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In the
history of France The first written records for the history of France appeared in the Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of Homo sapiens, humanity. It was preceded by the Sto ...
, the First Republic (French: ''Première République''), officially the French Republic (''République française''), was founded on 21 September 1792 during the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consi ...

French Revolution
. The First Republic lasted until the declaration of the
First EmpireFirst Empire may refer to: *British Empire#First British Empire (1583–1783), First British Empire, sometimes used to describe the British Empire between 1583 and 1783 *First Bulgarian Empire (680–1018) *First French Empire (1804–1814/1815) *Ho ...
on 18 May 1804 under
Napoléon Bonaparte Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars, Revolutionary War ...

Napoléon Bonaparte
, although the form of the government changed several times. This period was characterized by the fall of the
monarchy A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a ...
, the establishment of the
National Convention The National Convention (french: link=no, Convention nationale) was a parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (poli ...
and the
Reign of Terror The Reign of Terror, commonly called The Terror (french: link=no, la Terreur), was a period of the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General of 1789 and ended in coup of 18 Br ...
, the
Thermidorian Reaction The Thermidorian Reaction (french: Réaction thermidorienne or ''Convention thermidorienne'', "Thermidorian Convention") is the common term, in the historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a ...
and the founding of the
Directory Directory may refer to: * Directory (computing) In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and developmen ...
, and, finally, the
creation Creation may refer to: Religion * Creation ''ex nihilo'', the concept that matter was created by God out of nothing * Creation myth A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) is a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came t ...
of the
Consulate A consulate is the office of a consul (representative), consul. A type of diplomatic mission, it is usually subordinate to the state's main representation in the capital of that foreign country (host state), usually an ''embassy'' or – betw ...
and Napoleon's rise to power.


End of the monarchy in France

Under the
Legislative Assembly Legislative assembly is the name given in some countries to either a legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of ...
, which was in power before the proclamation of the First Republic, France was engaged in war with
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...
and
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastli ...

Austria
. In July 1792, the
Duke of Brunswick A duke (male) can either be a monarch ranked below the emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the f ...
, commanding general of the Austro–Prussian Army, issued his
Brunswick Manifesto The Brunswick Manifesto was a proclamation issued by Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick '' , house = Brunswick-Bevern , father = Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel , mother = Princess Philippine Charlotte ...
, threatening the destruction of Paris should any harm come to King
Louis XVI of France Louis XVI (Louis-Auguste; ; 23 August 175421 January 1793) was the last King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: link=no, Royaume de France) w ...

Louis XVI of France
. This foreign threat exacerbated France's political turmoil amid the French Revolution and deepened the passion and sense of urgency among the various factions. In the
insurrection of 10 August 1792 The Insurrection of 10 August 1792 was a defining event of the French Revolution, when armed revolutionaries in Paris, increasingly in conflict with the Ancien Régime, French monarchy, stormed the Tuileries Palace. The conflict led France to abol ...
, citizens rioted the
Tuileries Palace The Tuileries Palace (french: Palais des Tuileries, ) was a royal and imperial palace in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estim ...
, killing six hundred of the King's
Swiss guards Swiss Guards (french: Gardes Suisses; german: Schweizergarde; it, Guardie Svizzere) are Switzerland, Swiss soldiers who have served as guards at foreign European courts since the late 15th century. The earliest Swiss guard unit to be establishe ...
and insisting on the removal of the king. A renewed fear of anti-revolutionary action prompted further violence, and in the first week of September 1792, mobs of Parisians broke into the city's prisons. They killed over half of the prisoners, including nobles, clergymen, and political prisoners, but also common criminals, such as prostitutes and petty thieves. Many victims were murdered in their cells: raped, stabbed, and/or slashed to death. This became known as the
September Massacres The September Massacres were a series of killings of Catholic prisoners in Paris that occurred in 1792, from Sunday Sept 2 until Thursday Sept 6, during the French Revolution. Half the prison population of Paris, between 1,176 and 1,614 people, w ...
.


National Convention

As a result of the spike in public violence and the political instability of the constitutional monarchy, a party of six members of France's Legislative Assembly was assigned the task of overseeing elections. The resulting Convention was founded with the dual purpose of abolishing the monarchy and drafting a new constitution. The convention's first act was to establish the French First Republic and officially strip the king of all political powers.
Louis XVI Louis XVI (Louis-Auguste; ; 23 August 175421 January 1793) was the last King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: link=no, Royaume de France) wa ...

Louis XVI
, by then a private citizen bearing his family name of
Capet The House of Capet (french: Maison capétienne) or the Direct Capetians (''Capétiens directs''), also called the House of France The term House of France refers to the branch of the Capetian dynasty which provided the Kings of France fol ...
, was subsequently put on trial for crimes of high treason starting in December 1792. On 16 January 1793 he was convicted, and on 21 January, he was executed. Throughout the winter of 1792 and spring of 1793, Paris was plagued by food riots and mass hunger. The new Convention did little to remedy the problem until late spring of 1793, occupied instead with matters of war. Finally, on 6 April 1793, the Convention created the
Committee of Public Safety The Committee of Public Safety (french: link=no, Comité de salut public) formed the provisional government in France, led mainly by Maximilien Robespierre Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (; 6 May 1758 – 28 July 17 ...
, and was given a monumental task: "To deal with the radical movements of the
Enragés The ''Enragés'' (French for "enraged ones") were a small number of firebrands known for defending the lower class and expressing the demands of the radical sans-culottes during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to ...
, food shortages and riots, the revolt in the
Vendée Vendée () is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and administrative div ...
and in
Brittany Brittany (; french: link=no, Bretagne ; br, Breizh, or ; Gallo: ''Bertaèyn'' ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to ...
, recent defeats of its armies, and the desertion of its commanding general."The French Revolution ideorecording liberté, egalité, fraternité, a hitler Jr. is born in blood / produced & directed by Doug Shultz; written by Doug Shultz, Hilary Sio, Thomas Emil. ew York, N.Y. History Channel: Distributed in the U.S. by New Video, 2005. Most notably, the Committee of Public Safety instated a policy of terror, and the guillotine began to fall on perceived enemies of the republic at an ever-increasing rate, beginning the period known today as the
Reign of Terror The Reign of Terror, commonly called The Terror (french: link=no, la Terreur), was a period of the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General of 1789 and ended in coup of 18 Br ...
. Despite growing discontent with the National Convention as a ruling body, in June the Convention drafted the Constitution of 1793, which was ratified by popular vote in early August. However, the Committee of Public Safety was seen as an "emergency" government, and the rights guaranteed by the 1789 ''
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (french: Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen de 1789, links=no), set by France's National Constituent Assembly in 1789, is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most ...
'' and the new constitution were suspended under its control. The constitution of the republic did not provide for a formal head of state or a head of government. It could be discussed whether the head of state would have been the president of the National Assembly under international law. However, this changed every two weeks and was therefore not formative.


Directory

After the arrest and execution of
Robespierre Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (; 6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) was a French lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at lawAttorney at law or attorney-at-law, usually ab ...

Robespierre
on 28 July 1794, the
Jacobin club , logo = JacobinVignette03.jpg , logo_size = 180px , logo_caption = Seal of the Jacobin Club (1792–1794) , motto = "Live free or die"(french: Vivre libre ou mourir) , successor = Pa ...
was closed, and the surviving
Girondins The Girondins ( , ), or Girondists, were members of a loosely knit political faction during the French Revolution. From 1791 to 1793, the Girondins were active in the Legislative Assembly (France), Legislative Assembly and the National Convention. ...

Girondins
were reinstated. A year later, the National Convention adopted the
Constitution of the Year III The Constitution of the Year III was the constitution of the that established the . Adopted by the convention on 5 Year III (22 August 1795) and approved by on 6 September. Its preamble is the Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man an ...
. They reestablished freedom of worship, began releasing large numbers of prisoners, and most importantly, initiated elections for a new legislative body. On 3 November 1795, the
Directory Directory may refer to: * Directory (computing) In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and developmen ...
was established. Under this system, France was led by a bicameral Parliament, consisting of an upper chamber called the Council of Elders (with 250 members) and a lower chamber called the
Council of Five Hundred The Council of Five Hundred (''Conseil des Cinq-Cents''), or simply the Five Hundred, was the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers Cou ...
(with, accordingly, 500 members), and a collective Executive of five members called the Directory (from which the historical period gets its name). Due to internal instability, caused by
hyperinflation In , hyperinflation is very high and typically accelerating . It quickly erodes the of the local , as the prices of all goods increase. This causes people to minimize their holdings in that currency as they usually switch to more stable forei ...

hyperinflation
of the paper monies called
Assignats An assignat () was a monetary instrument, an order to pay, used during the time of the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General of 1789 and ended in coup of 18 Brumaire, November ...
, and French military disasters in 1798 and 1799, the Directory lasted only four years, until overthrown in 1799.


Consulate

The
French Consulate The Consulate (French: ''Le Consulat'') was the top-level Government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire on 10 November 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire on 18 May 1804. By extension, the term ''The C ...
era began with the
coup of 18 Brumaire The Coup of 18 Brumaire brought General Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte ; co, Napulione Buonaparte. (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence duri ...
on 9 November 1799. Members of the Directory itself planned the coup, indicating clearly the failing power of the Directory. Napoleon Bonaparte was a co-conspirator in the coup, and became head of the government as the First Consul. On 18 May 1804,
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
was proclaimed
Emperor of the French Emperor of the French (French: ''Empereur des Français'') was the title of the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foake ...
by the
Sénat conservateur The Sénat conservateur ("Conservative Senate") was an advisory body established in France during the French Consulate, Consulate following the French Revolution. It was established in 1799 under the Constitution of the Year VIII following the ...
. He would later proclaim himself Emperor of the French, ending the First French Republic and ushering in the
French First Empire The First French Empire, officially the French Republic (until 1809) then the French Empire (; ), was the empire An empire is a sovereign state consisting of several territories and peoples subject to a single ruling authority, often an e ...
.


See also

*
French Republican Calendar The French Republican calendar (french: calendrier républicain français), also commonly called the French Revolutionary calendar (), was a calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of ...
*
French Revolutionary Wars The French Revolutionary Wars (french: Guerres de la Révolution française) were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution. They pitted French First Republic, France against Gr ...
*
French Second Republic The French Second Republic (french: Deuxième République Française or ), officially the French Republic (''République française''), was the republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of p ...
*
French Third Republic The French Third Republic (french: Troisième République, sometimes written as ) was the system of government adopted in History of France, France from 4 September 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War, ...
*
French Fourth Republic The French Fourth Republic (french: Quatrième république française) was the republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of government that is not a monarchy or dictatorship, and is usually assoc ...
*
French Fifth Republic The Fifth Republic (french: Cinquième République) is France's current republic, republican system of government. It was established 4 October 1958 by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of France, Constitution of the Fifth Republic.. The ...


References


Bibiligraphy

* {{Coord, 48, 52, 00, N, 2, 19, 59, E, type:city_source:kolossus-hewiki, display=title French Republic 1 French Republic 1 Modern history of France * * Republic 1 Republic 1 Republicanism in France French Revolution 1792 establishments in France 1804 disestablishments in France States and territories established in 1792 States and territories disestablished in 1804 19th century in France