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The Illyrian Wars were a series of wars fought between the
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indiv ...
and the
Ardiaei The Ardiaei were an Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tribes inhabiting Illyria ** Illyrian language, a language or group of languages of ancient Illyrian tribes * Illyr ...
kingdom. In the ''First Illyrian War'', which lasted from 229 BC to 228 BC, Rome's concern was that the trade across the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest ...

Adriatic Sea
increased after the
First Punic War The First Punic War (264–241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (m ...
at a time when Ardiaei power increased under queen
Teuta Teuta (Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tribes inhabiting Illyria ** Illyrian language, a language or group of languages of ancient Illyrian tribes * Illyrian (Sout ...

Teuta
. Attacks on trading vessels of Rome's Italic allies by Illyrian pirates and the death of a Roman envoy named Coruncanius on Teuta's orders,Zock, 99. prompted the Roman senate to dispatch a Roman army under the command of the
consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the powe ...

consul
s Lucius Postumius Albinus and Gnaeus Fulvius Centumalus. Rome expelled
Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tribes inhabiting Illyria ** Illyrian language, a language or group of languages of ancient Illyrian tribes * Illyrian (South Slavic), a common na ...

Illyrian
garrisons from a number of
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...

Greek
cities including
Epidamnus The ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers colle ...
,
Apollonia Apollonia or Apolonia (named after the Greek god Apollo) may refer to : Places and jurisdictions Albania * Apollonia (Illyria), now Pojani (Polina) in Albania; former bishopric, now Latin titular see Bulgaria * Apollonia, Thrace, Apollon ...
,
Corcyra Corfu (, ) or Kerkyra ( el, Κέρκυρα, Kérkyra, ), ; ; la, Corcyra. is a Greek islands, Greek island located in the Ionian Sea, of the Ionian Islands, and, including its small satellite islands, forms the margin of the northwestern fronti ...
,
Pharos The Lighthouse of Alexandria, sometimes called the Pharos of Alexandria (; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 ...

Pharos
and established a protectorate over these Greek towns. The
Romans Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...
also set up
Demetrius of Pharos Demetrius of Pharos (also Pharus) ( grc, Δημήτριος ἐκ Φάρου) was a ruler of Hvar, Pharos involved in the Illyrian Wars, First Illyrian War, after which he ruled a portion of the Illyrian Adriatic coast on behalf of the Romans, as ...
as a power in Illyria to counterbalance the power of Teuta.Eckstein, 46–59. The ''Second Illyrian War'' lasted from 220 BC to 219 BC. In 219 BC, the
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indiv ...
was at war with the
Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: Celtic a collection of Indo-European peoples The Indo-European languages ar ...

Celts
of
Cisalpine Gaul Cisalpine Gaul ( la, Gallia Cisalpina, also called ''Gallia Citerior'' or ''Gallia Togata'') was the part of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Ital ...
, and the
Second Punic War The Second Punic War, which lasted from 218 to 201BC, was the second of three wars fought between Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading ...

Second Punic War
with
Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading hub of the Ancient Mediterranean and one of the most affluent cities of the . The city developed from a n colony ...

Carthage
was beginning. These distractions gave Demetrius the time he needed to build a new Illyrian war fleet. Leading this fleet of 90 ships, Demetrius sailed south of Lissus, violating his earlier treaty and starting the war. Demetrius' fleet first attacked
Pylos Pylos (, ; el, Πύλος), historically also known as Navarino, is a town and a former municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdiv ...

Pylos
, where he captured 50 ships after several attempts. From Pylos, the fleet sailed to the
Cyclades The CYCLADES computer network A computer network is a set of s sharing resources located on or provided by . The computers use common s over to communicate with each other. These interconnections are made up of technologies, based on phys ...

Cyclades
, quelling any resistance that they found on the way. Demetrius foolishly sent a fleet across the Adriatic, and, with the Illyrian forces divided, the fortified city of
Dimale Dimale or Dimallum (Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tribes inhabiting Illyria ** Illyrian language, a language or group of languages of ancient Illyrian tribes * Illy ...
was captured by the Roman fleet under Lucius Aemilius Paulus. From
Dimale Dimale or Dimallum (Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tribes inhabiting Illyria ** Illyrian language, a language or group of languages of ancient Illyrian tribes * Illy ...
the navy went towards
Pharos The Lighthouse of Alexandria, sometimes called the Pharos of Alexandria (; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 ...
. The forces of Rome routed the Illyrians and Demetrius fled to
Macedon Macedonia (; grc-gre, Μακεδονία), also called Macedon (), was an Classical antiquity, ancient monarchy, kingdom on the periphery of Archaic Greece, Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. Th ...

Macedon
, where he became a trusted councillor at the court of
Philip V of Macedon Philip V ( grc-gre, Φίλιππος ; 238–179 BC) was king (Basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify ...

Philip V of Macedon
, and remained there until his death at
Messene Messene (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately ...
in 214 BC. In 171 BC, the Illyrian king
Gentius Gentius ( grc, Γένθιος, "Génthios"; 181168 BC) was an Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tribes inhabiting Illyria ** Illyrian language, a language or group of ...

Gentius
was allied with the Romans against the
Macedonians Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
. But in 169 BC he changed sides and allied himself with
Perseus of Macedon Perseus ( grc-gre, Περσεύς; 212 – 166 BC) was the last king (''Basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may ...

Perseus of Macedon
. During the ''Third Illyrian War'', in 168 BC, he arrested two Roman legati and destroyed the cities of
Apollonia Apollonia or Apolonia (named after the Greek god Apollo) may refer to : Places and jurisdictions Albania * Apollonia (Illyria), now Pojani (Polina) in Albania; former bishopric, now Latin titular see Bulgaria * Apollonia, Thrace, Apollon ...
and
Dyrrhachium
Dyrrhachium
, which were allied to Rome. He was defeated at Scodra by a Roman force under L. Anicius Gallus, and in 167 BC he was brought to Rome as a captive to participate in Gallus' triumph, after which he was interned at
Iguvium Gubbio () is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public services: Ci ...
.


Prelude


Expansion under Agron

In the second half of the third century BC, the Ardiaei kingdom was transformed into a formidable power under the leadership of Agron. During this time, Agron invaded part of
Epirus sq, Epiri rup, Epiru , native_name_lang = , settlement_type = Historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geography, geographical areas which at some point in time had a culture, cultural, ethnic group, ethn ...
, Corcyra, Epidamnos and Pharos in succession, establishing garrisons in them. The new force disposed of 'the most powerful which could carry 50 soldiers in addition to the rowersforce, both by land and sea, of any of the kings who had reigned in Illyria before him', according to
Polybius Polybius (; grc-gre, Πολύβιος, ; ) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the ...

Polybius
(2.2). The Illyrians used the
lembus A lemb or lembus ( grc, λέμβος, ''lembos''; la, lembus) was an ancient Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tribes inhabiting Illyria ** Illyrian language, a language ...
, a small and fast warship with a single bank of oars. Raids by sea from the
Adriatic The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest a ...

Adriatic
and
Ionian Ionic or Ionian may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Ionic meter, a poetic metre in ancient Greek and Latin poetry * Ionian mode, a musical mode or a diatonic scale Places and peoples * Ionian, of or from Ionia, an ancient region in western A ...

Ionian
were probably a familiar threat to the north-western Greeks. What was new was the use of a land army to follow up and profit from the victories gained by the navy. The Greek cities (''
poleis ''Polis'' (, ; grc-gre, πόλις, ), plural ''poleis'' (, , ), literally means "city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (199 ...

poleis
'') on the coast of Illyria were systematically attacked and perhaps already conquered by Agron's forces. Rome answered an appeal from the island of Issa, threatened by Agron, by sending envoys. They never got there. They were attacked en route by Illyrian vessels, and one of them was killed, together with an Issaean ambassador. That time a number of political events marked the adjacent Greek states. In 234 BC, the royal succession in Epirus came to an end, and a federal republic was instituted. In the south, the western part of
Acarnania Acarnania ( el, Ἀκαρνανία) is a region of west-central Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a g ...
seceded from this arrangement. Their independence was soon threatened by the Aetolians, who began to occupy territory around the
Gulf of Ambracia The Ambracian Gulf, also known as the Gulf of Arta or the Gulf of Actium, and in some official documents as the Amvrakikos Gulf ( el, Αμβρακικός κόλπος, translit=Amvrakikos kolpos), is a gulf A gulf is a large inlet from the oc ...
, including Pyrrhus' old capital,
Ambracia Ambracia (; grc-gre, Ἀμβρακία, occasionally , ''Ampracia'') was a city of ancient Greece on the site of modern Arta, Greece, Arta. It was captured by the Ancient Corinth, Corinthians in 625 BC and was situated about from the Ambracian Gu ...
, which forced the Epirotes to establish a new center at
Phoenice Phoenice or Phoenike ( el, Φοινίκη) was an ancient Greek city in Epirus and capital of the Chaonians.: "To the north the Chaonians had expelled the Corcyraeans from their holdings on the mainland and built fortifications at Buthrotum, K ...
. Besieged at
Medion Medion AG is a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German langu ...
, the Acarnanians sought assistance from
Demetrius II of Macedon:''For the similarly named Seleucid ruler see Demetrius II Nicator. For the Macedonian prince, see Demetrius the Fair.'' Demetrius II Aetolicus (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλά ...
ia, who for the most of his reign had been at war with the
Aetolian Aetolia ( el, Αἰτωλία, Aἰtōlía) is a mountainous region of Greece on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, forming the eastern part of the modern regional units of Greece, regional unit of Aetolia-Acarnania. Geography The Achelous ...
and Achaean Leagues. In response, the king requested assistance from Agron to relieve the siege. The Illyrian attack under Agron was mounted in either 232 or 231 BC. One hundred lembi, with 5000 men on board, sailed up to land at Medion. They then formed up in the order that was usual in their own country, and advanced in their several companies against the
Aetolian Aetolia ( el, Αἰτωλία, Aἰtōlía) is a mountainous region of Greece on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, forming the eastern part of the modern regional units of Greece, regional unit of Aetolia-Acarnania. Geography The Achelous ...
lines. The Aetolians drew up the greater part of their
hoplites Hoplites () ( grc, ὁπλίτης : hoplítēs) were citizen-soldiers of Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa' ...

hoplites
and cavalry in front of their own lines on the level ground and, with a portion of their cavalry and their light
infantry Infantry is an army specialization whose military personnel, personnel engage in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and armored warfare, armored forces. Also known as foot soldiers, infantrymen or infanteer, i ...

infantry
, they hastened to occupy some rising ground in front of their camp, which nature had made easily defensible. A single charge, however, by the Illyrians, whose numbers and close order gave them irresistible weight, served to dislodge the light-armed troops, and forced the cavalry who were on the ground with them to retire to the hoplites. The Medionians joined the action by sallying out of the town and charging the Aetolians, thus, after killing a great number, and taking a still greater number prisoners, and becoming masters also of their arms and baggage, the Illyrians, having carried out the orders of Agron, conveyed their baggage and the rest of their booty to their boats and immediately set sail for their own country. This defeat of the Aetolians, who were famed for their victory over the invading Gauls a generation before, caused a sensation in Greece.


Raid against Phoenice

Illyrian success continued when command passed to Agron's widow
Teuta Teuta (Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tribes inhabiting Illyria ** Illyrian language, a language or group of languages of ancient Illyrian tribes * Illyrian (Sout ...

Teuta
, who granted individual ships a license to universal plunder. In 231 BC, the fleet and army attacked
Elis Elis or Ilia ( el, Ηλεία, ''Ileia'') is a historic region in the western part of the Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ) is a peninsula and geographic regions ...
and
Messenia Messenia or Messinia ( ; el, Μεσσηνία ) is a regional unit (''perifereiaki enotita'') in the southwestern part of the Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ...

Messenia
in the
Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while b ...
. On the way home, Teuta sent her general
Scerdilaidas Scerdilaidas or Skerdilaid ( grc, Σκερδιλαΐδας; ruled 218206 BC) was an List of rulers in Illyria, Illyrian ruler of the Illyrian kingdom under the Labeates, Labeatan dynasty. Before taking the throne, Scerdilaidas was commander of th ...
to capture the city of
Phoenice Phoenice or Phoenike ( el, Φοινίκη) was an ancient Greek city in Epirus and capital of the Chaonians.: "To the north the Chaonians had expelled the Corcyraeans from their holdings on the mainland and built fortifications at Buthrotum, K ...
in Epirus. The city was captured and the ensuing battle was won. A truce was agreed and Phoenice was returned for a price, along with the release of prisoners. The continued Illyrian success was another shock for the Greeks. The Epirotes signified their acceptance of the Illyrian victory by sending envoys to Teuta promising cooperation with them and hostility towards the Leagues of Greece. Phoenice was the most prosperous city in Epirus, and the centre for the growing commerce with
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
. It was Illyrian interference with the commerce that brought Roman forces across the Adriatic for the first time. Nevertheless, the Illyrians had to withdraw from Phoenice in order to deal with an internal rebellion.


First Illyrian War


Origins of the Conflict

Even before the war with
Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading hub of the Ancient Mediterranean and one of the most affluent cities of the . The city developed from a n colony ...

Carthage
(264–241 BC), the Romans had been aware of the danger to the Adriatic coast of Italy from seaborne attack. In 246 BC, a colony of Roman citizens was settled at
Brundisium Brindisi ( , ; scn, label=Salentino, Brindisino, Brìnnisi; la, Brundisium; grc, Βρεντέσιον, translit=Brentésion; cms, Brunda) is a city in the region of Apulia in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Brindisi, on the co ...
to keep a watch on the
Ionian gulf
Ionian gulf
. During their occupation of Phoenice, a number of Illyrian ships had engaged in privateering against Italian merchants. So many were robbed, murdered or captured that the Roman Senate, after ignoring earlier complaints, realized that something had to be done. Polybius (2.8) furnishes a suspiciously vivid account of a Roman embassy to Teuta, a version of events that was intended to justify the Roman invasion of Illyria. It was led by the brothers L. and C. Coruncanius. On arrival, they found Teuta celebrating the end of a rebellion in Illyria and engaged in laying siege to the Greek island of Issa, 'the last town which held out'. When the ambassadors complained of injuries to Romans, Teuta promised that no royal forces would harm them, but said that she was unable to put an end to the tradition of private enterprise. One of the ambassadors lost his temper; in response, the queen arranged for the insolent envoy to be murdered on his homeward voyage. News of this caused the Romans to prepare for war: legions were enlisted and the fleet assembled, and there was general indignation at 'the queen's violation of the law of nations'.


Corcyra and Paxos (229 BC)

The Roman invasion of Illyria in 229 BC appears to have caught Teuta completely off guard. As soon as the weather permitted, Teuta had ordered south a naval expedition even larger than those of previous years, with most of the ships heading to attack Corcyra. Some landed at Epidamnos, entered the city, with weapons concealed, to procure food and water, almost capturing it; but were thrown out after a fight. These ships now joined the main Illyrian force in the siege of Corcyra. The Corcyraeans, along with Appolonia and Epidamnos, sought assistance from the Leagues of Greece. Ten Achaean ships were engaged by the Illyrian fleet, reinforced by seven warships of the Acarnanians, off the island Paxos south of Corcyra. By superior tactics, the Illyrians took four
triremes A trireme (, ; derived from Latin: ''trirēmis'' "with three banks of oars"; 'triērēs'', ''literally "three-rower") was an Ancient navies and vessels, ancient vessel and a type of galley that was used by the ancient maritime civilizations of ...
and sank a
quinquereme From the 4th century BC on, new types of galley, oared warships appeared in the Mediterranean Sea, superseding the trireme and transforming naval warfare. Ships became increasingly large and heavy, including some of the largest wooden ships hither ...
, while the rest of the Greeks managed to escape. Corcyra was surrendered and was occupied by a garrison under the command of
Demetrius of Pharos Demetrius of Pharos (also Pharus) ( grc, Δημήτριος ἐκ Φάρου) was a ruler of Hvar, Pharos involved in the Illyrian Wars, First Illyrian War, after which he ruled a portion of the Illyrian Adriatic coast on behalf of the Romans, as ...
. The main Illyrian force sailed north for another attack on Epidamnos. The Illyrians were now on the point of controlling all of the coastline north of the
Gulf of Corinth The Gulf of Corinth or the Corinthian Gulf ( el, Κορινθιακός Kόλπος, ''Korinthiakόs Kόlpos'', ) is a deep inlet An inlet is an indentation of a shoreline, usually long and narrow, such as a small bay or arm, that often lea ...

Gulf of Corinth
, including all of the sea routes to
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
and Italy via Corcyra.


Roman offensive

The Roman consul Gnaeus Fulvius Centumalus sailed his 200 ships to Corcyra to raise the siege, despite having learned that the island had already surrendered. He was in secret negotiations with Demetrius, who had fallen out of favor with Teuta, so Corcyra welcomed the Romans and, with the aid of Demetrius, surrendered its garrison. The city became a 'friend of Rome' and would henceforward rely on Roman protection from the Illyrians. Demetrius now served as an adviser to the Roman commanders for the rest of the war. Meanwhile, the consul L. Postumius brought an army of 20,000 infantry and 2,000 cavalry across from Brundisium to Apollonia, which now joined the Roman alliance. The fleet under Fulvius reached Apollonia and the two forces advanced toward Epidamnos, causing the Illyrians to abandon the siege and disperse. The city was received into Roman protection and the army now moved inland among the Illyrian peoples of the hinterland. Here, the Romans received delegations from many peoples, including the Atintani and
Parthini The Parthini, Partini or Partheni were an Illyrian List of ancient Illyrian peoples and tribes, tribe that lived in the inlands of southern Illyria (modern Albania). They likely were located in the Shkumbin valley controlling the important route b ...
, from whom a formal surrender was accepted. At sea, the blockade of Issa was raised and the city also received Roman protection. As the Romans approached the Illyrian heartlands, opposition stiffened. The fleet moved northwards and attacked coastal towns, one of which being the unidentified Noutria. Roman losses included a magistrate of the Republic and some military tribunes, although 20 ships laden with plunder were intercepted. The besiegers of Issa fled to Arbo and Teuta retreated to her capital,
RhizonRhizon ( grc, Ῥίζων; la, Risinium) was a city in classical and Roman antiquity. Rhizon is the oldest settlement in the Bay of Kotor and the modern town of Risan (modern Montenegro) stands near the old city. Originally it was an Illyrians, Illy ...
in the Gulf of Kotor. The Romans decided enough had been achieved and hostilities ceased. The consuls handed over the kingdom to Demetrius and withdrew the fleet and army to Italy under Fulvius. Having assembled 40 ships and some troops from allies in the area, the other consul remained in Illyria to keep watch on the Ardiaei and the peoples under Roman protection.


Peace treaty (228 BC)

Before the end of winter, Teuta's envoys appeared in Rome and a treaty was concluded. According to its terms, the queen would pay tribute (or perhaps an indemnity) to Rome, abandon Illyria, except for a few places, and promise not to sail south of Lissus at the mouth of the Drin with more than two ships, and even those had to be unarmed. The terms of the settlement were conveyed to the Leagues in Greece, where they were well received. The Illyrians had been forced to give up all their recent conquests south of the Drin. The Romans had gained control of the strategic ports of Epidamnos, Apollonia and Corcyra. In the hinterland, several of the Illyrian tribes now had the status of Rome clients, as was certainly the case with the Parthini in the Gensus (
Shkumbin The Shkumbin (; ; la, Genusus, also la, Genessus, label=none or la, Scampis, label=none), also commonly Shkembi, is a river in Southern Europe.It is long and its drainage basin is . Its average discharge is . Etymology It derives from Lat ...

Shkumbin
) valley and the Atintani further south. Moreover, not only were the Ardiaei prevented from moving at will by land and sea into Epirus and western Greece, but they were now cut off from the inland route to
Macedonia Macedonia most commonly refers to: * North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia until February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe. It gained independence in ...
, their patron and ally against the Greek Leagues.


Second Illyrian War


Revival of power

The decade after 229 BC witnessed a revival of Illyrian power under Demetrius, who succeeded Teuta. Following the war, Demetrius married
Triteuta Triteuta ( grc, Τριτεύτα; 230–219 BC) was an Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tribes inhabiting Illyria ** Illyrian language, a language or group of languages ...
, Agron's first wife and mother of
Pinnes Pinnes ( grc-gre, Πίννης; also Pinnius; c. 230 – 217 BC) was the son of Agron, king of the Ardiaei The Ardiaei were an Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tri ...
, in or around 222 BC, which consolidated his position. His marriage to Triteuta meant that Demetrius formally took over the regency of the Ardiaean Kingdom. Demetrius' own influence was thereby greatly extended, and the fundamental weakness of the Ardiaean Kingdom after 229 BC, that there was no competent regent for Pinnes, was relieved. The king began to renew traditional Illyrian ties with Macedonia. In 222 BC, an Illyrian corps of 1,600 men fought with distinction under the command of Demetrius at
Sellasia Sellasia ( el, Σελλασία, before 1929: Βρουλιά - ''Vroulia'') is a village in Laconia, Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxi ...
, where the Macedonians won a conclusive victory over the Spartans. After Sellasia, Demetrius began attempting to extend his control over Illyria at the expense of Rome.Polybius
3.16
Before then, when Rome was preoccupied with a war against the
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry ...

Celtic
peoples of the
Po Valley The Po Valley, Po Plain, Plain of the Po, or Padan Plain ( it, Pianura Padana , or ''Val Padana'') is a major geographical feature of Northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, ...
in northern
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
from 225–222 BC, Demetrius detached the Illyrian Atintani from their Roman alliance. In addition, he sailed south of Lissus,
Lezhë Lezhë or Lezha (; la, Lissus) is a List of cities and towns in Albania, city in the Republic of Albania and the capital of the eponymous Lezhë County, county and municipality. One of the main strongholds of the Labeatae, Labeatai, the earlies ...

Lezhë
in present-day
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a par ...

Albania
, and engaged in piracy in contravention of the settlement in 228 BC. In 221 BC, Demetrius also created an alliance with the Illyrian
Histri The Histri were an ancient people inhabiting the Istrian peninsula Istria ( ; Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croati ...
at the head of the Adriatic, which tribe was interfering with Roman supply ships. A Roman fleet soon attacked the Histri. Early in the summer of 221 BC, when tension was rising in
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...

Greece
as Macedonia made an alliance with the
Achaean League The Achaean League (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appr ...
against the
Aetolian League :''For the English football league, see Aetolian League (football) The Aetolian League was a short-lived association football, football league in the south east of England. It was established in 1959 after the Kent Football League (1894–1959), K ...
, the Illyrians attacked in their traditional manner. In 220 BC, Demetrius and the Illyrian commander,
Scerdilaidas Scerdilaidas or Skerdilaid ( grc, Σκερδιλαΐδας; ruled 218206 BC) was an List of rulers in Illyria, Illyrian ruler of the Illyrian kingdom under the Labeates, Labeatan dynasty. Before taking the throne, Scerdilaidas was commander of th ...
, sailed south of Lissus with 90 lembi. An assault on
Pylos Pylos (, ; el, Πύλος), historically also known as Navarino, is a town and a former municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdiv ...

Pylos
in the western
Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while b ...
initially failed, but Demetrius eventually captured 50 ships. Afterwards, the Illyrians separated their forces; Demetrius and his forces plundered the
Cyclades The CYCLADES computer network A computer network is a set of s sharing resources located on or provided by . The computers use common s over to communicate with each other. These interconnections are made up of technologies, based on phys ...

Cyclades
, while Scerdilaidas' forces returned north to Illyria. On putting in at Naupactus with forty ships, Scerdilaidas was encouraged by his brother-in-law Amynas, king of the Athamanes, to join the Aetolians in their planned invasion of
Achaea Achaea () or Achaia (), sometimes transliterated from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southe ...
. With help from Cynaethan traitors, they attacked, seized and burned Cynaetha, a town in northern
Arcadia Arcadia may refer to: Places Australia * Arcadia, New South Wales, a suburb of Sydney * Arcadia, Queensland * Arcadia, Victoria Greece * Arcadia (region) Arcadia ( el, Ἀρκαδία) is a region in the central Peloponnese. It takes its name ...
located on the northern slope of the Aroanian Mountains. They also attacked, but failed to take, Cleitor. Meanwhile, Demetrius continued on into the
Aegean Aegean may refer to: *Aegean Sea *Aegean Islands *Aegean Region (geographical), Turkey *Aegean Region (statistical), Turkey *Aegean civilizations *Aegean languages, a group of ancient languages and proposed language family *Aegean Sea (theme), a n ...

Aegean
with 50 ships. He sailed to the
Cyclades The CYCLADES computer network A computer network is a set of s sharing resources located on or provided by . The computers use common s over to communicate with each other. These interconnections are made up of technologies, based on phys ...

Cyclades
, where he extorted tribute from some of the islands and plundered the others. Chased by
Rhodian Rhodes (; el, Ρόδος, translit=Ródos ) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece and is also the island group's historical capital. Administratively the island forms a separate municipality within the Rhodes (regional unit), R ...

Rhodian
warships, Demetrius put into
Cenchreae Kechries ( el, Κεχριές, rarely Κεχρεές) is a village in the municipality of Corinth Corinth ( ; el, Κόρινθος, Kórinthos, ) is the successor to an ancient city, and is a former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese (r ...
, the Aegean port of
Corinth Corinth ( ; el, Κόρινθος, Kórinthos, ) is the successor to an ancient city, and is a former municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). ...

Corinth
. At the same time, the Macedonian commander in Corinth, Taurion, learned of the invasion by Scerdilaidas and the Aetolians. Taking his cue from the Aetolians, Taurion agreed to drag Demetrius' ships across the Isthmus to bring them into play in the Gulf of Corinth, in return for Demetrius' assistance against the Aetolians. Although Demetrius conducted a few raids on the Aetolian coast, he was too late to hinder the Aetolians' return from Achaea. After returning to the Ardiaean Kingdom, Demetrius continued operations during the following winter, attacking and seizing Roman allied cities and communities in southern Illyria. The Romans, who had hitherto ignored the activities of their former ally, decided that the harbors on the Ardiaean Kingdom's coast now had to be made secure, in view of the threat of another war with
Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading hub of the Ancient Mediterranean and one of the most affluent cities of the . The city developed from a n colony ...

Carthage
. These events precipitated the
Second Illyrian War The Illyrian Wars were a series of wars fought between the Roman Republic and the Ardiaei The Ardiaei were an Illyrian people A people is a plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or ...
.


Surrender of Dimallum (219 BC)

Unlike Teuta in 229 BC, Demetrius was well prepared for the Roman invasion. He first placed a garrison in Dimallum, an Illyrian city-fortress from Apollonia. He eliminated his opponents in other places, those Illyrians who opposed his rule, and stationed 6,000 of his best forces on his home island of Pharos. As before, both consuls of the year accompanied the Roman expedition, but the leading role was played by Aemilius Paullus, who was to be killed in the great Roman disaster at
Cannae Cannae (now Canne della Battaglia) is an ancient village of the Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demo ...
three years later. The Adriatic took on particular importance in Rome's preparations for the
Second Punic War The Second Punic War, which lasted from 218 to 201BC, was the second of three wars fought between Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading ...

Second Punic War
from 218 to 201 BC. Anticipating a long and difficult war far away from Rome, the Roman
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...

Senate
decided first to set matters right in Illyria. In 219 BC, having decided that Dimallum was crucial to Demetrius' power in the region, the consul prepared to besiege the city, but was able to take it by direct assault within seven days. As a result, all the Illyrian towns and cities of the area submitted to Roman protection, each receiving the appropriate terms and conditions. Next, the Romans moved against Demetrius on the island of Pharos, who awaited the attack with good troops, ample provisions and war materials behind strong fortifications, that of the modern port city of Stari Grad. To avoid a long siege, Aemilius decided to risk another frontal attack. The Roman army moved from the mainland to a wooded area of the island. Meanwhile, the next day, a small force of ships was sent out to tempt Demetrius from behind his fortifications. Demetrius marched down to the harbor to oppose the Roman landing. The strategy worked, and when the main Roman army appeared from another direction on the island, the Illyrian army was forced to give battle, as they were cut off from their city. Attacked on two sides, and cut off from the protection of the city walls, the battle was lost. In 218 BC, the Illyrian forces soon surrendered, while Demetrius deserted the island and fled to Macedonia, making his way to the court of
Philip V of Macedon Philip V ( grc-gre, Φίλιππος ; 238–179 BC) was king (Basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify ...

Philip V of Macedon
, who was now the Macedonian king following the death of Antigonus.


Aftermath

The Romans destroyed the fortifications of Pharos and before the summer was over Aemilius was back in Rome receiving congratulations for a job well done. Any threat to Roman holdings in Illyria had been eliminated, all the gains of the First Illyrian War had been secured, and the old restrictions on movement imposed on Illyrian kings. Demetrius may have returned to the Ardiaeian State and have been attacked by another Roman force, although the regime of
Pinnes Pinnes ( grc-gre, Πίννης; also Pinnius; c. 230 – 217 BC) was the son of Agron, king of the Ardiaei The Ardiaei were an Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tri ...
, now confirmed as king, was left intact. Rome supported a small Ardiaeian State ruled by Pinnes and his successors. The Roman Republic called for the extradition of Demetrius, but Phillip refused. Pinnes was ordered to pay the arrears of tribute, reparations imposed after the war. The weak Ardiaeian state soon fell prey to Macedonia, while the partial destruction brought onto the scene the urban koina of the Parthini, Byllines, Amantini and others.


Third Illyrian War


Relations with Rome

By 181 BC, the loyal
Pleuratus III Pleuratus III (Ancient Greek: Πλευρᾶτος; ruled ''c.'' 205 – 181 BC) was a ruler of the Illyrian kingdom under the Labeatae, Labeatan dynasty. He was the son of Scerdilaidas. Pleuratus continued his father's pro-Roman Republic, Rom ...
had been succeeded by his son
Gentius Gentius ( grc, Γένθιος, "Génthios"; 181168 BC) was an Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tribes inhabiting Illyria ** Illyrian language, a language or group of ...

Gentius
. During his reign, relations with the Ardiaean State and Rome started to deteriorate. The coast and hinterland south of the Drin remained under Roman control since the First Illyrian War against
Teuta Teuta (Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tribes inhabiting Illyria ** Illyrian language, a language or group of languages of ancient Illyrian tribes * Illyrian (Sout ...

Teuta
. Gentius moved to increase Illyrian power over kindred peoples living to the north and west. Among the islands, the Greek city of Issa had retained some form of independence under Roman protection but
Pharos The Lighthouse of Alexandria, sometimes called the Pharos of Alexandria (; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 ...

Pharos
remained an Illyrian possession. On the mainland, the
Delmatae The Delmatae, alternatively Dalmatae during the Roman period, were a group of Illyrian tribes This is a list of ancient tribes in the ancient territory of Illyria ( grc-gre, Ἰλλυρία; la, Illyria). The name ''Illyrians The Illyrians ...
and the
Daorsi Daorson (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers c ...
were at one time subjects, but the former defected soon after the accession of Gentius. Illyrian strength lay in its navy and it was their interference with Adriatic shipping that once more aroused Roman interest in the area. In 180 BC, a Roman praetor responsible for coastal protection arrived in Brundisium with some of Gentius's ships that were said to have been caught in the act of piracy. An embassy to
Illyria In classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history History (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Gre ...

Illyria
failed to locate the king; but the praetor discovered that Romans were being held for ransom at
Corcyra Nigra
Corcyra Nigra
. No outcome of the affair is reported and it may well be that the Senate accepted a claim by Gentius' envoys that the charges were false. Ten years later, when Rome was gripped with war fever against
Perseus of Macedon Perseus ( grc-gre, Περσεύς; 212 – 166 BC) was the last king (''Basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may ...

Perseus of Macedon
, Issa accused Gentius of plotting war with the king and so the Illyrian envoys were denied a hearing before the Senate. Instead, the Romans seized 54 Illyrian lembi at anchor in the harbor of Epidamnus. On the eve of war, a Roman senator was sent to Illyria to remind Gentius of his formal friendship with the Roman Republic.


Alliance with Dardania and Macedonia

In 169 BC, Gentius arranged the murder of his brother,
Plator Plator (? –169 BC) the Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tribes inhabiting Illyria ** Illyrian language, a language or group of languages of ancient Illyrian tribes ...
, because Plator's plan to marry
Etuta Etuta (ruled 169 – 168 BC) was an Illyrian queen of the Ardiaean Kingdom This is an alphabetical list of ancient Illyrians, a people who lived in the western Balkan Peninsula in the region, which became known as Illyria. The Illyrians s ...
, daughter of the
Dardani The Dardani (; grc, Δαρδάνιοι, Δάρδανοι; la, Dardani) were a Paleo-Balkan people, who lived in a region that was named Dardania after their settlement there. They were among the oldest Balkan peoples, and their society was ...
an king,
Monunius II of Dardania Monunius (Ancient Greek language, Ancient Greek Μονούνιος; ruled ''c.'' 176 – 167 BC) was an Illyrian king of the Dardanian State who lived in the late 3rd century BC and early 2nd century BC. Monunius attested first in 176 BC was t ...
, would have made him too powerful. Gentius then married Plator's fiancée for himself, securing the alliance of the powerful Dardanian State. Perseus of Macedon, having recaptured several Roman outposts in Roman occupied Illyria, controlled the route leading west to the Ardiaean State. At this point, Perseus sent his first embassy to Gentius, consisting of the Illyrian exile Pleuratus, for his command of the Illyrian language, and the Macedonians Adaeus and Beroea. They found Gentius at Lissus and informed him of Perseus' successes against the Romans and Dardanians and his recent victory against the Penestae. Gentius replied that he lacked not the will to fight the Romans, but only the money. No promises were made on this point either by this embassy or another sent from Stuberra shortly afterwards. Perseus continued his efforts to involve Gentius in the war—preferably, it was said, at no cost to his treasury. The Illyrian exile Pleuratus raised 1,000 infantry and 200 cavalry from the Penestae. The Roman invasion of Macedonia in 168 BC forced the king to promise a subsidy to Gentius, whose ships might be employed to attack the Romans. A sum of 300 talents was mentioned and Perseus sent his companion Pantauchus to make the arrangements. In the city of Meteon, hostages were agreed and Gentius accepted the oath of the king. He sent Olympio with a delegation to Perseus to collect the money, and the treaty was concluded with some ceremony at
Dium Dion or Dio ( el, Δίον; grc, Δῖον; la, Dium) is a village and municipal unit in the municipality of Dion-Olympos in the Pieria regional unit, Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is ...
on the
Thermaic Gulf The Thermaic Gulf (), also called the Gulf of Salonika and the Macedonian Gulf, is a gulf A gulf is a large inlet from the ocean into the landmass, typically with a narrower opening than a bay (geography), bay, but that is not observable in ...
. A formal parade of the Macedonian cavalry was held, which may have impressed the Illyrians; the cavalry may have represented the Macedonians in the ratification of the treaty. The 300 talents were counted out of the royal treasure at
Pella Pella ( el, Πέλλα) is an ancient city located in Central Macedonia Central Macedonia ( el, Κεντρική Μακεδονία, Kentrikí Makedonía, ) is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece, consisting of the central ...
and the Illyrians were permitted to mark it with their own stamp. An advance of this money was forwarded to Gentius; and when this was passed over by Pantauchus, the king was urged to commence hostilities against the Romans. When Gentius imprisoned two Roman envoys sent by Appius Claudius at Lychnidus, Perseus recalled the rest of the subsidy in the belief that Gentius was now his ally, come what may.


Anti-Roman policy

Gentius accompanied the new anti-Roman orientation in Illyrian foreign policy with a series of measures to strengthen the Ardiaean State. First, he concentrated the finances by establishing a single tax over all the subjects and by taking royal control of the monetary workshops, or mints, of Lissus and Scodra, the two cities where he resided. At this time, Gentius was issuing bronze coins. In the Selcë hoard, there are two coins of Gentius with Macedonian emblems. The other coins of Gentius have what is probably his head with a cap not unlike the
petasos A ''petasos'' or petasus ( el, πέτασος) is a broad brimmed hat of Thessalian Thessaly ( el, Θεσσαλία, translit=Thessalía, ; ancient : , ) is a traditional and modern of , comprising most of the of the same name. Before th ...

petasos
, and a
torc A torc, also spelled torq or torque, is a large rigid or stiff neck ring Neck rings, or neck-rings, are any form of stiff jewellery worn as an ornament around the neck of an individual, as opposed to a loose necklace. Many cultures and per ...
around his head, and on the reverse in one case a
thunderbolt A thunderbolt or lightning bolt is a symbolic representation of lightning Lightning is a naturally occurring electrostatic discharge Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the sudden flow of electricity Electricity is the set of phy ...

thunderbolt
and in the other a
lembus A lemb or lembus ( grc, λέμβος, ''lembos''; la, lembus) was an ancient Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tribes inhabiting Illyria ** Illyrian language, a language ...
, the typical Illyrian warship. Thus, according to an inventory made by the Romans, the state treasury had 27 pounds of gold, 19 of silver, 120,000 Illyrian drachmas and 13,000 Roman denarii on the eve of the war with Rome. Gentius and Perseus sent a joined embassy to invite
Rhodes Rhodes (; el, Ρόδος, translit=Ródos ) is the largest of the Dodecanese The Dodecanese (, ; el, Δωδεκάνησα, ''Dodekánisa'' , literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek#REDIRECT Greek Gre ...

Rhodes
to join in the war against Rome. Gentius also built up a fleet of 270 lembi, a fact showing that the enemy he was prepared to face would come across the
Adriatic The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest a ...

Adriatic
. An army of 15,000 men completed the military machine of the Ardiaean State. Gentius was now prepared to go to war with Rome.


Destruction of the Ardiaei kingdom (168 BC)

Having mustered his force of 15,000 men and his fleet of lembi at Lissus, the southernmost city of the State, Gentius advanced into Roman territory in January/February of 168 BC and laid siege to the Illyrian city of Bassania, a Roman ally that refused to yield, although it was only 5 miles from Lissus. His half-brother
Caravantius Caravantius, an Illyrians, Illyrian, was half brother to Gentius, the last Illyrian king of the Ardiaean Kingdom, Ardiaean State. In 168 BC he foughtThe Illyrians by J. J. Wilkes, 1992, , page 174, "... Illyrian navy sent to attack supply-routes, an ...
detached 1,000 infantry and 50 horsemen and attacked the
Cavii This is a list of ancient tribes in the ancient territory of Illyria In classical antiquity, Illyria ( grc, Ἰλλυρία, ''Illyría'' or , ''Illyrís''; la, Illyria, ''Illyricum'') was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula i ...
, failing to capture one of their cities while ravaging the fields of the city of Caravandis. A fleet of eight lembi set off a little later to attack the coastal colonial cities of
Epidamnus The ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers colle ...
and Appolonia. Meanwhile, the Romans under Appius Claudius had heard of the alliance that Gentius had made with
Perseus of Macedon Perseus ( grc-gre, Περσεύς; 212 – 166 BC) was the last king (''Basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may ...

Perseus of Macedon
and the arrest of the Roman envoys. He therefore moved his army out of their winter quarters at
Nymphaeum A ''nymphaeum'' or ''nymphaion'' ( grc, νυμφαῖον), in ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th ...
, added to it troops from
Byllis Byllis ( gr, Βύλλις) or Bullis or Boullis (Βουλλίς) was an ancient city located in the transboundary region between southern Illyria and Epirus. The remains of Byllis are situated north-east of Vlorë, 25 kilometers from the sea in H ...
, Epidamnus, and Appolonia, as he marched north, and encamped by the river Genesus. There, he met with the new Roman commander, Lucius Anicius Gallus, a praetor. Anicius had crossed over from Italy to Apollonia with two legions totalling 600 cavalry and 10,400 infantry and of Italian allies, 800 cavalry and 10,000 infantry. His fleet, the size of which is not known, was strengthened by a draft of 5,000 sailors. To this imposing force, he added 200 cavalry and 2,000 infantry of the
Parthini The Parthini, Partini or Partheni were an Illyrian List of ancient Illyrian peoples and tribes, tribe that lived in the inlands of southern Illyria (modern Albania). They likely were located in the Shkumbin valley controlling the important route b ...
, an Illyrian kingdom allied to the Romans. These combined forces outnumbered those of Gentius's by two to one. As a folio of Livy's text is missing, little is known of this campaign. It seems that Anicius's fleets engaged Gentius' lembi and captured a number of them. Next, the Illyrian forces were defeated on land, allowing the Romans to advance to the heart of the state, where they won over the cities by humane and clement methods. Gentius concentrated his forces in his capital
Shkodra
Shkodra
, a well-fortified city in a strong natural position. When Anicius approached with his army in battle formation, Gentius fled into the city in panic. Gentius asked for, and was given, a three-day truce hoping that Caravantius would come at any moment with a large relieving army, but it did not happen. After his defeat, Gentius sent two prominent tribal leaders, Teuticus and Bellus, as envoys to negotiate with the Roman commander. On the third day of the truce, Gentius surrendered to the Romans, who gave him a dinner with full honours and then put him under arrest. The Illyrians in Shkodra surrendered and the Roman envoys were liberated. The Roman army marched north of Scutari Lake where, at
Meteon Medun ( sr-cyr, Медун) is a settlement located 13 km northeast of the capital Podgorica, Montenegro. The village houses the archaeological site of the ancient fortified city of ''Medeon''. It is situated in the tribal area of Upper Ku ...
, they captured Gentius' queen
Teuta Teuta (Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tribes inhabiting Illyria ** Illyrian language, a language or group of languages of ancient Illyrian tribes * Illyrian (Sout ...

Teuta
, his brother Caravantius, his sons Scerdilaides and Pleuratus along with leading Illyrians. The fall of the Ardiaean State is transmitted by
Livy Titus Livius (; 59 BC – AD 17), known in English as Livy ( ), was a Ancient Rome, Roman historian. He wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people, titled , covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditiona ...
in a ceremonial manner of the triumph of Anicius in Rome:
''In a few days, both on land and sea did he defeat the brave Illyrian tribe, who had relied on their knowledge of their own territory and fortifications''
This part of the campaign had only lasted 30 days. There were certainly further operations in the northern part of the Ardiaean State, for Anicius placed garrisons in some towns, citadels and fortresses. These include the cities of Issa,
RhizonRhizon ( grc, Ῥίζων; la, Risinium) was a city in classical and Roman antiquity. Rhizon is the oldest settlement in the Bay of Kotor and the modern town of Risan (modern Montenegro) stands near the old city. Originally it was an Illyrians, Illy ...
and Olcinium and the tribal states of the Daorsi and the
Pirustae This is a list of ancient tribes in the ancient territory of Illyria In classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history History (from Greek Greek ...
. Some came over to Rome on their own accord, while other places, such as
Pharos The Lighthouse of Alexandria, sometimes called the Pharos of Alexandria (; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 ...

Pharos
, were reduced by force and their property looted.


Aftermath

Rome's triumph included the capture of many royal flags, other booty, the furniture of the king himself and the treasure mentioned above. Millions of sestercii were gained from the sale of the booty, in addition to the gold and silver that went to the state treasury. By decision of the Senate, Gentius and his family were sent to Spoletum, to be kept under observation. The other captives were imprisoned in Rome. But the inhabitants of Spoletum refused to keep the royal family under watch, so they were transferred to
Iguvium Gubbio () is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public services: Ci ...
. The booty seized in Illyria included 220 vessels. By decree of the Senate, C. Cassius Longinus gave these vessels taken from Gentius to the inhabitants of
Corcyra Corfu (, ) or Kerkyra ( el, Κέρκυρα, Kérkyra, ), ; ; la, Corcyra. is a Greek islands, Greek island located in the Ionian Sea, of the Ionian Islands, and, including its small satellite islands, forms the margin of the northwestern fronti ...
, Appolonia and Epidamnus. The year of Gentius' death is not known, but there are ruins of what is perhaps his tomb. The Roman punishment of
Illyria In classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history History (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Gre ...

Illyria
spared only those kingdoms that had backed Rome openly in the war. For those who had been enemies, their cities, buildings and public institutions were burned and thoroughly looted. Those spared retained their previous manner of administration, with officials elected every year, and paid Rome only half the taxes that they had previously paid to Gentius. The federation-based kingdoms were dissolved and each unit was recognized as a separate kingdom, enjoying local autonomy and often the right to mint its own coins. While the southern Illyrian lands had been subjected once and for all, the Roman legions continued for about another hundred years with attempts to conquer the northern and eastern territories.


See also

* Italian-Albanian War *
Illyrian warfare The history of Illyrian warfare of the Illyrians spans from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC up to the 1st century AD in the region of Illyria and in southern Italy where the Iapygian civilization flourished. It concerns the armed conflicts ...
*
Pinnes Pinnes ( grc-gre, Πίννης; also Pinnius; c. 230 – 217 BC) was the son of Agron, king of the Ardiaei The Ardiaei were an Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tri ...


References


Sources


Appian, The Foreign Wars (ed. Horace White), THE ILLYRIAN WARS
* Eckstein, Arthur. "Polybius, Demetrius of Pharus and the Origins of the Second Illyrian War." Classical Philology 89, no. 1 (1994): 46–59 * Gruen, Erich S. (1984). ''The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome: Volume II''. Berkeley: University of California Press. (2 vols) * Zock, Paul A. (1998). Ancient Rome: An Introductory History. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. {{Ancient Roman Wars 3rd-century BC conflicts 2nd-century BC conflicts 3rd century BC in the Roman Republic 2nd century BC in the Roman Republic Wars involving Illyria Wars involving the Roman Republic 3rd century BC