Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power
from sources of primary energy
. For utilities
in the electric power industry
, it is the stage prior to its delivery
, etc.) to end users or its storage
(using, for example, the pumped-storage
Electricity is not freely available in nature, so it must be "produced" (that is, transforming other forms of energy to electricity). Production is carried out in power station
s (also called "power plants"). Electricity is most often generated at a power plant by electromechanical generators
, primarily driven by heat engine
s fueled by combustion
or nuclear fission
but also by other means such as the kinetic energy
of flowing water and wind. Other energy sources include solar photovoltaics
and geothermal power
Dynamos and engine installed at Edison General Electric Company, New York 1895
The fundamental principles of electricity generation were discovered in the 1820s and early 1830s by British scientist Michael Faraday
. His method, still used today, is for electricity to be generated by the movement of a loop of wire, or Faraday disc
, between the poles of a magnet
. Central power stations became economically practical with the development of alternating current
(AC) power transmission, using power transformer
s to transmit power at high voltage and with low loss.
Commercial electricity production started in 1873 with the coupling of the dynamo to the hydraulic turbine. The mechanical production of electric power began the Second Industrial Revolution
and made possible several inventions using electricity, with the major contributors being Thomas Alva Edison
and Nikola Tesla
. Previously the only way to produce electricity was by chemical reactions or using battery cells, and the only practical use of electricity was for the telegraph
Electricity generation at central power stations started in 1882, when a steam engine
driving a dynamo at Pearl Street Station
produced a DC current
that powered public lighting on Pearl Street
, New York
. The new technology was quickly adopted by many cities around the world, which adapted their gas-fueled street lights to electric power. Soon after electric lights would be used in public buildings, in businesses, and to power public transport, such as trams and trains.
The first power plants used water power or coal. Today a variety of energy sources are used, such as coal
, natural gas
, and oil
, as well as solar energy
, tidal power
, and geothermal
Methods of generation
Several fundamental methods exist to convert other forms of energy into electrical energy. Utility-scale generation is achieved by rotating electric generators or by photovoltaic
systems. A small proportion of electric power distributed by utilities is provided by batteries. Other forms of electricity generation used in niche applications include the triboelectric effect
, the piezoelectric effect
, the thermoelectric effect
, and betavoltaics
s transform kinetic energy
into electricity. This is the most used form for generating electricity and is based on Faraday's law
. It can be seen experimentally by rotating a magnet within closed loops of conducting material (e.g. copper wire). Almost all commercial electrical generation is done using electromagnetic induction, in which mechanical energy
forces a generator to rotate:
is the direct transformation of chemical energy
into electricity, as in a battery
. Electrochemical electricity generation is important in portable and mobile applications. Currently, most electrochemical power comes from batteries. Primary cell
s, such as the common zinc–carbon batteries
, act as power sources directly, but secondary cell
s (i.e. rechargeable batteries) are used for storage
systems rather than primary generation systems. Open electrochemical systems, known as fuel cell
s, can be used to extract power either from natural fuels or from synthesized fuels. Osmotic power
is a possibility at places where salt and fresh water merge.
The photovoltaic effect
is the transformation of light into electrical energy, as in solar cell
s. Photovoltaic panel
s convert sunlight directly to DC electricity. Power inverter
s can then convert that to AC electricity if needed. Although sunlight is free and abundant, solar power
electricity is still usually more expensive to produce than large-scale mechanically generated power due to the cost of the panels. Low-efficiency silicon solar cells have been decreasing in cost and multijunction cells with close to 30% conversion efficiency are now commercially available. Over 40% efficiency has been demonstrated in experimental systems. Until recently, photovoltaics were most commonly used in remote sites where there is no access to a commercial power grid, or as a supplemental electricity source for individual homes and businesses. Recent advances in manufacturing efficiency and photovoltaic technology, combined with subsidies driven by environmental concerns, have dramatically accelerated the deployment of solar panels. Installed capacity is growing by 40% per year led by increases in Germany, Japan, United States, China, and India.
The selection of electricity production modes and their economic viability varies in accordance with demand and region. The economics vary considerably around the world, resulting in widespread residential selling prices, e.g. the price in Iceland is 5.54 cents per kWh while in some island nations it is 40 cents per kWh. Hydroelectric plant
s, nuclear power plant
s, thermal power plant
s and renewable source
s have their own pros and cons, and selection is based upon the local power requirement and the fluctuations in demand. All power grids have varying loads on them but the daily minimum is the base load, often supplied by plants which run continuously. Nuclear, coal, oil, gas and some hydro plants can supply base load. If well construction costs for natural gas are below $10 per MWh, generating electricity from natural gas is cheaper than generating power by burning coal.
may be economical in areas of high industrial density, as the high demand cannot be met by local renewable sources. The effect of localized pollution is also minimized as industries are usually located away from residential areas. These plants can also withstand variation in load and consumption by adding more units or temporarily decreasing the production of some units.
Nuclear power plants can produce a huge amount of power from a single unit. However, nuclear disasters have raised concerns over the safety of nuclear power, and the capital cost of nuclear plants is very high.
Hydroelectric power plants are located in areas where the potential energy from falling water can be harnessed for moving turbines and the generation of power. It may not be an economically viable single source of production where the ability to store the flow of water is limited and the load varies too much during the annual production cycle.
Due to advancements in technology, and with mass production, renewable sources other than hydroelectricity (solar power, wind energy, tidal power, etc.) experienced decreases in cost of production, and the energy is now in many cases as expensive or less expensive than fossil fuels. Many governments around the world provide subsidies to offset the higher cost of any new power production, and to make the installation of renewable energy
systems economically feasible.
Electric generators were known in simple forms from the discovery of electromagnetic induction
in the 1830s. In general, some form of prime mover such as an engine or the turbines described above, drives a rotating magnetic field past stationary coils of wire thereby turning mechanical energy into electricity. The only commercial scale electricity production that does not employ a generator is solar PV.
Almost all commercial electrical power on Earth is generated with a turbine
, driven by wind, water, steam or burning gas. The turbine drives a generator, thus transforming its mechanical energy into electrical energy by electromagnetic induction. There are many different methods of developing mechanical energy, including heat engine
s, hydro, wind and tidal power. Most electric generation is driven by heat engine
s. The combustion of fossil fuel
s supplies most of the energy to these engines, with a significant fraction from nuclear fission
and some from renewable source
s. The modern steam turbine
(invented by Sir Charles Parsons
in 1884) currently generates about 80% of the electric power
in the world using a variety of heat sources. Turbine types include:
** Water is boiled by coal
burned in a thermal power plant
. About 41% of all electricity is generated this way.
** Nuclear fission
heat created in a nuclear reactor
creates steam. Less than 15% of electricity is generated this way.
** Renewable energy. The steam is generated by biomass
, solar thermal energy
, or geothermal power
* Natural gas: turbines are driven directly by gases produced by combustion. Combined cycle
are driven by both steam and natural gas. They generate power by burning natural gas in a gas turbine
and use residual heat to generate steam. At least 20% of the world's electricity is generated by natural gas.
*Water Energy is captured by a water turbine
from the movement of water - from falling water, the rise and fall of tides or ocean thermal currents (see ocean thermal energy conversion
). Currently, hydroelectric plants provide approximately 16% of the world's electricity.
was a very early wind turbine
. In 2018 around 5% of the world's electricity was produced from wind.
Although turbines are most common in commercial power generation, smaller generators can be powered by gasoline
or diesel engine
s. These may used for backup generation or as a prime source of power within isolated villages.
Total worldwide gross production of electricity in 2016 was 25,082 TWh. Sources of electricity were coal and peat 38.3%, natural gas 23.1%, hydroelectric 16.6%, nuclear power 10.4%, oil 3.7%, solar/wind/geothermal/tidal/other 5.6%, biomass and waste 2.3%.
Total energy consumed at all power plants for the generation of electricity was which was 36% of the total for primary energy sources (TPES) of 2008. Electricity output (gross) was , efficiency was 39%, and the balance of 61% was generated heat. A small part, or about 3% of the input total, of the heat was utilized at co-generation heat and power plants. The in-house consumption of electricity and power transmission losses were .
The amount supplied to the final consumer was which was 33% of the total energy consumed at power plants and heat and power co-generation
Historical results of production of electricity
Note that the vertical axes of these two charts are not to the same scale.
Production by country
The United States has long been the largest producer and consumer of electricity, with a global share in 2005 of at least 25%, followed by China
, Japan, Russia, and India. In 2011, China overtook the United States to become the largest producer of electricity.
List of countries with source of electricity 2005
Data source of values (electric power generated) is IEA/OECD.
Statistics and Balances
Listed countries are top 20 by population or top 20 by GDP (PPP) and Saudi Arabia based on CIA World Factbook 2009.
Solar PV* is Photovoltaics
Bio other* = 198 TWh (Biomass) + 69 TWh (Waste) + 4 TWh (other)
Variations between countries generating electrical power affect concerns about the environment. In France only 10% of electricity is generated from fossil fuels, the US is higher at 70% and China is at 80%.
The cleanliness of electricity depends on its source. Most scientists agree that emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases from fossil fuel-based electricity generation account for a significant portion of world greenhouse gas emissions; in the United States, electricity generation accounts for nearly 40% of emissions, the largest of any source. Transportation emissions are close behind, contributing about one-third of U.S. production of carbon dioxide
In the United States, fossil fuel combustion for electric power generation is responsible for 65% of all emissions of sulfur dioxide
, the main component of acid rain. Electricity generation is the fourth highest combined source of NOx
, carbon monoxide
, and particulate matter
in the US.
In July 2011, the UK parliament tabled a motion that "levels of (carbon) emissions from nuclear power were approximately three times lower per kilowatt hour
than those of solar, four times lower than clean coal and 36 times lower than conventional coal".
* Generation expansion planning
: the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time.
* Diesel generator
* Distributed generation
* Electric power transmission
* Power station
* World energy consumption
: the total energy used by all of human civilization.