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The General National Congress or General National Council (GNC; ar, المؤتمر الوطني العام,
Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated in North Africa, specifically Morocco ) , ...
: Agraw Amuran Amatay) was the legislative authority of
Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībiyā), officially the State of Libya ( ar, دولة ليبيا, Dawlat Lībiyā), is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to Egypt–Libya border, th ...

Libya
for two years following the end of the
First Libyan Civil War The First Libyan Civil War was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North Africa North Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes define ...
. It was elected by popular vote on 7 July 2012, and took power from the
National Transitional Council The National Transitional Council of Libya ( ar, المجلس الوطني الإنتقالي '), sometimes known as the Transitional National Council, was the ''de facto'' government of Libya for a period during and after the Libyan Civil War ...
on 8 August. Tasked primarily with transitioning Libya to a permanent democratic constitution, it was given an 18-month deadline to fulfil this goal. When the deadline passed with work on the new constitution only just getting underway, Congress was forced to organise elections to a new
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...
, which took power and replaced it on 4 August 2014. A non-reelected minority of former GNC members, supported by the LROR and armed groups, met on 25 August 2014 and declared a
National Salvation Government The National Salvation Government ( ar, حكومة الإنقاذ الوطني) was a government body formed by politicians from the General National Congress's blocs that lost the June 2014 elections in Libya. The NSG was led by Khalifa al-G ...
. They elected Omar al-Hasi as prime minister. From August 2014, GNC is no longer internationally recognized as the legitimate parliament of Libya. On 1 April 2016, the GNC announced its own dissolution and has been replaced by the High Council of State.


History


Inauguration

In a ceremony on 8 August 2012, the
National Transitional Council The National Transitional Council of Libya ( ar, المجلس الوطني الإنتقالي '), sometimes known as the Transitional National Council, was the ''de facto'' government of Libya for a period during and after the Libyan Civil War ...
formally transferred power to the General National Congress.
Mustafa Abdul Jalil Mustafa Abdul Jalil ( ar, مصطفى عبد الجليل; also transcribed ''Abdul-Jelil, Abd-al-Jalil'', ''Abdel-Jalil'', ''Abdeljalil'' or ''Abdu Al Jeleil''; born 1952) is a Libyan politician who was the Chairman of the National Transitional C ...

Mustafa Abdul Jalil
stepped down as head of state, passing the position to the GNC's oldest member,
Mohammed Ali Salim Mohammed Ali Salim is a Libyan politician who was the Acting Chairman of the General National Congress of Libya, a role he held as the oldest member of Libya's first democratically elected legislature until Mohamed Yousef el-Magariaf was appointe ...
. The NTC was then dissolved, while the GNC members took their oaths of office, led by Salim. Hundreds of people gathered in
Tripoli Tripoli (; ar, طرابلس, ; ber, ⵜⵔⵢⴱⵓⵍⵙ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals ...

Tripoli
's Martyrs' Square with candles symbolizing reconciliation. The date of the transfer – 20 Ramadan on the
Islamic calendar The Hijri calendar ( ar, ٱلتَّقْوِيم ٱلْهِجْرِيّ '), also known as the Lunar Hijri calendar and (in English) as the Islamic, Muslim or Arabic calendar, is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 o ...
– had also been selected for symbolic reasons; as 20 Ramadan the previous year had fallen on 20 August, the date that the National Liberation Army attacked Tripoli, leading to Gaddafi's flight. As Jalil addressed the crowd, attendees periodically chanted " Allāhu Akbar" or "The blood of the martyrs will not be wasted!" According to
BBC News BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster Public broadcasting involves radio Radio is the technology of signali ...

BBC News
, the transfer was "the first
peaceful transition of power A peaceful transition or transfer of power is a concept important to democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ...
in Libya's modern history".


Post-2014 elections

In 2014,
elections An election is a formal group decision-makingGroup decision-making (also known as collaborative decision-making or collective decision-making) is a situation faced when individuals An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity. Ind ...
to a new
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...
were held. However, politicians from the blocs that lost the elections continued to convene as the General National Congress, claiming that the GNC is the legitimate parliament of Libya. However, its members do not represent a majority of the membership of the body, as the majority of the GNC members belonged to groups now participating in the internationally recognized (until the establishment of an internationally-backed
Government of National Accord The Government of National Accord ( ar, حكومة الوفاق الوطني) was an interim government A provisional government, also called an interim government, an emergency government, or a transitional government, is an emergency governme ...
in 2016) Libyan parliament, the House of Representatives. The GNC is dominated by the
Muslim Brotherhood The Society of the Muslim Brothers ( ar, جماعة الإخوان المسلمين'' ''), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood ( '), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassa ...
's Libyan party, the
Justice and Construction Party The Justice and Construction Party (JCP) or Justice and Development Party ( ar, حزب العدالة والبناء, ') is a political party in Libya associated with the Muslim Brotherhood. It was officially founded on 3 March 2012 in Tripoli. ...
. Re-elected members from the Islamist bloc had chosen to continue to sit in the GNC, instead of the House of Representatives where they would be in a reduced minority. After their landslide defeat in the 2014 elections, Islamist parties acting under the leadership of
Nouri Abusahmain Nouri Abusahmain ( ar, نوري أبو سهمين; born October 25, 1956) is a Libyan politician. He is a major figure on the Islamist side of the 2014 Libyan Conflict and founder of the LROR group which is considered "terrorist" by the internat ...

Nouri Abusahmain
used two armed groups, the LROR and , to take control of the capital
Tripoli Tripoli (; ar, طرابلس, ; ber, ⵜⵔⵢⴱⵓⵍⵙ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals ...

Tripoli
. In late August, Islamist militias abducted rivals (whose whereabouts is unknown) and attacked 280 homes. Having suppressed dissent, the Islamist groups declared that they were the General National Congress and that it was once again the national parliament. The GNC continued to be led by
Nouri Abusahmain Nouri Abusahmain ( ar, نوري أبو سهمين; born October 25, 1956) is a Libyan politician. He is a major figure on the Islamist side of the 2014 Libyan Conflict and founder of the LROR group which is considered "terrorist" by the internat ...

Nouri Abusahmain
and appointed Omar al-Hasi then Khalifa al-Ghawi as prime ministers of the
National Salvation Government The National Salvation Government ( ar, حكومة الإنقاذ الوطني) was a government body formed by politicians from the General National Congress's blocs that lost the June 2014 elections in Libya. The NSG was led by Khalifa al-G ...
.


Dissolution

Members of the House of Representatives and the General National Congress signed a United Nations supported political agreement on 17 December 2015. Under the terms of the agreement, a nine-member Presidency Council (Libya), Presidency Council and a seventeen-member interim
Government of National Accord The Government of National Accord ( ar, حكومة الوفاق الوطني) was an interim government A provisional government, also called an interim government, an emergency government, or a transitional government, is an emergency governme ...
would be formed, with a view to holding new elections within two years. The Libyan House of Representatives, House of Representatives would continue to exist as a legislature and an advisory body, to be known as the State Council (Libya), State Council, will be formed with members nominated by the New General National Congress. The Prime Minister of the Government of National Accord (GNA), Fayez al-Sarraj, arrived in Tripoli on 30 March 2016. The following day, it was reported that the GNA has taken control of the prime ministerial offices and that the GNC appointed Prime Minister Khalifa al-Ghawi had fled to Misrata. On 1 April 2016, the head of the media bureau of the National Salvation Government announced that the NSG has resigned and handed its authority back to the General National Congress. Media reports have also claimed that the General National Congress had "virtually disintegrated". On April 5, the National Salvation Government of the General National Congress announced that it was resigning, "ceasing operations" and ceding power to the Presidential Council. Following the dissolution of the GNC, former members of that body declared the establishment of the State Council, as envisaged by the LPA.


Composition

The General National Congress was composed of 200 members of which 80 were elected through a Party-list proportional representation, party list system of proportional representation, and 120 were elected as Independent (politician), independents in Cumulative voting, multiple-member districts. It is estimated that 25 independents were associated with the NFA, 17 with Justice and Construction, and 23 were Salafis. Following the Libyan General National Congress election, 2012, 2012 elections, an Lustration, Integrity Commission was set up to exclude and remove Gaddafi-era officials from politics. The commission removed 15 members of the GNC. Independent members from Bayda, Libya, Bayda, Baten al-Jabal, Abu Salim (Tripoli district), Abu Salim, Hay al-Andalus, Sabha, Libya, Sabha, Tarhuna and Ubari were expelled, along with all the independents from Ghat District, Ghat and Bani Walid District, Bani Walid, two representatives of local lists from Ubari and Wadi al Shatii District, Wadi al-Shate’, and two NFA deputies from Zliten and Abu Salim. By March 2013 one expelled member from Bayda had been replaced; all other seats remained vacant. The Congress was tasked with electing a new List of heads of government of Libya, Prime Minister and governing Cabinet of Libya, cabinet. Among the rules approved by the GNC on the election of the Prime Minister was a prohibition on Prime Ministers and cabinet ministers being GNC members simultaneously. The Congress selected Mustafa A.G. Abushagur, Mustafa Abushagur as Prime Minister on 12 September 2012, he subsequently resigned after failing to get a cabinet approved. On 14 October 2012, the General National Congress elected former GNC member and human rights lawyer Ali Zeidan as prime minister-designate. Zeidan was sworn in after his cabinet was approved by the GNC.


Seats by party


Leadership

On 9 August 2012, Congress members voted in a televised meeting for a president for the GNC. Mohammed Magariaf, Mohamed Yousef el-Magariaf, leader of the National Front Party (Libya), National Front Party, won with 113 votes versus independent Ali Zeidan who secured 85 votes. From 1981 until 2011, el-Magariaf was exiled from Libya, and led the NFP's predecessor organisation—called the National Front for the Salvation of Libya—for almost 20 years.


Location

The permanent location of Libya's legislature has not yet been decided, but it has been proposed that a new parliament building could be built within the former Bab al-Azizia compound. As an interim measure, the General National Congress convened in the Al Nasr Convention Centre close to the Rixos Hotels, Rixos Al Nasr hotel in Tripoli. Libya's former legislature, the General People's Congress (Libya), General People's Congress, met at the People's Hall, Tripoli, People's Hall which had been destroyed by fire during the 2011 Libyan Civil War, Libyan Civil War.


References


External links

* {{National unicameral legislatures Government of Libya Politics of Libya Political organizations based in Libya National legislatures, Libya Unicameral legislatures, Libya 2012 establishments in Libya