', residing in Geneva * Renée Colliard (born 1933), former alpine skier, gold medallist at the
1956 Winter Olympics The 1956 Winter Olympics, officially known as the VII Olympic Winter Games ( it, VII Giochi Olimpici invernali) and commonly known as Cortina d'Ampezzo 1956 ( lld, Anpezo 1956 or ), was a Winter Olympic Games, multi-sport event held in Cortina ...
*
Gabriel Cramer Gabriel Cramer (; 31 July 1704 – 4 January 1752) was a Geneva, Genevan mathematician. He was the son of physician Jean Cramer and Anne Mallet Cramer. Biography Cramer showed promise in mathematics from an early age. At 18 he received his do ...
(1704–1752), Genevan mathematician


D–G

* Maryam d'Abo (born 1960), English film and TV actress and Bond girl * Jacques-Antoine Dassier (1715–1759), a Genevan medallist, active in London * Michel Decastel (born 1955), football manager and midfielder, 314 club caps, 19 for
Switzerland ). Swiss law does not designate a ''capital'' as such, but the federal parliament and government are in Bern, while other federal institutions, such as the federal courts, are in other cities (Bellinzona, Lausanne, Luzern, Neuchâtel, St. Gall ...
* Jean-Denis Delétraz (born 1963), racing driver * Louis Delétraz (born 1997), racing driver * Jean-Louis de Lolme (1740–1806), lawyer and constitutional writer * Jean-André Deluc (1727–1817), geologist, natural philosopher and meteorologist *
Giovanni Diodati Giovanni Diodati or Deodati (3 June 15763 October 1649) was a Genevan-born Italian Calvinist theologian and translator. His translation of the Bible into Italian from Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and Syriac language, Syriac sources became the reference ...
(1576–1649), Italian Calvinist theologian and Bible translator * Élie Ducommun (1833–1906), peace activist, 1902
Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist, inventor and armaments (military weapons and equipment) manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Chemi ...
winner * Armand Dufaux (1833–1941), aviation pioneer, flew the length of
Lake Geneva , image = Lake Geneva by Sentinel-2.jpg , caption = Satellite image , image_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry = , location = Switzerland, France , coords = , lake_type = Glacial lak ...
in 1910 * Henri Dufaux (1879–1980), French-Swiss aviation pioneer, inventor, painter and politician * Pierre Étienne Louis Dumont (1759–1829), Genevan political writer *
Henry Dunant Henry Dunant (born Jean-Henri Dunant; 8 May 182830 October 1910), also known as Henri Dunant, was a Swiss humanitarian, businessman, and social activist. He was the visionary, promoter, and co-founder of the Red Cross. In 1901, he received the ...
(1828–1910), founded the
Red Cross The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is a Humanitarianism, humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million Volunteering, volunteers, members and staff worldwide. It was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure re ...
, first recipient of
Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist, inventor and armaments (military weapons and equipment) manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Chemi ...
in 1901 * Emmanuel-Étienne Duvillard (1775–1832), Swiss economist * Isabelle Eberhardt (1877–1904), Russian-Swiss explorer and travel writer *
Empress Elisabeth of Austria Duchess Elisabeth Amalie Eugenie in Bavaria (24 December 1837 – 10 September 1898) was Empress of Austria and List of Hungarian consorts, Queen of Hungary from her marriage to Emperor Franz Joseph I on 24 April 1854 until her assassinati ...
(1837–1898), Empress of Austria and Queen of Hungary *
Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy, Prince of Venice Emanuele Filiberto Umberto Reza Ciro René Maria di Savoia (born 22 June 1972)''Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Fürstliche Häuser'' XIV. "Haus Italien". C.A. Starke Verlag, 1997, pp. 33, 38–39. .Willis, Daniel, ''The Descendants of Louis ...
(born 1972), a member of the
House of Savoy The House of Savoy ( it, Casa Savoia) was a royal dynasty that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small Alps, Alpine County of Savoy, county north-west of Ita ...
* Louis Favre (1826–1879), engineer, responsible for the construction of the
Gotthard Tunnel The Gotthard Tunnel (german: Gotthardtunnel, it, Galleria del San Gottardo) is a railway tunnel and forms the summit of the Gotthard Railway in Switzerland. It connects Göschenen with Airolo and was the first tunnel through the Saint-Gotthard Ma ...
* Philippe Favre (1961–2013), racing driver * Henri Fazy (1842–1920), politician and historian * Edmond Fleg, born Flegenheimer (1874–1963), a Swiss-French writer, thinker, novelist, essayist and playwright *
Ian Fleming Ian Lancaster Fleming (28 May 1908 – 12 August 1964) was a British writer who is best known for his postwar ''James Bond'' series of spy novels. Fleming came from a wealthy family connected to the merchant bank Robert Fleming & Co., an ...
(1908–1964), author (James Bond), studied psychology briefly in Geneva in 1931 * Sylvie Fleury (born 1961), a contemporary object artist of
installation art Installation art is an artistic genre of three-dimensional works that are often site-specific art, site-specific and designed to transform the perception of a space. Generally, the term is applied to interior spaces, whereas exterior intervention ...
and
mixed media In visual art, mixed media describes work of art, artwork in which more than one Art medium, medium or material has been employed. Assemblages, collages, and sculpture are three common examples of art using different List of art media, media. M ...
* Sir
Augustus Wollaston Franks Sir Augustus Wollaston Franks (20 March 182621 May 1897) was a British antiquary, antiquarian and museum administrator. Franks was described by Marjorie Caygill, historian of the British Museum, as "arguably the most important collector in the ...
KCB FRS FSA (1826–1897), English antiquary and museum administrator * Pierre-Victor Galland (1822–1892), painter *
Albert Gallatin Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin (January 29, 1761 – August 12, 1849) was a History of Geneva, Genevan–Americans, American politician, diplomat, ethnologist and linguist. Often described as "America's Swiss people, Swiss Founding Fathers of ...
(1761–1849), an American politician of Genevan origin, diplomat, ethnologist and linguist * Agénor de Gasparin (1810–1871), French statesman and author, also researched
table-turning Table-turning (also known as table-tapping, table-tipping or table-tilting) is a type of séance in which participants sit around a table, place their hands on it, and wait for rotations. The table was purportedly made to serve as a means of comm ...
* Valérie de Gasparin (1813–1894), woman of letters, regards freedom, equality and creativity * François Gaussen (1790–1863), Protestant divine * Marcel Golay (1927–2015), astronomer * Claude Goretta (1929–2019), film director and television producer * Emilie Gourd (1879–1946), journalist and activist for Women's suffrage in Switzerland * Isabelle Graesslé (born 1959), theologian, feminist and former museum director, moderator of ministers and deacons at the Protestant Church of Geneva *
Kat Graham Katerina Alexandre Hartford Graham (born September 5, 1989) is an American actress, singer and dancer (now distributing music under the stage name Toro Gato). She is widely known for her role as List of The Vampire Diaries characters#Bonnie Be ...
(born 1989), actress, singer, and model, she plays '' Bonnie Bennett'' in ''
The Vampire Diaries ''The Vampire Diaries'' is an American supernatural Supernatural refers to phenomena or entities that are beyond the laws of nature. The term is derived from Medieval Latin , from Latin (above, beyond, or outside of) + (nature) Though ...
'' * Cédric Grand (born 1976), bobsledder, competed in four Winter Olympics, bronze medallist at the
2006 Winter Olympics The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially the XX Olympic Winter Games ( it, XX Giochi olimpici invernali) and also known as Torino 2006, were a winter multi-sport event held from 10 to 26 February 2006 in Turin, Italy. This marked the second t ...
*
Romain Grosjean Romain David Jeremie Grosjean (; born 17 April 1986) is a Swiss-French professional Auto racing, racing driver, competing under the French flag in the NTT IndyCar Series, driving the No. 28 Honda for Andretti Autosport. Grosjean had previously ...
(born 1986), racing driver, currently racing for
Andretti Autosport Andretti Autosport is an auto racing team that competes in the IndyCar Series, Indy Lights, Indy Pro 2000, and Formula E. The team also has a 37.5% ownership stake in the Australian Supercars Championship touring car team, Walkinshaw Andretti U ...
in the
IndyCar Series The IndyCar Series, currently known as the NTT IndyCar Series under sponsor (commercial), sponsorship, is the highest class of regional North American American open-wheel car racing, open-wheel single-seater formula racing cars in the United S ...


H–M

* Admiral of the Fleet Lord John Hay GCB (1827–1916), Royal Navy officer and politician * Abraham Hermanjat (1862–1932), painter who worked in the Fauvist and Divisionist styles *
Germain Henri Hess Germain Henri Hess (russian: Герман Иванович Гесс, German Ivanovich Gess; 7 August 1802 – 30 November 1850) was a Swiss-Russian chemist and doctor who formulated Hess's law, an early principle of thermochemistry. Early lif ...
(1802–1850), a Swiss-Russian chemist and doctor, formulated Hess's law * Hector Hodler (1887–1920),
Esperantist An Esperantist ( eo, esperantisto) is a person who speaks, reads or writes Esperanto. According to the Declaration of Boulogne, a document agreed upon at the first World Esperanto Congress in 1905, an Esperantist is someone who speaks Esperanto ...
* Fulk Greville Howard (1773–1846), an English politician * Jean Huber (1721–1786), a painter, silhouettiste, soldier and author * François Huber (1750–1831), naturalist, studied the respiration of bees * Marie Huber (1695–1753), translator, editor and author of theological works *
Pierre Jeanneret Pierre Jeanneret (22 March 1896 – 4 December 1967) was a Swiss architect who collaborated with his cousin, Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (who assumed the pseudonym Le Corbusier), for about twenty years. Early life Arnold-André-Pierre Jea ...
(1896–1967), architect, collaborated with his cousin
Le Corbusier Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 188727 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier ( , , ), was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now regarded as modern architecture. He was ...
* Thomas Jouannet (born 1970), actor *
Charles Journet Charles Journet (26 January 1891 – 15 April 1975) was a Switzerland, Swiss Roman Catholic Church, Roman Catholic Theology, theologian. He was the first Swiss named a Cardinal (Catholicism), cardinal. Journet has been considered a figure of hol ...
(1891–1975), cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church *
Louis Jurine Louis Jurine (; 6 February 1751 – 20 October 1819) was a Swiss people, Swiss physician, surgeon and natural history, naturalist mainly interested in entomology. He lived in Geneva. Surgeon He studied surgery in Paris and quickly acquired a gre ...
(1751–1819), physician, surgeon, naturalist and entomologist * Sonia Kacem (born 1985), Swiss-born visual artist * Michael Krausz (born 1942), American philosopher, an artist and orchestral conductor * Adrien Lachenal (1849–1918), politician,
Federal Council of Switzerland The Federal Council (german: Bundesrat; french: Conseil fédéral; it, Consiglio federale; rm, Cussegl federal) is the executive body of the federal government of the Switzerland, Swiss Confederation and serves as the collective head of state ...
1892–1899 * François Lachenal (1918–1997), a publisher and diplomat *
Paul Lachenal Paul Lachenal (1884, Geneva – 1955) was a Swiss politician and philanthropist. He was born in Geneva as son of the Jean-François Lachenal and the Louise Marie born Gleckner. He studied law at the University of Geneva, which he completed in 1 ...
(1884–1955), politician, co-founded
Orchestre de la Suisse Romande The Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (OSR) is a Swiss symphony orchestra, based in Geneva at the Victoria Hall (Geneva), Victoria Hall. In addition to symphony concerts, the OSR performs as the opera orchestra in productions at the Grand Théâtre ...
* Marie Laforêt (born 1939), a French singer and actress * Sarah Lahbati (born 1993), actress and singer * François Le Fort (1656–1699), first Russian Admiral * Georges-Louis Le Sage (1724–1803), physicist,
Le Sage's theory of gravitation Le Sage's theory of gravitation is a kinetic theory of gravity originally proposed by Nicolas Fatio de Duillier in 1690 and later by Georges-Louis Le Sage in 1748. The theory proposed a mechanical explanation for Newton's gravitational force in te ...
* Jean Leclerc (1657–1736), theologian and biblical scholar, promoted
exegesis Exegesis ( ; from the Ancient Greek, Greek , from , "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation (logic), interpretation of a text. The term is traditionally applied to the interpretation of Bible, Biblical works. In modern usage, ...
* Henri Leconte (born 1963), former French professional tennis player, men's singles finalist, French Open 1988 * Philippe Le Royer (1816-1897), French and Swiss politician and lawyer, served France as the Minister of Justice and President of the Senate *
Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. ( 1870 – 21 January 1924), better known as Vladimir Lenin,. was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as the first and founding Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of t ...
(1870–1924), lived in Geneva 1902–1905 as an exile from the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire was an empire and the final period of the List of Russian monarchs, Russian monarchy from 1721 to 1917, ruling across large parts of Eurasia. It succeeded the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad, which ended th ...
* Jean-Étienne Liotard (1702–1789), painter, art connoisseur and dealer * Corinne Maier (born 1963), psychoanalyst, economist, and best-selling writer * Ella Maillart (1903–1997), adventurer, travel writer and photographer, as well as a sportswoman * Solomon Caesar Malan (1812–1894), oriental linguist and biblical scholar * Jacques Mallet du Pan (1749–1800), Genevan-French royalist journalist * Alexander Marcet FRS (1770–1822), physician who became a British citizen in 1800 * Jane Marcet (1769–1858), an innovative writer of popular introductory science books * Sebastian Marka (born 1978), German film director and editor * Frank Martin (1890–1974), composer, editor of The Statesman's Year Book * Nicolas Maulini (born 1981), racing driver * Dr. Théodore Maunoir (1806–1869), co-founder of the
International Committee of the Red Cross The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC; french: Comité international de la Croix-Rouge) is a aid agency, humanitarian organization which is based in Geneva, Switzerland, and it is also a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate. State parti ...
* Amélie Mauresmo (born 1979), former professional tennis player and former world No.1 * Barthélemy Menn (1815–1893), a landscape painter, introduced painting
en plein air ''En plein air'' (; French for 'outdoors'), or ''plein air'' painting, is the act of painting Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (called the "matrix" or "support"). The medium ...
* Heinrich Menu von Minutoli (1772–1846), a Prussian Generalmajor, explorer and archaeologist * Jacques-Barthélemy Micheli du Crest (1690–1766), military engineer, physicist and cartographer * Giorgio Mondini (born 1980), racing driver * Stephanie Morgenstern (born 1965), Canadian actress, filmmaker and screenwriter *
Edoardo Mortara Edoardo "Edo" Mortara (born 12 January 1987) is a Swiss people, Swiss-Italians, Italian-French people, French professional racing driver for Maserati MSG Racing. Born in Geneva, Switzerland, he holds triple nationality from all three countries ...
(born 1987), Swiss-Italian racing driver * Thierry Moutinho (born 1991), Swiss-Portuguese footballer *
Gustave Moynier Gustave Moynier (21 September 1826 – 21 August 1910) was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland *Swiss people Places *Swiss, Missouri *Swiss, North Carolina *Swiss, West Virginia *Swiss, Wisconsin Other uses *Swiss-s ...
(1826–1910), lawyer and co-founder of the
Red Cross The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is a Humanitarianism, humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million Volunteering, volunteers, members and staff worldwide. It was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure re ...


N-R

*
Jacques Necker Jacques Necker (; 30 September 1732 – 9 April 1804) was a Republic of Geneva, Genevan banker and statesman who served as List of Finance Ministers of France, finance minister for Louis XVI of France, Louis XVI. He was a reformer, but his innov ...
(1732–1804), banker and finance minister for
Louis XVI of France Louis XVI (''Louis-Auguste''; ; 23 August 175421 January 1793) was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. He was referred to as ''Citizen Louis Capet'' during the four months just before Execution ...
* Louis Albert Necker (1786–1861), a crystallographer and geographer, devised the Necker cube * Felix Neff (1798–1829), Protestant divine and philanthropist *
Alfred Newton Alfred Newton FRS HFRSE Fellowship of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (FRSE) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Scotland's national academy of science and Literature, letters, judged to be "eminently d ...
FRS HFRSE (1829–1907), English zoologist and ornithologist *
Karim Ojjeh Karim Ojjeh ( ar, كريم عجة; born 27 August 1965 in Geneva) is a Saudi Arabian businessman and racing driver. He is the younger brother of Mansour Ojjeh and son of Akram Ojjeh. He is a director of Techniques d'Avant Garde, TAG Finance S.A. I ...
(born 1965), Saudi Arabian businessman and racing driver * Julie Ordon (born 1984), model and actress * Rémy Pagani (born 1954), politician, Mayor of Geneva 2009/10 and 2012/13 * Liliane Maury Pasquier (born 1956), politician * PATjE (born 1970), birth name Patrice Jauffret, a singer, songwriter, and musician * Faule Petitot (1572–1629), sculptor, cabinetmaker and architect, citizen of Geneva since 1615 * Jean Petitot (1607–1691), enamel painter, son of Faule * Carmen Perrin (born 1953), Bolivian-born Swiss visual artist, designer, and educator. *
Jean Piaget Jean William Fritz Piaget (, , ; 9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Switzerland, Swiss psychologist known for his work on child development. Piaget's Piaget's theory of cognitive development, theory of cognitive development and epistemol ...
(1896–1980), clinical psychologist, devised
genetic epistemology Genetic epistemology or 'developmental theory of knowledge' is a study of the origins (genesis) of knowledge (epistemology) established by Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget. This theory opposes traditional epistemology and unites Constructivism (psy ...
*
Robert Pinget Robert Pinget (Geneva Geneva ( ; french: Genève ) frp, Genèva ; german: link=no, Genf ; it, Ginevra ; rm, Genevra is the List of cities in Switzerland, second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of ...
(1919–1997), an avant-garde French
modernist Modernism is both a philosophy, philosophical and arts movement that arose from broad transformations in Western world, Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The movement reflected a desire for the creation of new fo ...
nouveau roman writer * George Pitt, 1st Baron Rivers (1721–1803), English diplomat and politician * Barbara Polla (born 1950), medical doctor, gallery owner, art curator and writer *
James Pradier James Pradier (born Jean-Jacques Pradier, ; 23 May 1790 – 4 June 1852) was a Genevan-born French sculpture, sculptor best known for his work in the neoclassicism, neoclassical style. Life and work Born in Geneva (then Republic of Geneva), Prad ...
(1790–1852), Genevan and then Swiss sculptor, neoclassical style * Jean-Louis Prévost (1838–1927), neurologist and physiologist * Pierre Prévost (1751–1839), philosopher, physicist wrote the law of exchange in radiation * Tariq Ramadan (born 1962), a Swiss Muslim academic, philosopher and writer * Marcel Raymond (1897–1981), a literary critic of French literature of the " Geneva School" * Flore Revalles (1889–1966), singer, dancer and actress * Charles Pierre Henri Rieu (1820–1902), Orientalist and Professor of Arabic * Prof Auguste Arthur de la Rive (1801–1873), a physicist, worked on the heat of gases * Charles-Gaspard de la Rive (1770–1834), physicist, psychiatrist and politician * François Jules Pictet de la Rive (1809–1872), zoologist and palaeontologist * Tibor Rosenbaum (1923–1980), rabbi and businessman * Marc Rosset (born 1970), former pro tennis player, gold medallist at the 1992 Olympic Games *
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean-Jacques Rousseau (, ; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Republic of Geneva, Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer. His political philosophy influenced the progress of the Age of Enlightenment throughout Europe, as well as aspects ...
(1712–1778), writer and philosopher *
Jean Rousset Jean Rousset (20 February 1910 – 15 September 2002) was a Swiss literary critic who worked on French literature, and in particular on Baroque literature of the late Renaissance and early seventeenth century. He is sometimes grouped with ...
(1910–2002), literary critic and early
structuralism In sociology Sociology is a social science that focuses on society, human social behavior, patterns of Interpersonal ties, social relationships, social interaction, and aspects of culture associated with everyday life. It uses various meth ...
writer of the Geneva School * Xavier Ruiz (born 1970), film producer and director


S–Z

*
Ferdinand de Saussure Ferdinand de Saussure (; ; 26 November 1857 – 22 February 1913) was a Swiss Linguistics, linguist, Semiotics, semiotician and philosopher. His ideas laid a foundation for many significant developments in both linguistics and semiotics in the 2 ...
(1857–1913), a linguist and
semiotician Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the systematic study of sign processes (semiosis Semiosis (, ), or sign process, is any form of Action (philosophy), activity, conduct, or process that involves sign (semiotics), signs, including th ...
* Horace Bénédict de Saussure (1740–1799), geologist, meteorologist, physicist, and Alpine explorer * Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure (1767–1845), chemist, studied plant physiology, advanced phytochemistry * Léon Savary (1895–1968), writer and journalist * Michael Schade (born 1965), a Canadian operatic tenor *
Johann Jacob Schweppe Johann Jacob Schweppe (, ) (16 March 1740 – 18 November 1821) was a German-Swiss watchmaker and amateur scientist who developed the first practical process to manufacture Carbonated water, bottled carbonated mineral water, based on a process dis ...
(1740–1821), watchmaker developed
Schweppes Schweppes (, ) is a beverage brand that originated in the Republic of Geneva; it is made, bottled and distributed worldwide by multiple international conglomerates, depending on licensing and region, that manufacture and sell soft drinks. Schw ...
bottled
carbonated water Carbonated water (also known as soda water, sparkling water, fizzy water, club soda, water with gas, in many places as mineral water, or especially in the United States as seltzer or seltzer water) is water containing dissolved carbon dioxide gas, ...
* Marguerite Sechehaye (1887–1965), a psychotherapist, treated people with
schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by continuous or relapsing episodes of psychosis. Major symptoms include hallucinations (typically hearing voices), delusions, and disorganized thinking. Other symptoms include social w ...
* Louis Segond (1810–1885), theologian and translator, pastor in Chêne-Bougeries *
Philippe Senderos Philippe Sylvain Senderos (born 14 February 1985) is a Swiss retired professional Association football, footballer who played as a Defender (association football), defender. Senderos began his career at Servette FC, Servette, before moving to E ...
(born 1985), footballer, over 200 club caps and 57 for
Switzerland ). Swiss law does not designate a ''capital'' as such, but the federal parliament and government are in Bern, while other federal institutions, such as the federal courts, are in other cities (Bellinzona, Lausanne, Luzern, Neuchâtel, St. Gall ...
* Jean Senebier (1742–1809), pastor and voluminous writer on vegetable physiology * Liberato Firmino Sifonia (1917-1996), an Italian composer * Pierre Eugene du Simitiere (1737–1784), naturalist, American patriot and portrait painter. * Michel Simon (1895–1975), actor * Jean Charles Léonard de Sismondi (1773–1842), historian and political economist *
Edward Snowden Edward Joseph Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is an American and naturalized Russian former computer intelligence consultant who leaked Classified information in the United States, highly classified information from the National Security Agency ( ...
(born 1983), lived in Geneva between 2007 and 2009, while working for the
CIA The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA ), known informally as the Agency and historically as the Company, is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States The federal government of the United ...
* Pierre Soubeyran (1706–1775), engraver, etcher and Encyclopédiste *
Terry Southern Terry Southern (May 1, 1924 – October 29, 1995) was an American novelist, essayist, screenwriter, and university lecturer, noted for his distinctive satirical style. Part of the Paris postwar literary movement in the 1950s and a companion to ...
(1924–1995), American author, essayist and screenwriter; lived in Geneva 1956–59 * Ezekiel Spanheim (1629–1710), Prussian diplomat * Friedrich Spanheim (1632–1701), a Calvinistic theology professor at the
University of Leiden Leiden University (abbreviated as ''LEI''; nl, Universiteit Leiden) is a Public university, public research university in Leiden, Netherlands. The university was founded as a Protestant university in 1575 by William the Silent, William, Prince o ...
* Jacques Charles François Sturm (1803–1855), French mathematician * Émile Taddéoli (1879–1920), Swiss aviation pioneer * Alain Tanner (born 1929), film director *
Sigismund Thalberg Sigismond Thalberg (8 January 1812 – 27 April 1871) was an Austrian composer and one of the most distinguished virtuoso A virtuoso (from Italian language, Italian ''virtuoso'' or , "virtuous", Late Latin ''virtuosus'', Latin ''virtus'', "vir ...
(1812–1871), Austrian composer and pianist * Max Thurian (1921–1996), theologian, known as Frère Max * Pierre Tirard (1827–1893), French politician *
Rodolphe Töpffer Rodolphe Töpffer ( , ; 31 January 1799 – 8 June 1846) was a Swiss teacher, author, painter, cartoonist, and caricaturist. He is best known for his illustrated books (''littérature en estampes'', " graphic literature"), which are possibly ...
(1799–1846), teacher, author, painter, cartoonist and caricaturist * Wolfgang-Adam Töpffer (1766–1847), painter of landscapes and watercolors * Vico Torriani (1920–1998), singer, actor, show host * Georges Trombert (1874–1949), a French fencer, silver and bronze medallist at the
1920 Summer Olympics The 1920 Summer Olympics (french: Jeux olympiques d'été de 1920; nl, Olympische Zomerspelen van 1920; german: Olympische Sommerspiele 1920), officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad (french: Jeux de la VIIe olympiade; nl, Spelen van ...
* Théodore Tronchin (1709–1781), a Genevan physician * François Turrettini (1623–1687), a Genevan-Italian Reformed scholastic theologian * Jean Alphonse Turrettini (1671–1737), reformed theologian * Princess Vittoria of Savoy (2003), heir to the Italian throne * François Vivares (1709–1780), French landscape-engraver, active in England * Johann Vogel (born 1977), former footballer, played 94 games for
Switzerland ). Swiss law does not designate a ''capital'' as such, but the federal parliament and government are in Bern, while other federal institutions, such as the federal courts, are in other cities (Bellinzona, Lausanne, Luzern, Neuchâtel, St. Gall ...
* Prince Andrei Volkonsky (1933–2008), Russian composer of classical music and harpsichordist *
Voltaire François-Marie Arouet (; 21 November 169430 May 1778) was a French Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher. Known by his ''Pen name, nom de plume'' M. de Voltaire (; also ; ), he was famous for his wit, and his ...
(1694–1778), French philosopher, historian, dramatist and man of letters; lived at Les Délices 1755–1760 * Nedd Willard (1926–2018), writer * R. Norris Williams (1891–1968), American tennis player and
RMS Titanic RMS ''Titanic'' was a British passenger Ocean liner, liner, operated by the White Star Line, which Sinking of the Titanic, sank in the North Atlantic Ocean on 15 April 1912 after striking an iceberg during her maiden voyage from Southampton ...
survivor * Pierre Wissmer (1915–1992), Swiss-French composer, pianist and music teacher *
Jean Ziegler Jean Ziegler (; born Hans Ziegler, 19 April 1934) is a Swiss former professor of sociology Sociology is a social science that focuses on society, human social behavior, patterns of Interpersonal ties, social relationships, social intera ...
(born 1934), politician and sociologist * Reto Ziegler (born 1986), footballer, has played 35 games for
Switzerland ). Swiss law does not designate a ''capital'' as such, but the federal parliament and government are in Bern, while other federal institutions, such as the federal courts, are in other cities (Bellinzona, Lausanne, Luzern, Neuchâtel, St. Gall ...


See also

* Outline of Geneva * Bibliothèque Publique et Universitaire (Geneva) * Boule de Genève * Calvin Auditory, a chapel that played a significant role in the Reformation * Circuit des Nations, the historic racetrack *
Franco-Provençal language Franco-Provençal (also Francoprovençal, Patois or Arpitan) is a language within Gallo-Romance languages, Gallo-Romance originally spoken in east-central France, western Switzerland and northwestern Italy. Franco-Provençal has several disti ...
* Geneva Freeport * Geneva Summit for Human Rights and Democracy


Notes


References


Bibliography

* * Joëlle Kuntz, ''Geneva and the call of internationalism. A history'', éditions Zoé, 2011, 96 pages ().


External links

* *
Geneva public transport

Geneva Tourist Information OfficeGeneva Tourist ShoppingGeneva Historical & Genealogical Society Collection
{{Portal bar, Switzerland, Europe, Geography, Cities in Switzerland Cantonal capitals of Switzerland Populated places established in the 1st millennium BC Associates of the Old Swiss Confederacy Former theocracies Counties of the Holy Roman Empire Populated places on the Rhône Populated places on Lake Geneva Populated riverside places in Switzerland Municipalities of the canton of Geneva