HOME

TheInfoList




Friulian ( ) or Friulan (natively or ; it, friulano; german: Furlanisch; sl, furlanščina) is a
Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries. They are a subgroup of the Italic languages in the Indo-European languages, Indo- ...

Romance language
belonging to the
Rhaeto-Romance Rhaeto-Romance, Rheto-Romance, or Rhaetian, is a purported subfamily In biological classification, a subfamily (Latin: ', plural ') is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank, next below family (biology), family but more inclusive than genus. ...

Rhaeto-Romance
family, spoken in the
Friuli Friuli ( fur, Friûl) is an area of Northeast Italy with its own particular cultural and historical identity containing 1,000,000 Friulians. It comprises the major part of the autonomous region Friuli Venezia Giulia, i.e. the administrative Provin ...
region of northeastern
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
. Friulian has around 600,000 speakers, the vast majority of whom also speak
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
. It is sometimes called Eastern Ladin since it shares the same roots as Ladin, but over the centuries, it has diverged under the influence of surrounding languages, including
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
,
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
, Venetian, and
Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...
. Documents in Friulian are attested from the 11th century and poetry and literature date as far back as 1300. By the 20th century, there was a revival of interest in the language.


History

A question that causes many debates is the influence of the Latin spoken in
Aquileia Aquileia ( , , ; fur, Olee / / / / ;Bilingual name of ''Aquileja – Oglej'' in: vec, Aquiłeja / ) is an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past events
Aquileia
and surrounding areas. Some claim that it had peculiar features that later passed into Friulian. Epigraphs and inscriptions from that period show some variants if compared to the standard Latin language, but most of them are common to other areas of the Roman Empire; often, it is cited that Fortunatianus, the bishop of
Aquileia Aquileia ( , , ; fur, Olee / / / / ;Bilingual name of ''Aquileja – Oglej'' in: vec, Aquiłeja / ) is an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past events
Aquileia
342 - 357 AD, wrote a commentary to the
Gospel Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel#REDIRECT The gospel In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Te ...

Gospel
in ''sermo rusticus'' (the common/ language), which, therefore, would have been quite divergent from the standard
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...
of administration. The text itself did not survive so its language cannot be examined, but its attested existence testifies to a shift of languages while, for example, other important communities of Northern Italy were still speaking Latin. The language spoken before the arrival of the Romans in 181 BC was of
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
origin since the inhabitants belonged to the
Carni The Carni (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as ...
, a Celtic population. In modern Friulian, the words of Celtic origins are many (terms referring to mountains, woods, plants, animals, '' inter alia'') and much influence of the original population is shown in toponyms (names of villages with ''-acco'', ''-icco''). Even influences from the
Lombardic language Lombardic or Langobardic is an extinct West Germanic language that was spoken by the Lombards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774. The medieval L ...
- Friuli was one of
their In Modern English, ''they'' is a Grammatical person, third-person personal pronoun, pronoun, chiefly Grammatical number, plural. Morphology In Standard English, Standard Modern English, ''they'' has five distinct word Morphology (linguistics), ...
strongholds - are very frequent. In a similar manner, there are unique connections to the modern, nearby
Lombard language Lombard (native name ''lombard, lumbard'' or ''lumbàart'', depending on the orthography; or ) is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, ...

Lombard language
. In Friulian, there are also a plethora of words of
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
,
Slovenian Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...
and Venetian origin. From that evidence, scholars today agree that the formation of Friulian dates back to circa 1000 AD, at the same time as other dialects derived from Latin (see
Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin, is non-literary Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is th ...
). The first written records of Friulian have been found in administrative acts of the 13th century, but the documents became more frequent in the following century, when literary works also emerged (''Frammenti letterari'' for example). The main centre at that time was
Cividale Cividale del Friuli ( fur, Cividât (locally ); german: Östrich; sl, Čedad) is a town and ''comune'' in the Province of Udine, part of the Northern Italy, North-Italian Friuli Venezia Giulia ''regione''. The town lies above sea-level in the foot ...

Cividale
. The Friulian language has never acquired official status: legal statutes were first written in Latin, then in Venetian and finally in Italian.


The "Ladin Question"

The idea of unity among Ladin, Romansh and Friulian comes from the Italian historical linguist
Graziadio Isaia Ascoli Graziadio Isaia Ascoli (; 16 July 1829 – 21 January 1907) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Itali ...
, who was born in
Gorizia Gorizia (; sl, Gorica , colloquially 'old Gorizia' to distinguish it from Nova Gorica; fur, label=Standard Friulian, Gurize, fur, label=Friulian language#Variants of Friulian, Southeastern Friulian, Guriza; vec, label=Venetian language#Regio ...

Gorizia
. In 1871, he presented his theory that these three languages are part of one family, which in the past stretched from
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
to
Muggia Muggia ( vec, label= Venetian, Triestine dialect The Triestine dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different typ ...

Muggia
and perhaps also
Istria Istria ( ; Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also * Croatia (disambiguation) ...

Istria
. The three languages are the only survivors of this family and all developed differently. Friulian was much less influenced by
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
. The scholar Francescato claimed subsequently that until the 14th century, the
Venetian language Venetian or Venetan ( or ), is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries. They are a subgroup ...
shared many phonetic features with Friulian and Ladin and so he thought that Friulian was a much more
conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of aest ...
language. Many features that Ascoli thought were peculiar to the Rhaeto-Romance languages can, in fact, be found in other languages of Northern
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
.


Areas


Italy

Today, Friulian is spoken in the
province of Udine The province of Udine ( it, provincia di Udine, fur, provincie di Udin, sl, videmska pokrajina, Resian: , german: Provinz Weiden) was a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term deriv ...
, including the area of the Carnia
Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt ...

Alps
, but as well throughout the
province of Pordenone The province of Pordenone ( it, provincia di Pordenone; ; vec, provincia de Pordenon) was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admi ...
, in half of the province of
Gorizia Gorizia (; sl, Gorica , colloquially 'old Gorizia' to distinguish it from Nova Gorica; fur, label=Standard Friulian, Gurize, fur, label=Friulian language#Variants of Friulian, Southeastern Friulian, Guriza; vec, label=Venetian language#Regio ...
, and in the eastern part of the
province of Venice The Province of Venice (''Provincia di Venezia'') was a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and ad ...
. In the past, the language borders were wider since in
Trieste Trieste ( , ; sl, Trst ; german: Triest ) is a city and seaport The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola The thumb is the first digit of the hand, next to the index finger. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position (wher ...

Trieste
and
Muggia Muggia ( vec, label= Venetian, Triestine dialect The Triestine dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different typ ...

Muggia
, local variants of Friulian were spoken. The main document about the dialect of Trieste, or ''tergestino'', is "Dialoghi piacevoli in dialetto vernacolo triestino", published by G. Mainati in 1828.


World

Friuli was, until the 1960s, an area of deep poverty, causing a large number of Friulian speakers to emigrate. Most went to
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
,
Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on cont ...

Belgium
, and
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
or outside
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
, to
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
,
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
,
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

Argentina
,
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
,
Venezuela Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ( es, link=no, República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continent A continent is any of several large l ...

Venezuela
, the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, and
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
. In those countries, there are associations of Friulian immigrants (called ''Fogolâr furlan'') that try to protect their traditions and language.


Literature

The first texts in Friulian date back to the 13th century and are mainly commercial or juridical acts. The examples show that Friulian was used together with Latin, which was still the administrative language. The main examples of literature that have survived (much from this period has been
lost Lost may refer to getting lost Getting lost is the occurrence of a person or animal losing spatial reference. This situation consists of two elements: the feeling of disorientation and a spatial component. While ''getting lost'', ''being lost'' or ...
) are poems from the 14th century and are usually dedicated to the theme of love and are probably inspired by the Italian poetic movement Dolce Stil Novo. The most notable work is ''Piruç myò doç inculurit'' (which means "My sweet, coloured pear"); it was composed by an anonymous author from Cividale del Friuli, probably in 1380. There are few differences in the first two rows, which demonstrates that there has not been a great evolution in the language except for several words which are no longer used (for example, , a word which means "child"). A modern Friulian speaker can understand these texts with only little difficulty. The second important period for Friulian literature is the 16th century. The main author of this period was Ermes di Colorêt, who composed over 200 poems.


Phonology


Consonants

Notes: * are
bilabial In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a labial consonant place of articulation, articulated with both lips. Transcription The bilabial consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) are: Owere Igbo language, Igbo has a six-wa ...

bilabial
, whereas are
labiodental
labiodental
and is labiovelar. * Note that, in the standard language, a phonemic distinction exists between true palatal stops and palatoalveolar affricates . The former (written ) originate from Latin before , whereas the latter (written , where is found before and , and is found elsewhere) originate primarily from Latin before and . The palatalization of Latin and before is characteristic of the
Rhaeto-Romance languages Rhaeto-Romance, Rheto-Romance, or Rhaetian, is a purported subfamily In biological classification, a subfamily (Latin: ', plural ') is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank, next below family (biology), family but more inclusive than genus. ...

Rhaeto-Romance languages
and is also found in
French
French
and some
Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no ,), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evol ...
varieties. In some Friulian dialects (e.g. Western dialects), corresponding to Central are found . Note in addition that, due to various sound changes, these sounds are all now phonemic; note, for example, the minimal pair ' "drunk" vs. ' "log".


Vowels


Orthography

Some notes on orthography (from the perspective of the standard, i.e. Central, dialect): * Long vowels are indicated with a
circumflex The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin script, Latin and Greek alphabet, Greek scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and Transcription (linguistics), transcription schemes. It received its E ...
: . * is used for both (which only occurs in stressed syllables) and ; similarly, is used for both and . * is spelled word-initially, and elsewhere. * occurs primarily in diphthongs, and is spelled . * is normally spelled , but is spelled between vowels (in this context, a single is pronounced ). * is spelled , which can also occur word-finally. * is an allophone of , found word-finally, before word-final ''-s'', and often in the prefix ''in-''. Both sounds are spelled . * is normally spelled , but before and , as in Italian. * is normally spelled , but before and , again as in Italian. * The palatal stops are spelled . Note that in some dialects, these sounds are pronounced , as described above. * is spelled before and , elsewhere. Note that in some dialects, this sound is pronounced . * is spelled . Note that in some dialects, this sound is pronounced . * can also represent or in certain words (e.g. ''nazion'' "nation", ''lezion'' "lesson"). * is silent. * is no longer used except in the traditional spelling of certain proper names; similarly for before and .


Long vowels and their origin

Long vowels are typical of the Friulian language and greatly influence the Friulian pronunciation of Italian. Friulian distinguishes between short and long vowels: in the following
minimal pair In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language, spoken or Sign language, signed, that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings. They are used to ...
s (long vowels are marked in the official orthography with a
circumflex The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin script, Latin and Greek alphabet, Greek scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and Transcription (linguistics), transcription schemes. It received its E ...
accent): : ''lat'' (milk) : ''lât'' (gone) : ''fis'' (fixed, dense) : ''fîs'' (sons) : ''lus'' (luxury) : ''lûs'' (light n.) Friulian dialects differ in their treatment of long vowels. In certain dialects, some of the long vowels are actually diphthongs. The following chart shows how six words (''sêt'' thirst, ''pît'' foot, ''fîl'' "wire", ''pôc'' (a) little, ''fûc'' fire, ''mûr'' "wall") are pronounced in four dialects. Each dialect uses a unique pattern of diphthongs (yellow) and monophthongs (blue) for the long vowels: Note that the vowels ''î'' and ''û'' in the standard language (based on the Central dialects) correspond to two different sounds in the Western dialects (including Codroipo). These sounds are not distributed randomly but correspond to different origins: Latin short in an open syllable produces Western but Central , whereas Latin long produces in both dialects. Similarly, Latin short in an open syllable produces Western but Central , whereas Latin long produces in both dialects. The word ''mûr'', for example, means both "wall" (Latin ) and "(he, she, it) dies" (Vulgar Latin * from Latin ); both words are pronounced in Central dialects, but respectively and in Western dialects. Long consonants (ll, rr, and so on), frequently used in Italian, are usually absent in Friulian. Friulian long vowels originate primarily from vowel lengthening in stressed
open syllable Open or OPEN may refer to: Music * Open (band) Open is a band. Background Drummer Pete Neville has been involved in the Sydney/Australian music scene for a number of years. He has recently completed a Masters in screen music at the Australian ...
s when the following vowel was lost. Friulian vowel length has no relation to vowel length in Classical Latin. For example, Latin yields ''vâl'' "it is worth" with a long vowel, but Latin yields ''val'' "valley" with a short vowel. Long vowels aren't found when the following vowel is preserved, e.g.: * before final -e < Latin , cf. short ''nuve'' "new (fem. sg.)" < Latin vs. long ''nûf'' "new (masc. sg.)" < Latin ; * before a non-final preserved vowel, cf. ''tivit'' /ˈtivit/ "tepid, lukewarm" < Latin , ''zinar'' /ˈzinar/ "son-in-law" < Latin , ''ridi'' /ˈridi/ "to laugh" < Vulgar Latin (Classical ). It is quite possible that vowel lengthening occurred originally in all stressed open syllables, and was later lost in non-final syllables. Evidence of this is found, for example, in the divergent outcome of Vulgar Latin , which becomes in originally closed syllables but in Central Friulian in originally open syllables, including when non-finally. Examples: ''siet'' "seven" < Vulgar Latin < Latin , word-final ''pît'' "foot" < Vulgar Latin < Latin , non-word-final ''tivit'' "tepid, lukewarm" < Vulgar Latin < Latin . An additional source of vowel length is
compensatory lengthening Compensatory lengthening in phonology Phonology is a branch of linguistics that studies how languages or dialects systematically organize their sounds (or signs, in sign languages). The term also refers to the sound system of any particular la ...
before lost consonants in certain circumstances, cf. ''pâri'' "father" < Latin , ''vôli'' "eye" < Latin , ''lîre'' "pound" < Latin . This produces long vowels in non-final syllables, and was apparently a separate, later development than the primary lengthening in open syllables. Note, for example, the development of Vulgar Latin in this context: > > ''iê'' , as in ''piêre'' "stone" < Latin , differing from the outcome in originally open syllables (see above). Additional complications: * Central Friulian has lengthening before /r/ even in originally closed syllables, cf. ''cjâr'' /caːr/ "cart" < Latin (homophonous with ''cjâr'' "dear (masc. sg.)" < Latin ). This represents a late, secondary development, and some conservative dialects have the expected length distinction here. * Lengthening doesn't occur before
nasal consonant In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical ...
s even in originally open syllables, cf. ''pan'' /paŋ/ "bread" < Latin , ''prin'' /priŋ/ "first" < Latin . * Special developments produced absolutely word-final long vowels and length distinctions, cf. ''fi'' "fig" < Latin vs. ''fî'' "son" < Latin , ''no'' "no" < Latin vs. ''nô'' "we" < Latin .
Synchronic Synchronic may refer to: * ''Synchronic'' (film), a 2019 American science fiction film starring Jamie Dornan and Anthony Mackie * Synchronic analysis, the analysis of a language at a specific point of time * Synchronicity, the experience of two or ...
analyses of vowel length in Friulian often claim that it occurs predictably in final syllables before an underlying voiced
obstruentAn obstruent () is a speech sound such as , , or that is formed by ''obstructing'' airflow. Obstruents contrast with sonorant In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is manner of articulation, produced with continuo ...
, which is then devoiced. Analyses of this sort have difficulty with long-vowel contrasts that occur non-finally (e.g. ''pâri'' "father" mentioned above) or not in front of obstruents (e.g. ''fi'' "fig" vs. ''fî'' "son", ''val'' "valley" vs. ''vâl'' "it is worth").


Morphology

Friulian is quite different from Italian in its morphology; it is, in many respects, closer to
French
French
.


Nouns

In Friulian as in other
Romance languages The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin, is non-literary Literature broadly is any collection of w ...

Romance languages
,
noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In many l ...

noun
s are either masculine or feminine (for example, "''il mûr''" ("the wall", masculine), "''la cjadree''" ("the chair", feminine).


Feminine

Most feminine nouns end in ''-e'', which is pronounced, unlike in Standard French: * ''cjase'' = house (from Latin "casa, -ae" hut) * ''lune'' = moon (from Latin "luna, -ae") * ''scuele'' = school (from Latin "schola, -ae") Some feminine nouns, however, end in a consonant, including those ending in ''-zion'', which are from
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
. * ''man'' = hand (from Latin "manŭs, -ūs" f) * ''lezion'' = lesson (from Latin "lectio, -nis" f Note that in some Friulian dialects the -e feminine ending is actually an -a or an -o, which characterize the dialect area of the language and are referred to as ''a/o-ending dialects'' (e.g. is spelled as or the latter being the oldest form of the feminine ending).


Masculine

Most masculine nouns end either in a consonant or in ''-i''. * ''cjan'' = dog * ''gjat'' = cat * ''fradi'' = brother * ''libri'' = book A few masculine nouns end in ''-e'', including ''sisteme'' (system) and ''probleme'' (problem). They are usually words coming from
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
. However, because most masculine nouns end in a consonant, it is common to find the forms ''sistem'' and ''problem'' instead, more often in print than in speech. There are also a number of masculine nouns borrowed intact from
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
, with a final ''-o'', like ''treno'' (train). Many of the words have been fully absorbed into the language and even form their plurals with the regular Friulian ''-s'' rather than the Italian
desinence In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix ) is an affix which is placed after the Stem (linguistics), stem of a word. Common examples are case endings, which indicate the grammatical case of nouns, adjectives, and verb endings, which f ...
changing. Still, there are some purists, including those influential in Friulian publishing, who frown on such words and insist that the "proper" Friulian terms should be without the final ''-o''. Despite the fact that one almost always hears ''treno'', it is almost always written ''tren''.


Articles

The Friulian
definite article An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases A noun phrase, or nominal (phrase), is a that has a or as its or performs the same grammatical function as a noun. Noun phrases are very common , and the ...
(which corresponds to "the" in English) is derived from the Latin ''ille'' and takes the following forms: Before a vowel, both ''il'' and ''la'' can be abbreviated to l' in the standard forms - for example ''il + arbul'' (the tree) becomes ''l'arbul.'' Yet, as far as the article ''la'' is concerned, modern grammar recommends that its non elided form should be preferred over the elided one: ''la acuile (the eagle)'' although in speech the two ''a'' sounds are pronounced as a single one. In the spoken language, various other articles are used. The indefinite article in Friulian (which corresponds to "a" and ''an'' in English) derives from the Latin ''unus'' and varies according to gender: A partitive article also exists: des for feminine and dai for masculine: – ''some cows'' and ''dai libris'' - ''some books''


Adjectives

A Friulian
adjective In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...
must agree in gender and number with the noun it qualifies. Most adjectives have four forms for singular (masculine and feminine) and plural (masculine and feminine): (Like for nouns, for a/o-ending dialects the plural is simply obtained by adding an ''s -'' e.g. ''brute'' corresponds to ''bruta/bruto'' and its plural form ''brutis'' is ''brutas/brutos''). The feminine is formed in several ways from the masculine: * in most cases, all that is needed is -e (short: ''curt'', ''curte'') * if the final letter is a -c, the feminine can end with -cje, -gje, -che, -ghe (little: pôc, pôcje) * if the final letter is a -f, the feminine can end with -ve (new: ''gnûf, gnove'') * if the final letter is a -p, the feminine can end with -be (sour: ''garp, garbe'') * if the final letter is a -t, the feminine can end with -de (green: ''vert, verde'')


Plurals

To form the plural of masculine and feminine nouns ending in -e, the -e is changed to -is (whilst a/o-ending dialects simply add an s) * , = table, tables * , = house, houses * , = moon, moons * , = school, schools * , = system, systems * , = glove, gloves * , = niece, nieces The plural of almost all other nouns is just -s. It is always pronounced as voiceless as in
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
''cats'', never as voiced as in ''dogs''. * , = hand, hands * , = lesson, lessons * , = dog, dogs * , = cat, cats * , = brother, brothers * , = book, books * , = train, trains * , = arm, arms (from Latin "bracchium") * , = glove, gloves (compare English "gauntlet") In some Friulian dialects, there are many words whose final consonant becomes silent when the -s is added. The words include just about all those whose singular form ends in -t. The plural of , for example, is written as but is pronounced in much of Friuli as if it were . The plural of 'dish', though written as , is often pronounced as . Other words in this category include ''clâf'' (key) and ''clap'' (stone), whose plural forms, clâfs and claps, are often pronounced with no f or p, respectively (clâs, clas) so the longer a in the former is all that distinguishes it from the latter. A final -ç, which is pronounced either as the
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
"-ch" (in central Friulian) or as "-s", is pluralized in writing as -çs, regardless of whether the pluralized pronunciation is "-s" or "-ts" (it varies according to dialect): messaç / messaçs (message).


Exceptions

Masculine nouns ending in -l or -li form their plurals by palatalising final -l or -li to -i. * , = horse, horses (from Latin "caballus") * , = string, strings (from Latin "filum") * , = hat, hats * , = hair, hairs * , = eye, eyes * , = knee, knees (from Latin "genu") Notice how these very often correspond to French nouns that form an irregular plural in -''x'': ''cheval-chevaux, chapeau-chapeaux, cheveu-cheveux, oeil-yeux, genou-genoux''. Feminine nouns ending in -l have regular plurals. * ''piel'', ''piels'' = skin, skins * ''val'', ''vals'' (in northern Friulian also "tal", "tals") = valley, valleys Masculine nouns ending in -st form their plurals by palatalising the final -t to -cj * ''cavalarist'', ''cavalariscj'' = military horseman, military horsemen * ''test'', ''tescj'' = text, texts Some masculine nouns ending in -t form their plurals by palatalising the final -t to -cj: * , = tooth, teeth (from Latin "dens, -tis") * , = all (of one thing), all (of several things) (from Latin "totus") Nouns ending in "s" do not change spelling in the plural, but some speakers may pronounce the plural -s differently from the singular -s. * ''vues'' = bone, bones * ''pes'' = fish (singular or plural) (from Latin "piscis") * ''mês'' = month, months (from Latin "mensis") The plural of ''an'' (year) has several forms depending on dialect, including ''ain'', ''ains'', ''agn'' and ''agns''. Regardless of pronunciation, the written form is ''agns''. The same happens for the adjective ''bon'' (good), as its plural is .


Clitic subject pronouns

A feature of Friulian are the clitic subject
pronoun In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languag ...

pronoun
s. Known in Friulian as ''pleonastics'', they are never stressed; they are used together with the verb to express the subject and can be found before the
verb A verb () is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (''bring'', ''read'', ''walk'', ''run'', ''learn''), an occurrence (''happen'', ''become''), or a state of being (''be'', ''exist'', ''stand''). In the usual description of E ...
in declarative sentences or immediately after it in case of
interrogative An interrogative clause is a clause In language, a clause is a part of the sentence that constitutes or comprises a predicate (grammar), predicate. A typical clause consists of a subject (grammar), subject and a predicate, the latter typically a ...

interrogative
or vocative (''optative'') sentences. An example: ''jo o lavori'' means "I work"; ''lavorio?'' means "Do I work?", while ''lavorassio'' means "I wish I worked".


Verbs

* Friulian verbal
infinitive Infinitive (abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase; for exa ...
s have one of four endings, -â, -ê, -i, -î; removing the ending gives the root, used to form the other forms (''fevelâ'', to speak; root ''fevel-''), but in the case of irregular verbs, the root changes. They are common (''jessi'', to be; ''vê'', to have; ''podê'', to be able to). Verbs are frequently used in combination with adverbs to restrict the meaning.


Adverbs

An adjective can be made into an
adverb An adverb is a word or an expression that modifies a verb A verb () is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (''bring'', ''read'', ''walk'', ''run'', ''learn''), an occurrence (''happen'', ''become''), or a state of being ...

adverb
by adding -mentri to the ending of the feminine singular form of the adjective (''lente'' becomes ''lentementri'', slowly), but it can sometimes lose the -e of the adjective (''facile'' becomes ''facilmentri'', easily). It is more common in the written language; in the spoken language people frequently use other forms or locutions (''a planc'' for slowly).


Vocabulary

Most vocabulary is derived from Latin, with substantial phonological and morphological changes throughout its history. Therefore, many words are shared with the
Romance languages The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin, is non-literary Literature broadly is any collection of w ...

Romance languages
, Here the composition: *
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
(9%) words are many, because the substrate of the Vulgar Latin spoken in Friuli, was the Karn-Celtic language. ("bâr", wood; "clap/crap", stone;"cjâr", plow; "crot", frog) * Modern
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
(10%) words were introduced in particular in the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
, during the Patrie dal Friûl, when the influence from this culture was quite strong (''bearç'', backyard). *
Slavic
Slavic
(3%) words were brought by Slavic (mostly Alpine Slavic) immigrants called several times to
Friuli Friuli ( fur, Friûl) is an area of Northeast Italy with its own particular cultural and historical identity containing 1,000,000 Friulians. It comprises the major part of the autonomous region Friuli Venezia Giulia, i.e. the administrative Provin ...
to repopulate lands devastated by
HungarianHungarian may refer to: * Hungary, a country in Central Europe * Kingdom of Hungary, state of Hungary, existing between 1000 and 1946 * Hungarians, ethnic groups in Hungary * Hungarian algorithm, a polynomial time algorithm for solving the assignmen ...
invasions in the 10th century (, barn; , to shout). Furthermore, many Slavic words have entered Friulian through the centuries-long neighbouring between Friulians and
Slovenes The Slovenes, also known as Slovenians ( sl, Slovenci ), are a nation A nation is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), cust ...
, especially in north-eastern Friuli (
Slavia Friulana , Friulian Slavia Slavia Friulana, which means Friulian Slavia (or Beneška Slovenija in Slovene language, Slovenian), is a small mountainous region in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblic ...
) and in the
Gorizia and Gradisca The Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca (german: Gefürstete Grafschaft Görz und Gradisca; it, Principesca Contea di Gorizia e Gradisca; sl, Poknežena grofija Goriška in Gradiščanska), historically sometimes shortened to and spelled "G ...
area. Words such as ''colaç'' (cake), ''cudiç'' (devil) and ''cos'' (basket) are all of
Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...
origin. There are also many toponyms with Slavic roots. * There are many words that have Germanic (8%, probably Lombardic origins) and Celtic roots (what still remained of the languages spoken before the Romans came). Examples of the first category are ''sbregâ'', to tear; ''sedon'', spoon; ''taponâ'', to cover. For the latter category, ''troi'', path; , trousers. * Latin and derived languages (68%): **
Venetian language Venetian or Venetan ( or ), is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries. They are a subgroup ...
influenced Friulian vocabulary: , straw. ** Some
French
French
words entered the Friulian vocabulary: , really and ''gustâ'', to have lunch. **
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
itself has a growing influence on Friulian vocabulary, especially as far as neologisms are concerned (''tren'' meaning train). Such neologisms are currently used even if they're not accepted in the official dictionary (for example the verb "to iron" is ''sopressâ'' but the verb ''stirâ'' taken from Italian is used more and more instead). * Scientific terms are often of Greek origin, and there are also some
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...
terms in Friulian (<1%, ''lambic'', still). * Many
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
words (such as computer, monitor, mouse and so on) have entered the Friulian vocabulary through Italian. (more than 1%).


Present condition

Nowadays, Friulian is officially recognized in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
, supported by law 482/1999, which protects linguistic minorities. Therefore, optional teaching of Friulian has been introduced in many primary schools. An online newspaper is active, and there are also a number of musical groups singing in Friulian and some theatrical companies. Recently, two movies have been made in Friulian (''Tierç lion'', ''Lidrîs cuadrade di trê''), with positive reviews in Italian newspapers. In about 40% of the communities in the
Province of Udine The province of Udine ( it, provincia di Udine, fur, provincie di Udin, sl, videmska pokrajina, Resian: , german: Provinz Weiden) was a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term deriv ...
, road signs are in both Friulian and Italian. There is also an official translation of the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
. In 2005, a notable brand of beer used Friulian for one of its commercials. The main association to foster the use and development of Friulian is the ''Societât filologjiche furlane'', founded in
Gorizia Gorizia (; sl, Gorica , colloquially 'old Gorizia' to distinguish it from Nova Gorica; fur, label=Standard Friulian, Gurize, fur, label=Friulian language#Variants of Friulian, Southeastern Friulian, Guriza; vec, label=Venetian language#Regio ...

Gorizia
in 1919.


Toponyms

Every city and village in Friuli has two
names A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing, either uniquely, or within a given context. The entity identified by a name is called its referent A referent ...
, one in
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
and one in Friulian. Only the Italian is official and used in administration, but it is widely expected that the Friulian ones will receive partial acknowledgement in the near future. For example, the city of
Udine Udine ( , ; fur, Udin; la, Utinum) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides ...

Udine
is called ''Udin'' in Friulian, the town of
Tolmezzo Tolmezzo ( fur, Tumieç, sl, Tolmeč, archaic german: Tolmein or ''Schönfeld'') is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. ...
''Tumieç'' and the town of
Aviano Aviano ( fur, Davian; cim, Pleif) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essen ...

Aviano
is called both Avian and Pleif.


Standardisation

A challenge that Friulian shares with other minorities is to create a standard language and a unique writing system. The regional law 15/1996 approved a standard orthography, which represents the basis of a common variant and should be used in toponyms, official acts, written documents. The standard is based on Central Friulian, which was traditionally the language used in literature already in 1700 and afterwards (the biggest examples are probably Pieri Çorut's works) but with some changes: * the
diphthong A diphthong ( ; , ), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels are one of the two principal classes of spe ...
''ie'' replaces ''ia'': ''fier (iron)'' instead of ''fiar'', ''tiere (soil, earth)'' instead of ''tiare''. * the use of ''vu'' instead of ''u'' at the beginning of word: ''vueli (oil)'' instead of ''ueli '', ''vueit (empty)'' instead of ''ueit''. * the use of ''i'' between vocals: ''ploie (rain)'' instead of ''ploe''. Standard Friulian is called in Friulian ''furlan standard'', ''furlan normalizât'' or from
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
, '' coinè''.


Criticism

There have been several critics of the standardisation of Friulian, mainly from speakers of local variants that differ substantially from the proposed standard; they also argue that the standard could eventually kill local variants. The supporters of standardisation refer to the various advantages that a unique form can bring to the language. Above all, it can help to stop the influence of
Italian language Italian (''italiano'' or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a ...

Italian language
in the
neologism A neologism (; from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
s, which pose a serious threat to Friulian's future development. They also point out that it is a written standard without affecting pronunciation, which can follow local variants. Opponents of the standardisation, on the other hand, insist that the standard language, being artificially created, is totally inadequate to represent the local variations, particularly from differences in the phonetic pronunciation of the words in each variant that may, in some cases, even require special and different diacritics for writing a single variant.


Variants of Friulian

Four dialects of Friulian can be at least distinguished, all
mutually intelligible In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include p ...
. They are usually distinguished by the last vowel of many parts of speech (including nouns, adjectives, adverbs), following this scheme: * Central Friulian, spoken around
Udine Udine ( , ; fur, Udin; la, Utinum) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides ...

Udine
has words ending with -e. It is used in official documents and generally considered standard. Some people see it as the least original but one of the most recent variants since it does not show interesting features found in other variants, as it has Venetian influence. * Northern Friulian, spoken in
Carnia Carnia ( fur, Cjargne or ''Cjargna''/''Cjargno'' in local variants, vec, Ciargna, german: Karnien, sl, Karnija) is a historical-geographic region in the northeastern Italian area of Friuli. Its 27 municipalities all belong to the Province of ...

Carnia
, has several variants. The language can vary with the valleys and words can end in -o, -e or -a. It is the most archaic variant. * Southeastern Friulian, spoken in
Bassa Friulana The Bassa Friulana is a low-lying and level area of Friuli, specifically the very southern part of the provincies of province of Pordenone, Pordenone, province of Udine, Udine and province of Gorizia, Gorizia in the north-eastern Italian region of F ...
and Isontino and in the area along the
Isonzo
Isonzo
River (the area of the old Contea di Gorizia e Gradisca) has words that end with -a. This variant has been known since the origins of the language and was used as official literary language by the Friulians of the Austrian Empire. It was influenced by German and Slavic. * Western Friulian, including Pordenonese, is spoken in the
Province of Pordenone The province of Pordenone ( it, provincia di Pordenone; ; vec, provincia de Pordenon) was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admi ...
and is also called , from
Concordia Sagittaria Concordia Sagittaria is a town and ''comune'' in the Metropolitan City of Venice, Veneto, Italy. History The town was founded in 42 BC as ''Iulia Concordia'' by the ancient Rome, Romans, where the Via Annia and the Via Postumia crossed each other. ...

Concordia Sagittaria
. Words end with -a or -e, but the strong Venetian influence, makes it be considered one of the most corrupted variants. The word for ''home'' is in Central Friulian and or in other areas.
Pier Paolo Pasolini Pier Paolo Pasolini (; 5 March 1922 – 2 November 1975) was an Italian film director, poet, writer, and intellectual, who also distinguished himself as an actor, journalist, novelist, playwright, and political figure. He remains a controversial ...

Pier Paolo Pasolini
wrote his works in Western Friulian since he learned the language from his mother who was from Casarsa/Cjasarsa, near
Pordenone Pordenone (; Venetian language, Venetian and fur, Pordenon) is the main ''comune'' of Province of Pordenone, Pordenone province of northeast Italy in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region. The name comes from Latin ''Portus Naonis'', meaning 'port on ...
. In the 13th century, early literary works in Friulian were based on the language spoken in Cividale del Friuli, which was the most important town in Friuli. The endings in -o, which now is restricted to some villages in
Carnia Carnia ( fur, Cjargne or ''Cjargna''/''Cjargno'' in local variants, vec, Ciargna, german: Karnien, sl, Karnija) is a historical-geographic region in the northeastern Italian area of Friuli. Its 27 municipalities all belong to the Province of ...

Carnia
. Later, the main city of
Friuli Friuli ( fur, Friûl) is an area of Northeast Italy with its own particular cultural and historical identity containing 1,000,000 Friulians. It comprises the major part of the autonomous region Friuli Venezia Giulia, i.e. the administrative Provin ...
became
Udine Udine ( , ; fur, Udin; la, Utinum) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides ...

Udine
and the most common ending was -a; only from the 16th century on, -e endings were used in standard Friulian.


Writing systems

In the official writing system, approved by the (former, abolished in 2017)
Province of Udine The province of Udine ( it, provincia di Udine, fur, provincie di Udin, sl, videmska pokrajina, Resian: , german: Provinz Weiden) was a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term deriv ...
and used in official documents, Friulian is written using the
Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is an alphabetic An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequ ...

Latin script
with the c-
cedilla A cedilla ( ; from Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (di ...

cedilla
(ç). The letter q is used only for personal names and historical toponyms, and in every other case, it is replaced by c. Besides that, k, x, w, and y appear only in loan words so they are not considered part of the alphabet. :Aa Bb Cc Çç Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Zz There are also
grave accent The grave accent ( ` ) ( or ) is a diacritical A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph added to a letter (alphabet), letter or to a basic glyph. The term derives from th ...

grave accent
s (à, è, ì, ò and ù) and
circumflex accent The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin script, Latin and Greek alphabet, Greek scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and Transcription (linguistics), transcription schemes. It received its E ...

circumflex accent
s (â, ê, î, ô, and û), which are put above the
vowel A vowel is a syllabicSyllabic may refer to: *Syllable, a unit of speech sound, considered the building block of words **Syllabic consonant, a consonant that forms the nucleus of a syllable *Syllabary, writing system using symbols for syllables ...

vowel
s to distinguish between homophonic words or to show stress (the former) and show long vowels (the latter).


Other systems

An alternative system is called Faggin-Nazzi from the names of the scholars who proposed it. It is less common, probably also because it is more difficult for a beginner for its use of letters, such as č, that are typical of Slavic languages but seem foreign to native Italian speakers.


Examples


The Fox and the Crow (Aesop), The Fox and the Crow translation in Central Friulian

''La bolp e jere di gnûf famade. In chel e a viodût un corvat poiât suntun pin, ch'al tigneve un toc di formadi tal bec. "Chel si che mi plasarès!" e a pensât le bolp, e e disè al corvát: "Ce biel che tu sês! Se il to cjant al é biel come il to aspiet, di sigûr tu sês il plui biel di ducj i ucei!''


References

* Paola Benincà & Laura Vanelli. ''Linguistica friulana''. Padova: Unipress, 2005. * Paola Benincà & Laura Vanelli. “Friulian”, in ''The Oxford Guide to the Romance Languages'', eds. Adam Ledgeway & Martin Maiden. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016, pp. 139–53. * Franc Fari, ed. ''Manuâl di lenghistiche furlane''. Udine: Forum, 2005. * Giuseppe Francescato. ''Dialettologia friulana''. Udine: Società Filologica Friulana, 1966. * Giovanni Frau. ''I dialetti del Friuli''. Udine: Società Filologica Friulana, 1984. * Sabine Heinemann. ''Studi di linguistica friulana''. Udine: Società Filologica Friulana, 2007. * Carla Marcato. ''Friuli-Venezia Giulia''. Rome–Bari: Laterza, 2001. * Nazzi, Gianni & Deborah Saidero, eds. '' Friulan Dictionary: English-Friulan / Friulan-English.'' Udine: Ent. Friul tal Mond, 2000. * Piera Rizzolati. ''Elementi di linguistica friulana''. Udine: Società Filologica Friulana, 1981. * Paolo Roseano.
La pronuncia del friulano standard: proposte, problemi, prospettive
', ''Ce Fastu?'' LXXXVI, vol. 1 (2010), p. 7–34. *Paolo Roseano. ''Suddivisione dialettale del friulano'', in ''Manuale di linguistica friulana'', eds. S. Heinemann & L. Melchior. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 2015, pp. 155–186. * Federico Vicario, ed. ''Lezioni di lingua e cultura friulana''. Udine: Società Filologica Friulana, 2005. * Federico Vicario. ''Lezioni di linguistica friulana''. Udine: Forum, 2005.


Notations

The grammar section is based o

by R. Pontisso. Some parts are also based loosely on ''Gramatiche furlane'' by Fausto Zof, Edizioni Leonardo, Udine 2002.


Footnotes


External links


Short video showing bilingual Italian/Friulian road signs

Radio Onde Furlane
''Radio in Friulian language.''
Grafie uficiâl de lenghe furlane — Agjenzie regjonal pe lenghe furlane (different other language resources)
* Dante in furlan


Provincie di Udin-Provincia di Udine: La lingua friulana

La Patrie dal Friûl; Magazine and News in Friulian language since 1946

Lenghe.net – Online bilingual magazine in Friulian language (2004–2010)

Online magazine and resources

The juridical defence of Friulian (in English)



Friulian Journal of Science
nbsp;– an association to foster the use of Friulian in the scientific world


''Fogolâr Furlan'' of Windsor

Societat Filologjiche Furlane


* [http://www3.sympatico.ca/rpontisso/firefoxfurlan.htm Friulian version of Firefox browser]
Centri Friûl Lenghe 2000, Online bilingual dictionary (Italian/Friulian) with online tools

Furlan English Dictionary
fro
Webster's Online Dictionary
– The Rosetta Edition
C-evo Furlan
– a computer game in Friulian
Italian-Friulian Dictionary

Friulian-Italian-Slovenian-German-English-Spanish-French Multilingual Dictionary

Friulian basic lexicon at the Global Lexicostatistical Database


– ''uses the Faggin-Nazzi alphabet'' {{Authority control Friulian language, Languages of Italy