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Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/;
Ndebele Ndebele may refer to: *Southern Ndebele people, located in South Africa *Northern Ndebele people, located in Zimbabwe and Botswana About It is a language that stems from the South African Zulu language. With very similar clicking sounds between t ...
, xh, iRhawuti; nr, I-Gauteng; ve, Gauteng) is one of the nine
provinces of South Africa South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has thr ...
. The name in
Sotho-Tswana languages The Sotho-Tswana peoples are a meta-ethnicity Meta-ethnicity is a relatively recent term (or neologism A neologism (; from Greek νέο- ''néo-'', "new" and λόγος ''lógos'', "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated ...
means 'place of gold'. Situated on the
Highveld The Highveld (Afrikaans: ''Hoëveld'', where ''veld'' means "field") is the portion of the South Africa#Geography, South African inland plateau which has an altitude above roughly 1500 m, but below 2100 m, thus excluding the Lesotho mountain regio ...
, Gauteng is the smallest
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
in
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
. Though Gauteng accounts for only 1.5% of the country's land area, it is home to more than a quarter of its population. Highly urbanised, the province contains the country's largest city,
Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu language, Zulu and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in South Africa, classified as a Megacity#List of megacities, megacity, and is List of urban areas by ...

Johannesburg
, which is also one of the largest cities in the world. It also contains the administrative capital,
Pretoria Pretoria is one of South Africa’s three Capital city, capital cities, serving as the seat of the executive branch of government, and as the host to all foreign embassies to South Africa. Cape Town is the legislature, legislative capital wher ...

Pretoria
, and other large areas such as
Midrand Midrand is a municipality in central Gauteng Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Sotho language, Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; Southern Ndebele language, Ndebele, xh, iRhawuti; nr, I-Gauteng; ve, Gauteng) is one of the nin ...
,
Vanderbijlpark Vanderbijlpark is an industrial city with approximately 75 000 inhabitants, and 95 000 inhabitants in the metropole, situated on the Vaal River in the south of Gauteng province, South Africa. The city is named after Hendrik van der Bijl, an ele ...
and the affluent
Sandton Sandton is an affluent area in the Gauteng Province Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; Ndebele Ndebele may refer to: *Southern Ndebele people, located in South Africa *Northern Ndebele people, ...

Sandton
. Gauteng is the most populous province in South Africa with a population of approximately 15 million people according to estimates.


Etymology

The name ''Gauteng'' is derived from the Sotho-Tswana name, meaning "gold". There was a thriving gold industry in the province following the 1886 discovery of gold in Johannesburg. In
Setswana Tswana, also known by its native name , is a Bantu language The Bantu languages (English: , Proto-Bantu: *bantʊ̀) are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa is, ...
, the name was used for Johannesburg and surrounding areas long before it was adopted in 1994 as the official name of the province.


History

Gauteng was formed from part of the old
Transvaal Province The Province of the Transvaal ( af, Provinsie Transvaal), commonly referred to as the Transvaal (; ), was a province of South Africa from 1910 until 1994, when a new constitution subdivided it following the end of apartheid. The name "Transvaal ...
after South Africa's first multiracial elections on 27 April 1994. It was initially named
Pretoria Pretoria is one of South Africa’s three Capital city, capital cities, serving as the seat of the executive branch of government, and as the host to all foreign embassies to South Africa. Cape Town is the legislature, legislative capital wher ...

Pretoria
Witwatersrand The Witwatersrand () (locally the Rand or, less commonly, the Reef) is a , north-facing scarp in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of So ...

Witwatersrand
Vereeniging Vereeniging () is a city located in the south of Gauteng province, South Africa, situated where the Klip River empties into the northern loop of the Vaal River. It is also one of the constituent parts of the Vaal Triangle region and was formerly si ...
(PWV) and was renamed "Gauteng" in December 1994. The term "PWV" describing the region existed long before the establishment of the province, with the "V" sometimes standing for "
Vaal Triangle The Vaal Triangle is a triangular A triangle is a polygon In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space ...

Vaal Triangle
" rather than Vereeniging. At the
Sterkfontein Sterkfontein (Afrikaans Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it ...

Sterkfontein
caves, some of the oldest fossils of hominids have been discovered, such as and
Little Foot "Little Foot" (Stw 573) is the nickname given to a nearly complete Australopithecus ''Australopithecus'' (, ; ; singular: australopith) is a genus of early hominins that existed in Africa during the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene. The gene ...
. Gauteng's history has only been properly documented since the 19th century and as a result, not much information regarding its history predating the 19th century is available. The recorded history of the area that is now Gauteng can be traced back to the early 19th century when settlers originating from the
Cape Colony The Cape Colony ( nl, Kaapkolonie), also known as the Cape of Good Hope, was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Cro ...
defeated chief
Mzilikazi Mzilikazi Khumalo ( 1790 – 9 September 1868) was a Southern Africa Southern Africa is the south South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymolo ...
and started establishing villages in the area. The city of Pretoria was founded in
1855 Events January–March * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in leap years). This day is known as New Year's Day s ...
as capital of the
South African Republic The South African Republic ( nl, Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek; the ZAR; also known as the Transvaal Republic, af, Suid-Afrikaanse Republiek) was an independent republic A republic () is a form of government A government is t ...
(ZAR - nl, Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek). After the discovery of gold in 1886, the region became the single largest gold producer in the world and the city of Johannesburg was founded. The older city Pretoria was not subject to the same attention and development. Pretoria grew at a slower rate and was highly regarded due to its role in the
Second Boer War The Second Boer War ( af, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, lit. "Second Freedom War", 11 October 189931 May 1902), also known as the Boer War, the Anglo–Boer War, or the South African War, was a conflict fought between the British Empire and the two B ...
. The
Cullinan Diamond The Cullinan Diamond is the largest Diamond#Gem-grade diamonds, gem-quality rough diamond ever found,Scarratt and Shor, p. 120. weighing (21.9 ounces), discovered at the Premier No.2 mine in Cullinan, Gauteng, Cullinan, South Africa, on 26 Ja ...

Cullinan Diamond
which is the largest diamond ever mined was mined near Pretoria in a nearby town called Cullinan in the year 1905. Many crucial events happened in present-day Gauteng with regards to the anti-
apartheid Apartheid (South African English South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English language dialects native to South Africans. History British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * B ...

apartheid
struggle, such as the
Freedom Charter The Freedom Charter was the statement of core principles of the South African Congress Alliance The Congress Alliance was an anti-apartheid Apartheid (South African English: ; , segregation; lit. "aparthood") was a system of in ...
of 1955, Women's March of 1956, Sharpeville massacre of 1960, the
Rivonia Trial The Rivonia Trial took place in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and cover ...
in 1963 and 1964 and the
Soweto Uprising #REDIRECT Soweto uprising #REDIRECT Soweto uprising#REDIRECT Soweto uprising The Soweto uprising was a series of demonstrations and protests led by black school children in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Afric ...
of 1976. Today, the
Apartheid Museum The Apartheid Museum is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is an institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for (conserves) a collection (artwork), collection of artifacts and other objects of a ...
stands testament to these struggles in Johannesburg.


Law and government

Gauteng is governed by the
Gauteng Provincial Legislature The Gauteng Provincial Legislature is the legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, so ...
, a 73-person
unicameral In government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by ...
legislature elected by
party-list proportional representation Party-list proportional representation is a subset of proportional representation#REDIRECT Proportional representation Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportio ...
. The legislature elects one of its members as
Premier of Gauteng The Premier of Gauteng is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other ...
to lead the executive, and the Premier appoints an Executive Council of up to 10 members of the legislature to serve as heads of the various government departments. The provincial government is responsible for the topics allocated to it in the national constitution, including such fields as basic education, health, housing, social services, agriculture and environmental protection. The most recent election of the provincial legislature was held on 8 May 2019, and the
African National Congress The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populo ...
(ANC) won 50.19% of the vote and a 37-seat majority in the legislature. The official opposition is the
Democratic AllianceDemocratic Alliance may refer to: Current political parties *Democratic Alliance (South Africa) *DEMOS (Montenegro) *Democratic Alliance (Hong Kong) *Democratic Alliance (Ukraine) *Democratic Alliance List *Democratic Alliance Party (Haiti) *Singap ...
, which won 27.45% of the vote and 20 seats. Other parties represented are the
Economic Freedom Fighters The Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) is a South African Left-wing politics, left-wing to Far-left politics, far-left Pan-Africanism, pan-Africanist political party. It was founded by expelled former African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL ...
with eleven seats and the
Freedom Front Plus The Freedom Front Plus (FF Plus; af, Vryheidsfront Plus, ''VF Plus'') is a national South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 5 ...
with three seats. The
Inkatha Freedom Party The Inkatha Freedom Party ( zu, IQembu leNkatha yeNkululeko, IFP) is a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a part ...
and
African Christian Democratic Party The African Christian Democratic Party is a South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the Southern Africa, southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 60 million people, ...
hold one seat each. Premier
David Makhura Manemolla David Makhura (born 22 February 1968) is a South African politician. He is currently serving as the 6th Premier of Gauteng The Premier of Gauteng is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second hi ...
of the ANC was re-elected as premier on 22 May 2019, at the first meeting of the legislature after the general election. The
Gauteng Division The Gauteng Division of the High Court of South Africa is a superior court, superior court of law which has general jurisdiction over the South African province of Gauteng and the eastern part of North West (South African province), North West prov ...
of the
High Court of South Africa The High Court of South Africa is a superior court In common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being s ...
, which has seats in Pretoria and Johannesburg, is a
superior court In common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law Case law is the collection of past legal decisions written by courts and similar tribunal A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution ...
with
general jurisdiction {{Globalize, article, USA, 2name=the United States, date=December 2010 A court of general jurisdiction is a court with authority to hear cases of all kinds – criminal law, criminal, civil law (common law), civil, family law, family, probate, and ...
over the province. Johannesburg is also home to the
Constitutional Court A constitutional court is a high court High court usually refers to the superior court In common law systems, a superior court is a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Ad ...

Constitutional Court
, South Africa's highest court, and to a branch of the
Labour Court A labor court (or labour court or industrial tribunal) is a governmental judiciary body which rules on labor or employment-related matters and disputes. In a number of countries, labor cases are often taken to separate national labor high courts. O ...
and Labour Appeal Court.


Geography

Gauteng's southern border is the
Vaal River The Vaal River ( ; Khoemana ǃOrakobab or ''Khoemana'', also known as Korana, ǃOra, or Griqua, is a Moribund language, moribund Khoe languages, Khoe language of South Africa. Names "Khoemana" (from ''khoe'' 'person' + ''mana'' 'language') i ...

Vaal River
, which separates it from the
Free State #REDIRECT Free state The Free State ( af, Vrystaat; st, Freistata; xh, iFreyistata; tn, Foreistata; zu, iFuleyisitata; before 1995, the Orange Free State) is a Provinces of South Africa, province of South Africa. Its capital is Bloemfontein, ...
. It also borders on North West to the west,
Limpopo Limpopo is the northernmost Provinces of South Africa, province of South Africa. It is named after the Limpopo River, which forms the province's western and northern borders. The capital and largest city in the province is Polokwane (formerly ...
to the north, and
Mpumalanga Mpumalanga () is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, ...
to the east. Gauteng is the only landlocked province of South Africa without a foreign border. Most of Gauteng is on the
Highveld The Highveld (Afrikaans: ''Hoëveld'', where ''veld'' means "field") is the portion of the South Africa#Geography, South African inland plateau which has an altitude above roughly 1500 m, but below 2100 m, thus excluding the Lesotho mountain regio ...
, a high-altitude grassland (circa above sea level). Between
Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu language, Zulu and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in South Africa, classified as a Megacity#List of megacities, megacity, and is List of urban areas by ...

Johannesburg
and
Pretoria Pretoria is one of South Africa’s three Capital city, capital cities, serving as the seat of the executive branch of government, and as the host to all foreign embassies to South Africa. Cape Town is the legislature, legislative capital wher ...

Pretoria
, there are low parallel ridges and undulating hills, some part of the
Magaliesberg The Magaliesberg (historically also known as ''Macalisberg'' or ''Cashan Mountains'') of northern South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the Southern Africa, southernmost country in Africa. With ove ...
Mountains and the
Witwatersrand The Witwatersrand () (locally the Rand or, less commonly, the Reef) is a , north-facing scarp in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of So ...

Witwatersrand
. The north of the province is more
subtropical The subtropical zones or subtropics are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country locat ...

subtropical
, due to its lower altitude and is mostly dry
savanna A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ''plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest forming open habitats ...

savanna
habitat.


Witwatersrand area

In the southern half of Gauteng, the Witwatersrand area is an older term describing a 120 km wide oblong-shaped conurbation from
Randfontein Randfontein is a gold mining city in the West Rand, Gauteng, South Africa, west of Johannesburg. With the Witwatersrand gold rush in full swing, mining financier Sir Joseph Robinson, 1st Baronet, JB Robinson bought the farm Randfontein and, in ...
in the West to
Nigel Nigel is an English language, English masculine given name. The English ''Nigel'' is commonly found in records dating from the Middle Ages; however, it was not used much before being revived by 19th-century antiquarians. For instance, Walter Sc ...
in the East, named after the
Witwatersrand The Witwatersrand () (locally the Rand or, less commonly, the Reef) is a , north-facing scarp in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of So ...

Witwatersrand
, a geologically and economically important series of low ridges and their associated plateau that greater Johannesburg developed on. This area is also often referred to simply as "Witwatersrand", "the Rand" or "the Reef" (archaic, after the gold reefs that precipitated the development of the area), and was the "W" in ''PWV'', the initial name for Gauteng. It has traditionally been divided into the three areas of
East Rand The East Rand is the urban eastern part of the Witwatersrand The Witwatersrand () (locally the Rand or, less commonly, the Reef) is a , north-facing scarp in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is ...
(governed by the
Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality The City of Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality is a metropolitan municipality A metropolitan municipality is a type of municipality established in some countries to serve a metropolitan area. Canada In generic terms and in practical applica ...
), Central Rand (approximately today's Johannesburg Municipality) and
West Rand The West Rand is the name of the urban western part of the Witwatersrand that is functionally merged with the Johannesburg conurbation. This area became settled by European ethnic groups, Europeans after a gold, gold-bearing reef discovered in ...
.


Climate

The climate is mostly influenced by altitude. Even though the province is at a
subtropical The subtropical zones or subtropics are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country locat ...

subtropical
latitude, the climate is comparatively cooler, especially in
Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu language, Zulu and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in South Africa, classified as a Megacity#List of megacities, megacity, and is List of urban areas by ...

Johannesburg
, at above sea level (
Pretoria Pretoria is one of South Africa’s three Capital city, capital cities, serving as the seat of the executive branch of government, and as the host to all foreign embassies to South Africa. Cape Town is the legislature, legislative capital wher ...

Pretoria
is at ). Most precipitation occurs as brief afternoon thunderstorms; however, relative humidity never becomes uncomfortable. Winters are crisp and dry with frost occurring often in the southern areas. Snow is rare, but it has occurred on some occasions in the
Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu language, Zulu and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in South Africa, classified as a Megacity#List of megacities, megacity, and is List of urban areas by ...

Johannesburg
metropolitan area.  


Cities and towns

* Alberton * Benoni *
Boksburg Boksburg is a city on the East Rand of Gauteng province of South Africa. Gold was discovered in Boksburg in 1887. Boksburg was named after the State Secretary of the South African Republic, Willem Eduard Bok, W. Eduard Bok. The Main Reef Road ...
*
Bronkhorstspruit Bronkhorstspruit is a town 50 km east of Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa along the N4 road (South Africa), N4 highway towards Witbank. It lies on the border between the Gauteng and Mpumalanga Province, Mpumalanga provinces. It also consists of ...
*
Brakpan Brakpan is a mining town in the Gauteng Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; Ndebele Ndebele may refer to: *Southern Ndebele people, located in South Africa *Northern Ndebele people, located in Zi ...
*
Carletonville Carletonville is a town in the West Rand District Municipality in Gauteng, South Africa, just north of the richest gold mining, gold-mining area in the world. At 3,749 m, Western Deep Levels holds the record for the world's deepest gold mine. His ...
*
Centurion A centurion (; la, centurio , . la, centuriones, label=none; grc-gre, κεντυρίων, kentyríōn, or ) was a position in the Roman army The Roman army (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is ...
* Cullinan * Edenvale *
Ga-Rankuwa Ga-Rankuwa is a large settlement located about 37 km north-west of Pretoria Pretoria is one of South Africa’s three Capital city, capital cities, serving as the seat of the executive branch of government, and as the host to all fore ...
*
Germiston Germiston is a small city in the East Rand region of Gauteng, South Africa, administratively forming part of the City of Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality since the latter's establishment in 2000. It functions as the municipal seat of Ekurhu ...
*
Hammanskraal Hammanskraal is a functional, trans-provincial region anchored in northern Gauteng Province, South Africa. The region consists of multiple, residential, industrial and commercial areas in a decentralized settlement pattern. History The historica ...
*
Heidelberg Heidelberg () is a university town in the German state The Federal Republic of Germany, as a federal state, consists of sixteen partly sovereign federated states (german: Land (state), plural (states); commonly informally / federated s ...

Heidelberg
*
Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu language, Zulu and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in South Africa, classified as a Megacity#List of megacities, megacity, and is List of urban areas by ...

Johannesburg
* *
Krugersdorp Krugersdorp (Afrikaans Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is ...
*
Mabopane Mabopane is a residential suburb A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a , or . It can exist either as part of a city/urban area and can often have a large degree of employment. In some metropolitan areas they exist as separate res ...
*
Magaliesburg Magaliesburg is a small town situated below the Witwatersrand mountain range in Gauteng, South Africa. The Magaliesberg mountain range is north and visible from town, hence the name "Magaliesburg". The mountains themselves are named after Kgosi ...

Magaliesburg
* Meyerton *
Midrand Midrand is a municipality in central Gauteng Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Sotho language, Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; Southern Ndebele language, Ndebele, xh, iRhawuti; nr, I-Gauteng; ve, Gauteng) is one of the nin ...
*
Nigel Nigel is an English language, English masculine given name. The English ''Nigel'' is commonly found in records dating from the Middle Ages; however, it was not used much before being revived by 19th-century antiquarians. For instance, Walter Sc ...
* Parkhurst *
Pretoria Pretoria is one of South Africa’s three Capital city, capital cities, serving as the seat of the executive branch of government, and as the host to all foreign embassies to South Africa. Cape Town is the legislature, legislative capital wher ...

Pretoria
*
Randburg Randburg is an upmarket area located in the Gauteng province Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; Ndebele Ndebele may refer to: *Southern Ndebele people, located in South Africa *Northern Ndebele ...
*
Randfontein Randfontein is a gold mining city in the West Rand, Gauteng, South Africa, west of Johannesburg. With the Witwatersrand gold rush in full swing, mining financier Sir Joseph Robinson, 1st Baronet, JB Robinson bought the farm Randfontein and, in ...
*
Roodepoort Roodepoort is a town in the Gauteng Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; Ndebele Ndebele may refer to: *Southern Ndebele people, located in South Africa *Northern Ndebele people, located in Zimb ...
* Rosebank *
Sandton Sandton is an affluent area in the Gauteng Province Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; Ndebele Ndebele may refer to: *Southern Ndebele people, located in South Africa *Northern Ndebele people, ...

Sandton
*
Soweto Soweto () is a township A township is a kind of human settlement or administrative subdivision, with its meaning varying in different countries. While the term is occasionally associated with an urban area, this tends to be an exception t ...

Soweto
*
Springs Spring(s) may refer to: Common uses * Spring (season), a season of the year * Spring (device), a mechanical device that stores energy * Spring (hydrology), a natural source of water * Spring (mathematics), a geometric surface in the shape of a heli ...
*
Tembisa Thembisa, formerly Tembisa (Dindela), is a large township A township is a kind of human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity o ...
*
Vanderbijlpark Vanderbijlpark is an industrial city with approximately 75 000 inhabitants, and 95 000 inhabitants in the metropole, situated on the Vaal River in the south of Gauteng province, South Africa. The city is named after Hendrik van der Bijl, an ele ...
*
Vereeniging Vereeniging () is a city located in the south of Gauteng province, South Africa, situated where the Klip River empties into the northern loop of the Vaal River. It is also one of the constituent parts of the Vaal Triangle region and was formerly si ...


Administrative divisions

The Gauteng Province (as of May 2011) is divided into three metropolitan municipalities and two district municipalities. The district municipalities are in turn divided into six local municipalities:


District municipalities

* Sedibeng District **
Emfuleni The Emfuleni Local Municipality, founded in 1999, is one of three local municipality (South Africa), local municipalities comprising the Sedibeng District Municipality, Sedibeng District in Gauteng, South Africa. It is the westernmost local municip ...
** Lesedi ** Midvaal * West Rand District ** Merafong City ** Mogale City ** Rand West City


Metropolitan municipalities

*
Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality The City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality (also known as the City of Tshwane) () is the Metropolitan municipality (South Africa), metropolitan municipality that forms the local government of northern Gauteng Province, South Africa. The Metro ...
(
Pretoria Pretoria is one of South Africa’s three Capital city, capital cities, serving as the seat of the executive branch of government, and as the host to all foreign embassies to South Africa. Cape Town is the legislature, legislative capital wher ...

Pretoria
) * Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality *
Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality The City of Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality is a metropolitan municipality A metropolitan municipality is a type of municipality established in some countries to serve a metropolitan area. Canada In generic terms and in practical applica ...
The former Metsweding district consisting of Nokeng Tsa Taemane and Kungwini in the North of the province was incorporated into Tshwane in 2011.


Demographics

Gauteng Province is home to 15.7 million (2019 Stats SA Mid-year estimates), with 25.8% of the total South African population. Gauteng Province is also the fastest growing province, experiencing a population growth of over 33% between the
1996 1996 was designated as: * International Year for the Eradication of Poverty Events January * January 3 Events Pre-1600 * 69 – The Roman legions on the Rhine refuse to declare their allegiance to Galba Galba (; born Servius Sulpi ...
and 2011 censuses, thus Gauteng now has the largest population of any province in South Africa, though the smallest area. As of the census of 2011, there are 12,272,263 people and 3,909,022 households residing in Gauteng. The population density is 680/km². The density of households is 155.86/km². About 22.1% of all households are made up of individuals. The average household size is 3.33. The province's age distribution was 23.6% under the age of 15, 19.6% from 15 to 24, 37.9% from 25 to 44, 15.0% from 45 to 64, and 4.0% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 27 years. For every 100 females there are 101.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 102.3 males. According to the 2011 census, in Gauteng, the most spoken languages at home were: *
Zulu Zulu may refer to: Zulu people * Zulu Kingdom or Zulu Empire, a former monarchy in what is now South Africa * Zulu language, a Bantu language spoken in southern Africa * Zulu people, an ethnic group of southern Africa Arts, entertainment, and med ...
: 19.8% of residents, *
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...
: 13.3%, *
Afrikaans Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most po ...
: 12.4%, *
Sesotho Sotho () or Sesotho () is a Southern Bantu languages, Southern Bantu language of the Sotho-Tswana languages, Sotho-Tswana (S.30) group, spoken primarily by the Basotho people, Basotho in Lesotho, where it is the national language, national a ...
: 11.6%, *
Sepedi Northern Sotho, or as an endonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or category of ...
: 10.6%, *
Setswana Tswana, also known by its native name , is a Bantu language The Bantu languages (English: , Proto-Bantu: *bantʊ̀) are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa is, ...
: 9.1%, *
IsiXhosa Xhosa (, ) also isiXhosa as an endonym, is a Nguni languages, Nguni language and one of the official languages of South Africa and Languages of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe. Xhosa is spoken as a first language by approximately 8.2 million people a ...
: 6.6%, *
Xitsonga Tsonga () or Xitsonga ( ''Xitsonga'') as an endonym, is a Bantu languages, Bantu language spoken by the Tsonga people of southern Africa. It is mutually intelligible with Tswa and Ronga and the name "Tsonga" is often used as a cover term for al ...

Xitsonga
: 6.6%, * IsiNdebele: 3.2%, * Tshivenda: 2.3%, *
SiSwati The Swazi or siSwati language is a Bantu languages, Bantu language of the Nguni languages, Nguni group spoken in Eswatini and South Africa by the Swazi people, Swati people. The number of speakers is estimated to be in the region of 2.4 mil ...
: 1.1%, *
South African Sign Language South African Sign Language (SASL, af, Suid-Afrikaanse Gebaretaal) is the primary sign language used by deaf people in South Africa. The South African government added a National Language Unit for South African Sign Language in 2001. SASL is ...
: 0.4%, * Other languages: 3.1%. 76.0% of residents are Christian, 18.4% have , 1.7% are Muslim, 0.5% are Jewish, and 0.8% are
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...

Hindu
. 2.6% have other or undetermined beliefs. 8.4% of residents aged 20 and over have received no schooling, 11.2% have had some primary, 5.5% have completed only primary school, 34.3% have had some high education, 28.0% have finished only high school, and 12.6% have an education higher than the high school level. Overall, 40.6% of residents have completed high school. 56.1% of housing units have a telephone and/or
mobile phone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone A telephone is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the tra ...

mobile phone
in the dwelling, 41.5% have access to a phone nearby, and 2.3% have access that is not nearby or no access. 82.8% of households have a flush or chemical toilet. 84.2% have
refuse Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials. Waste is any substance which is discarded after primary use, or is worthless, defective and of no use. A by-product A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a produ ...

refuse
removed by the municipality at least once a week and 2.6% have no rubbish disposal. 47.2% have
running water A simple indoor water tap Tap water (''running water'', ''city water'', ''town water'', ''municipal water'', ''sink water'', etc.) is water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, ...

running water
inside their dwelling, 83.6% have running water on their property, and 97.5% have access to running water. 73.2% of households use electricity for cooking, 70.4% for heating, and 80.8% for lighting. 77.4% of households have a radio, 65.7% have a television, 15.1% own a computer, 62.1% have a
refrigerator A refrigerator (colloquially fridge) is a commercial and home appliance A home appliance, also referred to as a domestic appliance, an electric appliance or a household appliance, is a machine which assists in household A household co ...

refrigerator
, and 45.1% have a mobile phone. 25.8% of the population aged 15–65 is unemployed. The median annual income of working adults aged 15–65 is R 23 539 ($3,483). Males have a median annual income of R 24 977 ($3,696) versus R 20 838 ($3,083) for females.


Life expectancy

Gauteng is the province with the second highest
life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age, and other demographic Demography (from prefix ''demo-'' from Ancient Greek Ancien ...

life expectancy
in the country in 2019 with females having a life expectancy of 69 years and males having a life expectancy of 64 years. At birth, life expectancy for 2013 is approximated at 57 years and 61 years for males and females respectively.
/ref> This marks an improvement of a whole year in the life expectancy of South Africans as a whole.


Urban conurbation, The Gauteng City Region (GCR)

Previously described as the , the urban conurbation of Gauteng, referred to as the Gauteng City Region,http://www.gcro.ac.za/ contains the major urban populations of
Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu language, Zulu and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in South Africa, classified as a Megacity#List of megacities, megacity, and is List of urban areas by ...

Johannesburg
(7,860,781 ),
Pretoria Pretoria is one of South Africa’s three Capital city, capital cities, serving as the seat of the executive branch of government, and as the host to all foreign embassies to South Africa. Cape Town is the legislature, legislative capital wher ...

Pretoria
(1,763,336),
Vereeniging Vereeniging () is a city located in the south of Gauteng province, South Africa, situated where the Klip River empties into the northern loop of the Vaal River. It is also one of the constituent parts of the Vaal Triangle region and was formerly si ...
(377,922), Evaton (605,504) and
Soshanguve Soshanguve is a Township (South Africa), township situated about 30 km north of Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa. The name Soshanguve is an acronym for Sotho, Shangaan, Nguni and Venda, thus showing the multi-ethnic composition of the popula ...
(728,063), coming to an urban population of over 11 million. Thomas Brinkhoff lists a "Consolidated Urban Area" in Gauteng as having a population of 13.1 million . The future governmental plans for the region indicate the gradual urbanisation and consolidation towards the creation of a megalopolis that connects these metros.


The Gauteng City Region Observatory (GCRO)

The GCRO is a collaboration between the Universities of Johannesburg and Witwatersrand, the city of Johannesburg, Gauteng Provincial Government, and SALGA-Gauteng. The GCRO's purpose is to collect information and create a database on the Gauteng City Region to provide to Government, Lawmakers and civil society an informed understanding of the fastest urbanizing region in Southern Africa.


Economy

Gauteng is considered the
economic An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ...
hub of
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
and contributes heavily in the financial, manufacturing, transport, technology, and
telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, Optical system, optical, or other Electromagnetism, electromagnetic systems. It has its origin in the desire of humans for communication ov ...
sectors, among others. It also plays host to a large number of overseas companies requiring a commercial base in and gateway to
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', ...

Africa
. Gauteng is home to the
Johannesburg Stock Exchange JSE Limited (previously the JSE Securities Exchange and the Johannesburg Stock Exchange) is the largest stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an Exchange (organized market), exchange where stockbrokers and sto ...
, the largest stock exchange in Africa. Some of the largest companies in Africa and abroad are based in Gauteng, or have offices and branches there, such as
Vodacom Vodacom Group Limited is a South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the Southern Africa, southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 60 million people, it is the world' ...
, MTN,
Neotel Neotel, previously SNO Telecommunications, is the second national operator (SNO) for fixed line telecommunication services in South Africa. It was unveiled on 31 August 2006 in Kyalami in northern Johannesburg. Neotel is South Africa's first dir ...
, and the largest
Porsche Dr.-Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, usually shortened to Porsche (; see #Pronunciation, below), is a German automobile manufacturer specializing in high-performance sports cars, SUVs and sedans, headquartered in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ...

Porsche
Centre in the world. Although Gauteng is the smallest of South Africa's nine provinces—it covers a mere 1.5% of the country's total land area, the province is responsible for a third of South Africa's
gross domestic product Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the ...
(GDP). Gauteng generates about 10% of the total GDP of
sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa (commonly called Black Africa) is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. According to the United Nations, it consists of all list of sovereign states and dependent territories i ...

sub-Saharan Africa
and about 7% of total African GDP.


Transport

SANRAL The South African National Roads Agency SOC Ltd or SANRAL is a South African parastatal responsible for the management, maintenance and development of South Africa's proclaimed National Road network which includes many (but not all) National Route ...
, a parastatal, is responsible for the maintenance, development and management of all national road networks in South Africa. SANRAL is responsible for instituting the Gauteng Freeway Improvement Project, which was met with a lot of opposition due to the tolling of Gauteng motorists. Many important national routes run through Gauteng such as the N1, N3, N4, N12, N14 and the N17. Johannesburg is quite dependent on
freeways A controlled-access highway is a type of highway A highway is any public or private road A road is a wide way leading from one place to another, typically one with a specially prepared surface which vehicles and bikes can use. ...
for transport in and around the city. The R21, R24, R59, M1 and M2 all run through Johannesburg while the R80 connects Pretoria Central to Soshanguve. The Gauteng Freeway Improvement Project led to a large decrease in traffic congestion when construction finished 2011–2012.
Cape Town Cape Town (Afrikaans: Kaapstad ; Xhosa language, Xhosa: ''iKapa;'') is the second-most populous city in South Africa, after Johannesburg, and also the legislative Capital city, capital of South Africa. Colloquially named the Mother City, it is ...

Cape Town
, for the first time in decades, is now the most congested city in South Africa.
PUTCO The Public Utility Transport Corporation (PUTCO) is a provider of transit bus, commuter bus services in the provinces of Gauteng, Limpopo, and the western parts of Mpumalanga in South Africa. PUTCO was established in 1945 after the bus strike ...
, the largest commuter bus operator in South Africa, services the Gauteng area extensively. The
bus rapid transit Bus rapid transit (BRT), also called a busway or transitway, is a bus-based public transport system designed to have better capacity Capacity or capacities may refer to: Mathematics, science, and engineering * Capacity of a container, clos ...
system
Rea Vaya Rea Vaya (which means "we are going" in Scamto) is a bus rapid transit Bus rapid transit (BRT), also called a busway or transitway, is a Public transport bus service, bus-based public transport system designed to have better Route capacity, ...
also serves to transport people from Johannesburg's southern neighbourhoods into and around the
CBD CBD commonly refers to: * Cannabidiol, a cannabinoid found in cannabis * Central business district, the commercial center of a city CBD may also refer to: Biology and chemistry * Chemical bath deposition, a technique for depositing thin films onto ...
. In an interview, Parks Tau stated that by the year 2040, Johannesburg will be dominated by pedestrians and public transport as opposed to the use of private transport or informal transport, such as minibus taxis.
Gautrain Gautrain is an express Express or EXPRESS may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * '' Express: Aisle to Glory'', a 1998 comedy short film featuring Kal Penn * '' The Express: The Ernie Davis Story'', a 2008 film starring Dennis ...
and
Metrorail Metrorail or metro rail may refer to: * Rapid transit, a frequent electric rail system commonly called a metro * Metrorail (South Africa), a commuter rail system operator in South Africa ** Metrorail Eastern Cape, commuter rail lines serving Port E ...

Metrorail
both service the province's public transport sector where trains are concerned and Gautrain offers a bus service that transports commuters to and from various train stations and predetermined bus stops. Metrorail trains are considered one of the most cost-effective methods of transportation in and around Gauteng. The
OR Tambo International Airport O. R. Tambo International Airport is an international airport An international airport is an airport An airport is an with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports often have facilities to park and mai ...
, Rand Airport,
Lanseria International Airport Lanseria International Airport is a privately owned international airport that is situated north of Randburg and Sandton to the north west of Johannesburg, South Africa. The airport can handle aircraft up to the size of a Boeing 757, Boeing 75 ...
, Wonderboom Airport and Grand Central Airport are located in Gauteng. There is a large informal transport sector in Gauteng, consisting of thousands of minibus taxis, which many of the urban and rural population makes use of. However, it is noted that taxis are often unsafe as their drivers ignore the rules of the road and the vehicles are often not Roadworthiness, roadworthy. The City of Johannesburg stated that: "major initiatives are under way to completely reform the taxi industry and provide more comfort and safety to customers."


Education

Gauteng is a large center of learning in South Africa, and it has many universities and educational institutions of higher learning. In 2002, the Gauteng Department of Education founded an initiative called ''Gauteng Online'' in an attempt to get the entire province to utilize a wide assortment of electronic and telecommunications systems. In 2007, this initiative was handed over to the Gauteng Department of Finance. In the 2013 national budget speech, it was announced that the Gauteng Department of Education would be granted over South African rand, R700 million to improve education and to alleviate issues concerning the overcrowding in schools, a shortage in teaching staff and transport for poor pupils. In 2017/2018, the Gauteng Provincial government spent South African rand, R42.4 billion on education which accounted for 38% the province's total expenditure.


Conservation

Although Gauteng province is dominated by the urban areas of Johannesburg and Pretoria, it has several nature reserves. Gauteng is home to the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site, UNESCO World Heritage Site which includes the
Sterkfontein Sterkfontein (Afrikaans Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it ...

Sterkfontein
caves and the Wonder Cave Kromdraai. Johannesburg is home to the largest man-made urban forest in the world.


Botanical gardens

* Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden * Johannesburg Botanical Garden * Pretoria National Botanical Garden


Nature reserves

* Rietvlei Nature Reserve * Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve * Groenkloof Nature Reserve * Dinokeng Game Reserve


Private and municipal reserves

* Kromdraai Conservancy * Krugersdorp Nature Reserve * Rietvlei Nature Reserve * Wonderboom Nature Reserve


Provincial reserves

There are 5 provincial reserves managed by the Gauteng Department of Agriculture, Conservation, Environment and Land Affairs: * Abe Bailey Nature Reserve * Alice Glockner Nature Reserve * Marievale Bird Sanctuary * Roodeplaat Nature Reserve * Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve


Sport

Gauteng is home to many stadiums and sporting grounds, notably FNB Stadium, Soccer City, Ellis Park Stadium, Odi Stadium, Loftus Versfeld Stadium, Orlando Stadium, Johannesburg Stadium, the Wanderers Stadium and SuperSport Park. Several teams from Gauteng play in the country's top-level association football (more commonly referred to as soccer) league, the Premier Soccer League (South Africa), Premier Soccer League (PSL), including Kaizer Chiefs Football Club, Kaizer Chiefs and Orlando Pirates Football Club, Orlando Pirates. The national squad Bafana Bafana's home stadium is Soccer City in Johannesburg. During the 2010 FIFA World Cup, the first ever world cup held by an African nation, Gauteng's stadia hosted many games. The first ever FIFA world cup match on African soil took place at Soccer City on 11 June 2010. Along with Soccer City, Loftus Versfeld Stadium and Ellis Park Stadium hosted matches in Gauteng. Rugby football, Rugby, or more accurately rugby union, is a popular sport in South Africa, and in Gauteng in particular. Two rugby teams from Gauteng participate in the Southern Hemisphere Super Rugby championship: the
Pretoria Pretoria is one of South Africa’s three Capital city, capital cities, serving as the seat of the executive branch of government, and as the host to all foreign embassies to South Africa. Cape Town is the legislature, legislative capital wher ...

Pretoria
-based Bulls (rugby franchise), Bulls, and the
Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu language, Zulu and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in South Africa, classified as a Megacity#List of megacities, megacity, and is List of urban areas by ...

Johannesburg
-based Lions (Super Rugby), Lions (previously the Cats). Three Gauteng-based teams play in the country's domestic competition, the Currie Cup: the Blue Bulls from Pretoria, the Golden Lions from Johannesburg and the Falcons (rugby team), Falcons from the East Rand, Gauteng, East Rand. In 1995, South Africa hosted the 1995 Rugby World Cup and proceeded to win the tournament at Ellis Park Stadium on 24 June 1995. The events surrounding the world cup formed the basis of the story for the movie Invictus (film), Invictus. Many South African universities take part in the Varsity Rugby league. Of these, the Gauteng universities include the University of Pretoria, the University of Johannesburg and the University of the Witwatersrand. Cricket is also widely popular among all cultural groups in the country, and is the only sport to feature in the top two among all of South Africa's major ethnic/racial groups. The Highveld Lions cricket team, Highveld Lions represent both Gauteng and North West (South African province), North West in the country's three domestic competitions—the first-class cricket, first-class SuperSport Series, the List A cricket, List A limited overs cricket, one-day MTN Domestic Championship and the Twenty20 Standard Bank Pro 20 Series. Many marathons take place in Gauteng, such as the Gauteng Marathon, the Arwyp Medical Centre 15 km Nite Race and the Trisport Joburg City Triathlon.
Gauteng's favourable weather conditions throughout the year make it an ideal hub for sports and other out door activities. This makes golf, horse racing and swimming very popular. The
Vaal River The Vaal River ( ; Khoemana ǃOrakobab or ''Khoemana'', also known as Korana, ǃOra, or Griqua, is a Moribund language, moribund Khoe languages, Khoe language of South Africa. Names "Khoemana" (from ''khoe'' 'person' + ''mana'' 'language') i ...

Vaal River
facilitates water sports in the forms of jet skiing, water skiing and motor boating. Adventure sports are also quite popular in Gauteng, particularly skydiving, paragliding and hang-gliding. The amusement park Gold Reef City is situated in Gauteng, as is the Johannesburg Zoo and the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria Zoo. Botanical gardens in the province include the Pretoria National Botanical Garden, Pretoria and Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden, Walter Sisulu national botanical gardens maintained by the South African National Botanical Institute as well as the Johannesburg Botanical Garden, Johannesburg and Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, Manie van der Schijff botanical gardens. The Ticketpro Dome and the Gallagher Convention Centre, which are both popular events and expos venues, are also located within Gauteng. The province also has a Formula One racetrack, the Kyalami, Kyalami Circuit. The most recent F1 race at the venue was in 1993.


See also

*List of Speakers of the Gauteng Provincial Legislature


References


External links

*
Gauteng Provincial GovernmentGauteng Tourism AuthorityMashatile elected to lead Gauteng
{{Authority control Gauteng, Provinces of South Africa States and territories established in 1994 1994 establishments in South Africa