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A combustible material is something that can burn (i.e., ''combust'') in air. A combustible material is flammable if it ignites easily at ambient temperatures. In other words, a combustible material ignites with some effort and a flammable material catches fire immediately on exposure to flame. The degree of flammability or combustibility in air depends largely upon the volatility of the material - this is related to its composition-specific vapour pressure, which is temperature dependent. The quantity of vapour produced can be enhanced by increasing the surface area of the material forming a mist or dust. Take wood as an example. Finely divided wood dust can undergo explosive combustion and produce a blast wave. A piece of paper (made from wood) catches on fire quite easily. A heavy oak desk is much harder to ignite, even though the wood fibre is the same in all three materials. Common sense (and indeed
scientific consensus Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area of interest. ...
until the mid-1700s) would seem to suggest that material "disappears" when burned, as only the ash is left. In fact, there is an increase in weight because the combustible material reacts (or combines) chemically with oxygen, which also has mass. The original mass of combustible material and the mass of the oxygen required for combustion equals the mass of the combustion products (ash, water, carbon dioxide, and other gases).
Antoine Lavoisier Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier ( , ,; 26 August 17438 May 1794), When reduced without charcoal, it gave off an air which supported respiration and combustion in an enhanced way. He concluded that this was just a pure form of common air and th ...

Antoine Lavoisier
, one of the pioneers in these early insights, stated that ''Nothing is lost, nothing is created, everything is transformed'', which would later be known as the law of
conservation of mass In and , the law of conservation of mass or principle of mass conservation states that for any to all transfers of and , the of the system must remain constant over time, as the system's mass cannot change, so quantity can neither be added n ...
. Lavoisier used the experimental fact that some metals gained mass when they burned to support his ideas.


Definitions

Historically, ''flammable'', ''inflammable'' and ''combustible'' meant ''capable of burning''. The word "inflammable" came through French from the Latin ''inflammāre'' = "to set fire to," where the Latin preposition "in-" means "in" as in "indoctrinate", rather than "not" as in "invisible" and "ineligible". The word "inflammable" may be erroneously thought to mean "non-flammable". The erroneous usage of the word "inflammable" is a significant
safety hazard A hazard is a potential source of harm. Substances, events, or circumstances can constitute hazards when their nature would allow them, even just theoretically, to cause damage to health, life, property, or any other interest of value. The probabil ...
. Therefore, since the 1950s, efforts to put forward the use of "flammable" in place of "inflammable" were accepted by linguists, and it is now the accepted standard in American English and British English. Antonyms of "flammable" or "inflammable" include: ''non-flammable'', ''non-inflammable'', ''incombustible'', ''non-combustible'', ''not flammable'', and ''fireproof''. ''Flammable'' applies to ''combustible'' materials that ignite easily and thus are more dangerous and more highly regulated. Less easily ignited less-vigorously burning materials are ''combustible''. For example, in the United States
flammable liquid A flammable liquid is a combustible liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isochoric flow) refers to a fluid flow, flow in which the mat ...

flammable liquid
s, by definition, have a
flash point The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature Temperature is a physical quantity that expresses hot and cold. It is the manifestation of thermal energy, present in all matter, which is the source of the occurrence of he ...
below —where combustible liquids have a flash point above .
Flammable solids The pictogram for poisonous substances of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals. Dangerous goods, abbreviated DG, are substances that when transported are a risk to health, safety, property or the enviro ...
are solids that are readily combustible, or may cause or contribute to fire through friction. Readily combustible solids are powdered, granular, or pasty substances that easily ignite by brief contact with an ignition source, such as a burning match, and spread flame rapidly. The technical definitions vary between countries so the United Nations created the
Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is an internationally agreed-upon standard managed by the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain ...
, which defines the flash point temperature of flammable liquids as between 0 and and combustible liquids between and .


Flammability

Flammability is the ease with which a combustible substance can be ignited, causing
fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction Product (chemistry), products. Fire is hot because the conversion of the weak double bond in molecula ...

fire
or
combustion Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke. Combustion ...
or even an explosion. The degree of difficulty required to cause the combustion of a substance is quantified through
fire test A fire test is a means of determining whether fire protection BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation (mild reducing agent) are added to powdered potassium permanganate Potassium permanganate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula ...
ing. Internationally, a variety of test protocols exist to quantify flammability. The ratings achieved are used in
building code A building code (also building control or building regulations) is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. Buildings must conform to the code to obtain planning permission, u ...
s,
insurance Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss. It is a form of risk management Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risk In simple terms, risk is the possibility of something bad happening. ...

insurance
requirements,
fire code#REDIRECT Fire safety#REDIRECT Fire safety Fire safety is the set of practices intended to reduce the destruction caused by fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat ...
s and other regulations governing the use of building materials as well as the storage and handling of highly flammable substances inside and outside of structures and in surface and air transportation. For instance, changing an
occupancy Within the context of building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functions, and have been a ...
by altering the flammability of the contents requires the owner of a
building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for a ...

building
to apply for a building permit to make sure that the overall
fire protection Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially destructive fires. It involves the study of the behaviour, compartmentalisation, suppression and investigation of fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxida ...
design basis of the facility can take the change into account.


Testing

A
fire test A fire test is a means of determining whether fire protection BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation (mild reducing agent) are added to powdered potassium permanganate Potassium permanganate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula ...
can be conducted to determine the degree of flammability. Test standards used to make this determination but are not limited to the following: *
Underwriters Laboratories UL, LLC is a global safety certification company headquartered in Northbrook, Illinois Illinois ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States. It has the List of U.S. states and territ ...
br>UL 94 Flammability Testing
*
International Electrotechnical Commission The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French: ''Commission électrotechnique internationale'') is an international standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or s ...
IEC 60707, 60695-11-10 and 60695-11-20 *
International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic discipline ...
ISO 9772 and 9773. *
National Fire Protection Association The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is an international nonprofit organization devoted to eliminating death, injury, property and economic loss due to fire, electrical and related hazards. As of 2018, the NFPA claims to have 50,000 memb ...
br>NFPA 287 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Flammability of Materials in Cleanrooms Using a Fire Propagation Apparatus (FPA)

NFPA 701: Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and Films

NFPA 850: Recommended Practice for Fire Protection for Electric Generating Plants and High Voltage Direct Current Converter Stations


Furniture flammability

Flammability of furniture is of concern as cigarettes and candle accidents can trigger domestic fires. In 1975, California began implementing
Technical Bulletin 117''California Technical Bulletin 117'' (TB 117) is a California fire safety law, first implemented in 1975. It has recently been updated as a Technical Bulletin 117-2013. The law requires fabric to pass a smoldering test. The test exposes fabrics and ...
(TB 117), which required that materials such as
polyurethane Polyurethane (often abbreviated PUR and PU) referes to a class of polymers composed of organic chemistry, organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links. In contrast to other common polymers such as polyethylene and polystyrene, polyurethane ...

polyurethane
foam used to fill furniture be able to withstand a small open flame, equivalent to a candle, for at least 12 seconds. In polyurethane foam, furniture manufacturers typically meet TB 117 with additive halogenated organic
flame retardant The term flame retardants subsumes a diverse group of chemicals which are added to manufactured materials, such as plastics Plastics are a wide range of syntheticA synthetic is an artificial material produced by organic chemistry, organic c ...
s. No other U.S. states had similar standards, but because California has such a large market, manufacturers meet TB 117 in products that they distribute across the United States. The proliferation of flame retardants, and especially halogenated organic flame retardants, in furniture across the United States is strongly linked to TB 117. When it became apparent that the risk-benefit ratio of this approach was unfavorable and industry had used falsified documentation (i.e. see
David Heimbach David M. Heimbach (September 29, 1938 – August 7, 2017) was an American surgeon In modern medicine Medicine is the Art (skill), art, science, and Praxis (process) , practice of caring for a patient and managing the diagnosis, prognosis, Prev ...
) for the use of flame retardants, California modified TB 117 to require that fabric covering upholstered furniture meet a smolder test replacing the open flame test. Gov.
Jerry Brown Edmund Gerald Brown Jr. (born April 7, 1938) is an American lawyer, author, and politician who served as the 34th and 39th governor of California The governor of California is the head of government The head of government is either the h ...

Jerry Brown
signed the modified TB117-2013, which became effective in 2014.


Examples of flammable substances

Flammable substances include, but are not limited to: *
Gasoline Gasoline () or petrol () (see the etymology Etymology ()The New Oxford Dictionary of English ''The'' () is a grammatical article Article often refers to: * Article (grammar) An article is any member of a class of dedicated word ...

Gasoline
-
Petrol Gasoline () or petrol () (see the etymology Etymology ()The New Oxford Dictionary of English ''The'' () is a grammatical article Article often refers to: * Article (grammar) An article is any member of a class of dedicated word ...
/ a complicated mixture of hydrocarbons that includes isomers of
octane Octane is a hydrocarbon In , a hydrocarbon is an consisting entirely of and . Hydrocarbons are examples of s. Hydrocarbons are generally colourless and hydrophobic with only weak odours. Because of their diverse molecular structures, it is di ...

octane
, C8H18 *
Ethanol Ethanol (also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic Organic may refer to: * Organic, of or relating to an organism, a living entity * Organic, of or relating to an anatomical organ (anatomy), ...

Ethanol
/ CH3CH2OH *
Rubber Rubber, also called India rubber, latex, Amazonian rubber, ''caucho'', or ''caoutchouc'', as initially produced, consists of polymer A polymer (; Greek ''poly- Poly, from the Greek :wikt:πολύς, πολύς meaning "many" or "much" ...

Rubber
*
Isopropyl alcohol Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering OrganizationsNational Adhering Organizations in chemistry are the organizations that work as the aut ...
/ CH3CH(OH)CH3 *
Methanol Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, amongst other names, is a chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some references add that chemical substance cannot be se ...

Methanol
/ CH3OH *
Wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. ...

Wood
*
Acetone Acetone, or propanone, is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, ...

Acetone
/ CH3COCH3 *
Paper Paper is a thin sheet material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition ...

Paper
*
Nitromethane Nitromethane, sometimes shortened to simply "nitro", is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, ...

Nitromethane
/ CH3NO2


Examples of nonflammable liquids

*
Water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known li ...
*
Carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (such as tetrachloromethane, also recognised by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry Cleaning is the process of removing unwanted substances, such as dirt, infectious agents, and ...

Carbon tetrachloride


Classification of flammability

The US Government uses the Hazardous Materials Identification System (HMIS) standard for flammability ratings, as do many US regulatory agencies, and also the US
National Fire Protection Association The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is an international nonprofit organization devoted to eliminating death, injury, property and economic loss due to fire, electrical and related hazards. As of 2018, the NFPA claims to have 50,000 mem ...
(NFPA). The ratings are as follows:


Codes


Flammability

For existing buildings, fire codes focus on maintaining the occupancies as originally intended. In other words, if a portion of a building were designed as an
apartment An apartment (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United S ...

apartment
, one could not suddenly load it with flammable liquids and turn it into a gas storage facility, because the fire load and smoke development in that one apartment would be so immense as to overtax the
active fire protection Active fire protection (AFP) is an integral part of fire protection Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially destructive fires. It involves the study of the behaviour, compartmentalisation, supp ...
as well as the
passive fire protection Passive fire protection (PFP) is components or systems of a building or structure that slows or impedes the spread the effects of fire or smoke without system activation, and usually without movement. Examples of passive systems include floor-ceil ...
means for the building. The handling and use of flammable substances inside a building is subject to the local fire code, which is ordinarily enforced by the local fire prevention officer.


Combustibility

Combustibility is a measure of how easily a substance bursts into flame, through
fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction Product (chemistry), products. Fire is hot because the conversion of the weak double bond in molecula ...

fire
or
combustion Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke. Combustion ...
. This is an important property to consider when a substance is used for construction or is being stored. It is also important in processes that produce combustible substances as a by-product. Special precautions are usually required for substances that are easily combustible. These measures may include installation of
fire sprinkler A fire sprinkler or sprinkler head is the component of a fire sprinkler system that discharges water when the effects of a fire have been detected, such as when a predetermined temperature has been exceeded. Fire sprinklers are extensively used ...
s or storage remote from possible sources of ignition. Substances with low combustibility may be selected for construction where the fire risk must be reduced, such as apartment buildings, houses, or offices. If combustible resources are used there is greater chance of fire accidents and deaths. Fire resistant substances are preferred for building materials and furnishings.


Code definitions

For an
Authority Having Jurisdiction Construction is a general term meaning the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no gener ...
, combustibility is defined by the local code. In the
National Building Code of CanadaThe National Building Code of Canada is the model building code of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, ...
, it is defined as follows: *''Combustible: A material that fails to meet acceptance criteria o
CAN/ULC-S114, Standard Method of Test for Determination of Noncombustibility in Building Materials
'' :This leads to the definition of noncombustible: *''Non-combustible: means that a material meets the acceptance criteria o
CAN4-S114, "Standard Method of Test for Determination of Non-Combustibility in Building Materials
. BS 476-4:1970 defines a test for combustibility in which a technician heats three specimens of a material in a furnace. Combustibile materials are those for which any of the three specimens either: * Makes the temperature reading from either of two thermocouples rise by 50 degrees Celsius or more above the initial furnace temperature * Flame continuously for 10 seconds or more inside the furnace Otherwise, the material is classified as non-combustible.


Fire testing

Various countries have tests for determining noncombustibility of materials. Most involve the heating of a specified quantity of the test specimen for a set duration. Usually, the material must not support combustion and must not lose more than a certain amount of mass. As a general rule of thumb, concrete, steel, and ceramics - in other words inorganic substances - pass these tests, so building codes list them as suitable and sometimes even mandate their use in certain applications. In
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
, for instance,
firewalls Firewall may refer to: * Firewall (computing), a technological barrier designed to prevent unauthorized or unwanted communications between computer networks or hosts * Firewall (construction), a barrier inside a building, designed to limit the sprea ...
must be made of
concrete Concrete is a composite material A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a ter ...

concrete
.


Combustible dust

A number of industrial processes produce combustible dust as a by-product. The most common being wood dust. Combustible dust has been defined as: ''a solid material composed of distinct particles or pieces, regardless of size, shape, or chemical composition, which presents a fire or deflagration hazard when suspended in air or some other oxidizing medium over a range of concentrations.''United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (2009
"Hazard Communication Guidance for Combustible Dusts"
OSHA 3371-08, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor
In addition to wood, combustible dusts include metals, especially magnesium, titanium and aluminum, as well as other carbon-based dusts. There are at least a 140 known substances that produce combustible dust. While the particles in a combustible dusts may be of any size, normally they have a diameter of less than 420  μm.I.e. they can pass through a U.S. No. 40 standard sieve. , the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration has yet to adopt a comprehensive set of rules on combustible dust. When suspended in air (or any oxidizing environment), the fine particles of combustible dust present a potential for explosions. Accumulated dust, even when not suspended in air, remains a fire hazard. The National Fire Protection Association (U.S.) specifically addresses the prevention of fires and dust explosions in agricultural and food products facilities in NFPA Code section 61, and other industries in NFPA Code sections 651–664.E.g. NFPA 651 (aluminium), NFPA 652 (magnesium), NFPA 655 (sulphur) Collectors designed to reduce airborne dust account for more than 40 percent of all dust explosions. Other important processes are grinding and pulverizing, transporting powders, filing silos and containers (which produces powder), and the mixing and blending of powders. Investigation of 200 dust explosions and fires, between 1980 to 2005, indicated ''approximately 100 fatalities and 600 injuries.'' In January 2003, a polyethylene powder explosion and fire at the West Pharmaceutical Services plant in
Kinston, North Carolina Kinston is a city in Lenoir County, North Carolina Lenoir County is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers ...
resulted in the deaths of six workers and injuries to 38 others. In February 2008 an explosion of sugar dust rocked the Imperial Sugar Company's plant at
Port Wentworth, Georgia Port Wentworth is a city in Chatham County, Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe Eastern Europe i ...
, resulting in thirteen deaths. Non-combustible material – A non-combustible material is a substance that does not ignite, burn, support combustion, or release flammable vapors when subject to fire or heat, in the form in which it is used and under conditions anticipated. Any solid substance complying with either of two sets of passing criteria listed in Section 8 of ASTM E 136 when the substance is tested in accordance with the procedure specified in ASTM E 136 is considered to be non-combustible.


Categorization of building materials

Image:Steinwolle 1600dpi roxul rxl80.jpg, DIN4102 A1 noncombustible rockwool Image:Tu braunschweig din4102 smoke density test.jpg, DIN4102 A2
gypsum Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral The sulfate minerals are a class of mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with ...

gypsum
fireproofing Fireproofing is rendering something (structures A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act accor ...

fireproofing
plaster Plaster is a building material used for the protective or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements. In English, "plaster" usually means a material used for the interiors of buildings, while "rend ...
leavened with
polystyrene Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic Aromaticity, aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer known as styrene. Polystyrene can be solid or foamed. General-purpose polystyrene is clear, hard, and brittle. It is an inexpensive resin per un ...

polystyrene
beads Image:Toilet flange.jpg, DIN 4102 B1 (difficult to ignite/often self-extinguishing)
Silicone A silicone or polysiloxane is a polymer A polymer (; Greek ''poly- Poly, from the Greek :wikt:πολύς, πολύς meaning "many" or "much", may refer to: Businesses * China Poly Group Corporation, a Chinese business group, and its sub ...

Silicone
caulking used as a component in
firestop A firestop or fire-stopping is a form of passive fire protection Passive fire protection (PFP) is components or systems of a building or structure that slows or impedes the spread the effects of fire or smoke without system activation, and usually ...
ping
piping Within industry, piping is a system of pipes PIPES is the common name for piperazine-N,N′-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid), and is a frequently used buffering agent in biochemistry. It is an ethanesulfonic acid buffer developed by Good et al. in t ...

piping
penetration Image:Palletts at inniskillin vineyard.jpg, DIN 4102 B2: Timber, normal combustibility Image:Polyurethane foam at inniskillin 2.jpg, DIN 4102 B3: Polyurethane foam (easy to ignite = many
hydrocarbon In organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, prop ...
bonds usually)
Materials can be tested for the degree of flammability and combustibility in accordance with the Germa
DIN
4102. DIN 4102, as well as its British cousi
BS
476 include for testing of
passive fire protection Passive fire protection (PFP) is components or systems of a building or structure that slows or impedes the spread the effects of fire or smoke without system activation, and usually without movement. Examples of passive systems include floor-ceil ...
system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundaries, structure and purp ...

system
s, as well as some of its constituent materials. The following are the categories in order of degree of combustibility and flammability: A more recent industrial standard is the European EN 13501-1 - Fire classification of construction products and building elements—which roughly replaces A2 with A2/B, B1 with C, B2 with D/E and B3 with F. B3 or F rated materials may not be used in building unless combined with another material that reduces the flammability of those materials.


Important characteristics


Flash point

A material's
flash point The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature Temperature is a physical quantity that expresses hot and cold. It is the manifestation of thermal energy, present in all matter, which is the source of the occurrence of he ...
is a metric of how easy it is to ignite the vapor of the material as it evaporates into the atmosphere. A lower flash point indicates higher flammability. Materials with flash points below are regulated in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
by OSHA as potential workplace
hazards A hazard is a potential source of harm Harm is a moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area aro ...
.


Vapor pressure

* The
vapor pressure 280px, The ''pistol test tube'' experiment. The tube contains alcohol and is closed with a piece of cork. By heating the alcohol, the vapors fill in the space, increasing the pressure in the tube to the point of the cork popping out. Vapor pre ...

vapor pressure
of a liquid, which varies with its temperature, is a measure of how much the vapor of the liquid tends to concentrate in the surrounding atmosphere as the liquid evaporates. Vapor pressure is a major determinant of the flash point, with higher vapor pressures leading to lower flash points and higher flammability.


See also

*
Explosive material An explosive (or explosive material) is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion An explosion is a rapid expansion in volume associated with an extremely vigorous outward release ...
*
Fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction Product (chemistry), products. Fire is hot because the conversion of the weak double bond in molecula ...

Fire
*
Fire test A fire test is a means of determining whether fire protection BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation (mild reducing agent) are added to powdered potassium permanganate Potassium permanganate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula ...
*
Fire protection Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially destructive fires. It involves the study of the behaviour, compartmentalisation, suppression and investigation of fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxid ...
*
Active fire protection Active fire protection (AFP) is an integral part of fire protection Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially destructive fires. It involves the study of the behaviour, compartmentalisation, supp ...
*
Passive fire protection Passive fire protection (PFP) is components or systems of a building or structure that slows or impedes the spread the effects of fire or smoke without system activation, and usually without movement. Examples of passive systems include floor-ceil ...
*
Flammable liquid A flammable liquid is a combustible liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isochoric flow) refers to a fluid flow, flow in which the mat ...

Flammable liquid
s * Flammable limit *
Underwriters Laboratories UL, LLC is a global safety certification company headquartered in Northbrook, Illinois Illinois ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States. It has the List of U.S. states and territ ...


Notes


References


External links

{{Wiktionary, flammable, inflammable
Videos showing flammability of cables based on jacket rating

Fire Performance of Ageing Cable Compounds, NFPA Treatise by Dr. Perry Marteny



CAN4-S114 CAN/ULC-S114 Abstract

iBMB/TU Braunschweig Governmental Lab for Testing Building Materials


* ttp://www.astm.org/Standards/E136.htm ASTM E136 Standard Test Method for Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750°C abstract
"Combustible Dust: Agricultural Related Fires and Explosions Increasing, but Preventable"
Division of Occupational Safety and Health, N.C. Department of Labor
Combustible Dust: A Major Hot Work Hazard"
Division of Occupational Safety and Health, N.C. Department of Labor Fire protection Fire prevention Thermodynamics Explosion protection