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''Eucalyptus marginata'', commonly known as jarrah, djarraly in
Noongar The Noongar (, also spelt Noongah, Nyungar, Nyoongar, Nyoongah, Nyungah, Nyugah, Yunga) are Aboriginal Australian Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aborigi ...
language and historically as Swan River mahogany, is a plant in the myrtle
family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same Politic ...
,
Myrtaceae Myrtaceae or the myrtle family is a family of dicotyledon The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), ...
and is
endemic Endemism is the state of a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest gro ...
to the south-west of
Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Western Australia
. It is a tree with rough, fibrous bark, leaves with a distinct midvein, white flowers and relatively large, more or less spherical fruit. Its hard, dense timber is insect resistant although the tree is susceptible to dieback. The timber has been utilised for
cabinet-making A cabinet is a case or cupboard with shelves and/or drawers for storing or displaying items. Some cabinets are stand alone while others are built in to a wall or are attached to it like a medicine cabinet A bathroom cabinet (or medicine cabinet) ...

cabinet-making
, flooring and railway sleepers.


Description

Jarrah is a tree which sometimes grows to a height of up to with a
diameter at breast height (DBH)
diameter at breast height (DBH)
of , but more usually with a DBH of up to . Less commonly it can be a small mallee to 3 m. Older specimens have a
lignotuber A lignotuber is a woody swelling of the root crown possessed by some plants as a protection against destruction of the plant stem, such as by fire. The crown contains bud In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, ...
and roots that extend down as far as . It is a
stringybark A stringybark can be any of the many ''Eucalyptus ''Eucalyptus'' () is a of over seven hundred species of s, shrubs or in the , Myrtaceae. Along with several other genera in the , including ', they are commonly known as s. Plants in the ge ...
with rough, greyish-brown, vertically grooved, fibrous bark which sheds in long flat strips. The
leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together form the shoot system. Leaves are ...

leaves
are arranged alternately along the branches, narrow lance-shaped, often curved, long and broad, shiny dark green above and paler below. There is a distinct midvein, spreading lateral veins and a marginal vein separated from the margin. The stalked
flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Image:Cerisier du Japon Prunus serrulata.jpg, Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plan ...

flower
buds are arranged in
umbel In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancie ...
s of between 4 and 8, each bud with a narrow, conical cap long. The flowers in diameter, with many white
stamen The stamen (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ve ...
s and bloom in spring and early summer. The fruit are spherical to barrel-shaped, and long and broad.


Taxonomy and naming

''Eucalyptus marginata'' was first formally described in 1802 by
James Edward Smith __NOTOC__ Sir James Edward Smith (2 December 1759 – 17 March 1828) was an English botany, botanist and founder of the Linnean Society. Early life and education Smith was born in Norwich in 1759, the son of a wealthy wool merchant. He dis ...

James Edward Smith
, whose description was published in ''
Transactions of the Linnean Society of London The Linnean Society of London is a learned society dedicated to the study and dissemination of information concerning natural history, evolution, and Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy. It possesses several important biological specimen, manuscript an ...
''. Smith noted that his specimens had grown from seeds brought from
Port Jackson Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour Middle Harbour (or ''Warring-Ga''), a semi–mature tide (U.S.), low tide occurs roughly at moonrise and high tide with a high Moon, corresponding to the simple ...

Port Jackson
and noted a resemblance to both ''
Eucalyptus robusta ''Eucalyptus robusta'', commonly known as swamp mahogany or swamp messmate, is a tree native to eastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of th ...
'' and '' E. pilularis''. The
specific epithet In taxonomy Taxonomy is the practice and science of categorization Categorization is the human ability and activity of recognizing shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience Experience refers to conscious ...
(''marginata'') is a
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
word meaning "furnished with a border". Smith did not provide an
etymology Etymology ()The New Oxford Dictionary of English ''The'' () is a grammatical article Article often refers to: * Article (grammar) An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identi ...
for the epithet but did note that, compared to ''E. robusta'' "the margin
f the leaves F, or f, is the sixth Letter (alphabet), letter in the English alphabet, modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is English alphabet#Letter names, ''ef'' (pronounced ), plural ''efs''. History The origin ...
is more thickened".


Distribution and habitat

''Eucalyptus marginata'' occurs in the south-west corner of Western Australia, generally where the rainfall
isohyet A contour line (also isoline, isopleth, or isarithm) of a function of two variables is a curve In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is an object similar to a line (geometry), line, but that does not have to b ...
exceeds . It is found inland as far as Mooliabeenee, Clackline and Narrogin and in the south as far east as the
Stirling Range The Stirling Range or Koikyennuruff is a range of mountains and hills in the Great Southern (Western Australia), Great Southern region of Western Australia, south-east of Perth. It is over wide from west to east, stretching from the highw ...
. Its northern limit is Mount Peron near Jurien Bay but there are also
outliers In statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a ...
at Kulin and Tutanning in the Pingelly Shire. The plant often takes the form of a
mallee Mallee may refer to: *Mallee (habit), the habit of woody plants that grow with multiple stems from underground lignotubers Places *Mallee (biogeographic region), a biogeographic region in southern Western Australia *Mallee (Victoria), an informal ...
in places like
Mount Lesueur Mount Lesueur is a near-circular, flat-topped mesa located from Jurien Bay, Western Australia, Jurien Bay in Western Australia. It rises above the surrounding lateritic plain of Lesueur National Park which has eroded away around it. Mount Lesueu ...
and in the Stirling Range but it is usually a tree and in southern forests sometimes reaches a height of . It typically grows in soils derived from
ironstone Ironstone is a sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the miner ...
and is generally found within its range, wherever ironstone is present.


Ecology

Jarrah is an important element in its
ecosystem An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the syst ...

ecosystem
, providing numerous habitats for animal life – especially birds and bees – while it is alive, and in the hollows that form as the heartwood decays. When it falls, it provides shelter to ground-dwellers such as the
chuditch The western quoll (''Dasyurus geoffroii'') is Western Australia's largest Endemism, endemic mammalian carnivore. One of the many marsupial mammals native to Australia, it is also known as the chuditch. The species is currently classed as Near thr ...
(''Dasyurus geoffroii''), a
carnivorous A carnivore , meaning "meat eater" (Latin, ''caro'', genitive ''carnis'', meaning "meat" or "flesh" and ''vorare'' meaning "to devour"), is an organism, animal whose food and energy requirements derive solely from animal Tissue (biology), tissu ...
marsupial Marsupials are any members of the mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ' ...
. Jarrah has shown considerable adaptation to different ecologic zones – as in the
Swan Coastal Plain The Swan Coastal Plain in Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State ...
and further north, and also to a different habitat of the lateritic
Darling Scarp The Darling Scarp, also referred to as the Darling Range or Darling Ranges, is a low escarpment An escarpment is a steep slope In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line Line, lines, The Line, or LINE may refer to: Arts, entertai ...
. Jarrah is very vulnerable to dieback caused by the
oomycete Oomycota or oomycetes () form a distinct phylogenetic In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, mole ...
''
Phytophthora cinnamomi ''Phytophthora cinnamomi'' is a soil-borne water mould Oomycota or oomycetes () form a distinct phylogenetic In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, ...
''. In large sections of the
Darling Scarp The Darling Scarp, also referred to as the Darling Range or Darling Ranges, is a low escarpment An escarpment is a steep slope In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line Line, lines, The Line, or LINE may refer to: Arts, entertai ...
there have been various measures to reduce the spread of dieback by washing down vehicles, and restricting access to areas of forest not yet infected.


Conservation status

''Eucalyptus marginata'' was added to the
IUCN Red List The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data Book), founded in 1964, is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global Conservation movement, conser ...
as a "near threatened" species in 2019.


Uses

Jarrah produces a dark, thick, tasty honey, but its wood is its main use. It is a heavy wood, with a
specific gravity Relative density, or specific gravity, is the ratio In mathematics, a ratio indicates how many times one number contains another. For example, if there are eight oranges and six lemons in a bowl of fruit, then the ratio of oranges to lemon ...
of 1.1 when green. Its long, straight trunks of richly coloured and beautifully grained termite-resistant timber make it valuable for cabinet making, flooring, panelling and outdoor furniture. The finished lumber has a deep rich reddish-brown colour and an attractive grain. When fresh, jarrah is quite workable but when seasoned it becomes so hard that conventional wood-working tools are near useless on it. It is mainly used for cabinet making and furniture although in the past it was used in general construction, railway sleepers and piles. In the 19th century, famous roads in other countries were paved with jarrah blocks covered with
asphalt Asphalt, also known as bitumen (, ), is a sticky, black, highly viscous The viscosity of a fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress, or externa ...

asphalt
. Jarrah wood is very similar to that of Karri, ''
Eucalyptus diversicolor ''Eucalyptus diversicolor'', commonly known as karri, is a species of flowering plant in the family Myrtaceae and is Endemism, endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a tall tree with smooth light grey to cream-coloured, often mo ...
''. Both trees are found in the southwest of Australia, and the two woods are frequently confused. They can be distinguished by cutting an unweathered splinter and burning it: karri burns completely to a white ash, whereas jarrah forms charcoal. This property of jarrah was critical to charcoal making and
charcoal iron Charcoal iron is the substance created by the smelting of iron ore with charcoal. All ironmaking blast furnaces were fueled by charcoal until Abraham Darby I, Abraham Darby introduced coke (fuel), coke as a fuel in 1709. The more economical coke s ...

charcoal iron
smelting operations at Wundowie from 1948 to 1981. Most of the best jarrah has been logged in southwestern Australia. A large amount was exported to the United Kingdom, where it was cut into blocks and covered with asphalt for roads. One of the large exporters in the late nineteenth century was M. C. Davies who had mills in the Augusta - Margaret River region of the southwest, and ports at Hamelin Bay and
Flinders Bay Flinders Bay is a bay and locality that is immediately south of the townsite of Augusta, Western Australia, Augusta, and close to the mouth of the Blackwood River. The locality and bay lies to the north east of Cape Leeuwin which is the most so ...
. The local poet Dryblower Murphy wrote a poem, "Comeanavajarrah" that was published in
The Sunday Times ''The Sunday Times'' is a British newspaper whose circulation makes it the largest in the quality press Quality press is a category of British newspapers in national circulation distinguished by their seriousness. The category used to be call ...
of May 1904, about the potential to extract alcohol from jarrah timber. Jarrah has become more highly prized, and supports an industry that recycles it from demolished houses. Even so, in 2004, old recycled jarrah was routinely advertised in Perth papers for under $1.50 per metre. Larger pieces of the timber were produced in the early history of the industry, from trees of great age, and these are also recovered from the demolition of older buildings. Jarrah is used in musical instrument making, for percussion instruments and guitar inlays. Because of its remarkable resistance to rot, jarrah is used to make
hot tub A hot tub is a large tub full of water used for hydrotherapy Hydrotherapy, formerly called hydropathy and also called water cure, is a part of alternative medicine Alternative medicine is any practice that aims to achieve the healing ...

hot tub
s. ''Eucalyptus marginata'' have been used for traditional purposes as well. Some parts of the jarrah tree were used as a remedy for some illnesses and diseases. Fever, colds, headaches, skin diseases and snakes bites were traditionally cured through the use of jarrah leaves and bark.


See also

* '''' *
Jarrah forest Jarrah Forest is an interim Australian bioregion A bioregion is an ecologically Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, includ ...
* Jarrah-Karri forest and shrublands *
Woodchipping in Australia Woodchipping is the act and industry of chipping wood for pulp. Timber is converted to woodchips and sold, primarily, for Making paper#Papermaking, paper manufacture. In Australia, woodchips are produced by clearcutting or thinning of native fore ...


References


Further reading

* . * Wrigley, John W. & Fagg, Murray. (2012). ''Eucalypts: a celebration''. Crows Nest, N.S.W: Allen & Unwin.


External links

* {{Taxonbar, from=Q140557 Trees of Australia Drought-tolerant trees Trees of Mediterranean climate Eucalypts of Western Australia Myrtales of Australia marginata Forests of Western Australia Plants described in 1802