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Edinburgh (; sco|Edinburgh; gd|Dùn Èideann ) is the
capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a department, country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the ...
of
Scotland Scotland ( sco|Scotland, gd|Alba ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a 96-mile (154 km) border with England to the southeast and is otherwis ...
and one of its 32
council areas For local government purposes, Scotland is divided into 32 areas designated as "council areas" ( gd|comhairlean), which are all governed by single-tier authorities designated as "councils". They have the option under the Local Government (Gaeli ...
. Historically part of the county of
Midlothian Midlothian (; gd|Meadhan Lodainn) is a historic county, registration county, lieutenancy area and one of 32 council areas of Scotland used for local government. Midlothian lies in the east-central Lowlands, bordering the City of Edinburgh, East ...
(interchangeably Edinburghshire before 1921), it is located in
Lothian Lothian (; sco|Lowden, Loudan, -en, -o(u)n; gd|Lodainn ) is a region of the Scottish Lowlands, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills and the Moorfoot Hills. The principal settlement is the Scottish capi ...

Lothian
on the
Firth of Forth The Firth of Forth ( gd|Linne Foirthe) is the estuary (firth) of several Scottish rivers including the River Forth. It meets the North Sea with Fife on the north coast and Lothian on the south. Name ''Firth'' is a cognate of ''fjord'', a Norse ...
's southern shore. Edinburgh is Scotland's second-most populous city and the seventh-most populous city in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...
. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the
Scottish Government sco|Scots Govrenment | border = | image = Scottish Government Logo.svg | image_size = 275px | date = | country = Scotland | address = St Andrew's HouseCalton HillEdinburgh | leader_title ...
, the
Scottish Parliament The Scottish Parliament ( gd|Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: ''Scots Pairlament'') is the devolved, unicameral legislature of Scotland. Located in the Holyrood area of the capital city, Edinburgh, it is frequently referred to by the metonym Holyro ...
and the highest courts in Scotland. The city's
Palace of Holyroodhouse The Palace of Holyroodhouse ( or ), commonly referred to as Holyrood Palace or Holyroodhouse, is the official residence of the British monarch in Scotland, Queen Elizabeth II. Located at the bottom of the Royal Mile in Edinburgh, at the opposite ...
is the
official residence An official residence is the residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, governor, religious leader, leaders of international organizations, or other senior figure officially resides. It may or may not be the same location ...
of the
monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of state of a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in t ...
in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education, particularly in the fields of medicine,
Scots law Scots law () is the legal system of Scotland. It is a hybrid or mixed legal system containing civil law and common law elements, that traces its roots to a number of different historical sources. Together with English law and Northern Irish law ...
, literature, philosophy, the sciences and engineering. After
London London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its estuary leading to the North Sea. London has been a major settlement for two millen ...
, it is the second-largest financial centre in the United Kingdom, and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the UK's second-most visited tourist destination, again after London, attracting 4.9 million visits, including 2.4 million from overseas in 2018. Edinburgh's official population estimates are (mid-2016) for the Edinburgh
locality Locality may refer to: * Locality (association), an association of community regeneration organizations in England * Locality (linguistics) * Locality (settlement) * Suburbs and localities (Australia), in which a locality is a geographic subdivisi ...
, (mid-2019) for the City of Edinburgh
council area{{Unreferenced|date=May 2019|bot=noref (GreenC bot) A council area is one of the areas defined in Schedule 1 of the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994 and is under the control of one of the local authorities in Scotland created by that Act. L ...
, and 1,339,380 (2014) for the wider
city region City region is a term in use since about 1950 by urbanists, economists and urban planners to mean a metropolitan area and hinterland, often having a shared administration. Typically, it denotes a city, conurbation or urban zone with multiple admini ...
. Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising
East Lothian East Lothian (; sco|East Lowden; gd|Lodainn an Ear) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, as well as a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area. The county was also known as Haddingtonshire. In 1975, the historic coun ...
, Edinburgh,
Fife Fife (, ; gd|Fìobha, ; sco|Fife) is a council area, historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area of Scotland. It is situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth, with inland boundaries with Perth and Kinross (i.e. th ...
, Midlothian,
Scottish Borders The Scottish Borders ( sco|the Mairches, 'the Marches'; gd|Crìochan na h-Alba) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders the City of Edinburgh, Dumfries and Galloway, East Lothian, Midlothian, South Lanarkshire, West Lothian and, ...
and
West Lothian West Lothian ( sco|Wast Lowden; gd|Lodainn an Iar) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, and one of its historic counties. The county, which was historically known as Linlithgowshire, was bounded geographically by the Avon to the west and ...
. The city is the annual venue of the
General Assembly of the Church of Scotland The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the sovereign and highest court of the Church of Scotland, and is thus the Church's governing body.''An Introduction to Practice and Procedure in the Church of Scotland'' by A. Gordon McGillivray, 2n ...
. It is home to national cultural institutions such as the
National Museum of Scotland The National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh, Scotland, was formed in 2006 with the merger of the new Museum of Scotland, with collections relating to Scottish antiquities, culture and history, and the adjacent Royal Scottish Museum (so renamed i ...
, the
National Library of Scotland National may refer to: Common uses * Nation or country ** Nationality – a ''national'' is a person who is subject to a nation, regardless of whether the person has full rights as a citizen ** National (distribution), a type of product or publi ...

National Library of Scotland
and the
Scottish National Gallery The Scottish National Gallery (formerly the National Gallery of Scotland) is the national art gallery of Scotland. It is located on The Mound in central Edinburgh, close to Princes Street. The building was designed in a neoclassical style by Willi ...

Scottish National Gallery
. The
University of Edinburgh | latin_name = Universitas Academica Edinburgensis | image_name = University of Edinburgh ceremonial roundel.svg | image_size = 150px | established = | type = Public university/ancient university | endowment = £487.7 million | budget = £1,125 ...
, founded in 1582 and now one of three in the city, is placed 20th in the
QS World University Rankings ''QS World University Rankings'' is an annual publication of university rankings by Quacquarelli Symonds (QS). Previously known as ''Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings'', the publisher had collaborated with ''Times Higher Educat ...
for 2020. The city is also known for the
Edinburgh International Festival The Edinburgh International Festival is an annual festival of performing arts in Edinburgh, Scotland, over three weeks in August. By invitation from the Festival Director, the International Festival brings top class performers of music (especially ...
and the
Fringe ''Fringe'' is an American science fiction television series created by J. J. Abrams, Alex Kurtzman, and Roberto Orci. It premiered on the Fox network on September 9, 2008, and concluded on January 18, 2013, after five seasons and 100 episodes. ...
, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include
Edinburgh Castle Edinburgh Castle is a historic fortress which dominates the skyline of Edinburgh, the capital city of Scotland, from its position on the Castle Rock. Archaeologists have established human occupation of the rock since at least the Iron Age (2nd c ...
, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of , and the
Canongate The Canongate is a street and associated district in central Edinburgh, the capital city of Scotland. The street forms the main eastern length of the Royal Mile while the district is the main eastern section of Edinburgh's Old Town. It began wh ...
, and the extensive Georgian New Town built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's and [[New Town, Edinburgh">New Town New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Albums and EPs * ''New'' (album), by Paul McCartney, 2013 * ''New'' (EP), by Regurgitator, 19 ...
together are listed as a [[UNESCO [[World Heritage site, which has been managed by [[Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999.


Etymology

"Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from ''
Eidyn Eidyn was the region around modern Edinburgh in Britain's sub-Roman and early medieval periods, approximately the 5th–7th centuries. It centred on the stronghold of Din Eidyn, thought to have been at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle, ...
'', the name for this region in
Cumbric Cumbric was a variety of the Common Brittonic language spoken during the Early Middle Ages in the ''Hen Ogledd'' or "Old North" in what is now Northern England and southern Lowland Scotland. It was closely related to Old Welsh and the other Bri ...
, the Brittonic
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts, an ethnolinguistic group of tribal societies in Iron Age and Medieval Europe *Celts (modern), a modern cultural creation based on the older Celtic peoples *Celtic lang ...
language formerly spoken there. The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the stronghold Din Eidyn, the dun or
hillfort A hillfort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage. They are typically European and of the Bronze Age or Iron Age. Some were used in the post-Roman ...
of Eidyn. This stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of
Edinburgh Castle Edinburgh Castle is a historic fortress which dominates the skyline of Edinburgh, the capital city of Scotland, from its position on the Castle Rock. Archaeologists have established human occupation of the rock since at least the Iron Age (2nd c ...
. Eidyn was conquered by the
Angles The Angles ( ang|Ængle, ; la|Angli; german: Angeln) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period. They founded several kingdoms of the Heptarchy in Anglo-Saxon England, and their name is the ro ...
of
Bernicia Bernicia (Old English: ''Bernice'', ''Bryneich'', ''Beornice''; Latin: ''Bernicia'') was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom established by Anglian settlers of the 6th century in what is now southeastern Scotland and North East England. The Anglian territory ...
in the 7th century and later by the Scots in the 10th century. As the language shifted to
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th centur ...
, and subsequently to Scots, the Brittonic ''din'' in Din Eidyn was replaced by ''
burh A burh () or burg was an Old English fortification or fortified settlement. In the 9th century, raids and invasions by Vikings prompted Alfred the Great to develop a network of burhs and roads to use against such attackers. Some were new constructio ...
'', producing ''Edinburgh''. Similarly, ''din'' became ''dùn'' in [[Scottish Gaelic, producing ''Dùn Èideann''.


Nicknames

The city is affectionately nicknamed ''Auld Reekie'', Scots for ''Old Smoky'', for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. A remark on a poem in an 1800 collection of the poems of [[Allan Ramsay (poet)|Allan Ramsay said, "Auld Reeky. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek that is always impending over it." [[Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for, ever since [[Pope Pius II|Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art, very strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, and Edinburgh with its chimneys is called 'Auld Reekie' by the country people." A character in [[Walter Scott's ''[[The Abbot'' says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie—you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance." [[Robert Chambers (publisher born 1802)|Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of [[Charles II of England|Charles II attributed the name to a
Fife Fife (, ; gd|Fìobha, ; sco|Fife) is a council area, historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area of Scotland. It is situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth, with inland boundaries with Perth and Kinross (i.e. th ...
laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements. "It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, and gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!" Some have called Edinburgh the ''Athens of the North'' for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the [[Athens|Athenian [[Acropolis, Athens|Acropolis. Both of them had flatter, fertile agricultural land sloping down to a [[port several miles away (respectively [[Leith and [[Piraeus). Although this arrangement is common in [[Southern Europe, it is rare in [[Northwestern Europe. The 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the [[Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as [[David Hume and [[Adam Smith shone during this period. As Edinburgh lost most of its political importance after the [[Treaty of Union 1707|Union, some hoped that the city could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. Also a contributing factor was the later [[Neoclassicism|neoclassical architecture, particularly that of [[William Henry Playfair, and the [[National Monument, Edinburgh|National Monument. [[Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of ''[[Jumpers (play)|Jumpers'', said, perhaps playing on [[Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate. The city has also been known by several [[List of Latin place names in Britain#Cities and towns in Scotland|Latin names such as ''Edinburgum'' while the adjectival forms ''Edinburgensis'' and ''Edinensis'' are used in educational and scientific contexts. ''Edina'' is a late 18th century poetical form used by the Scots poets [[Robert Fergusson and [[Robert Burns. "Embra" or "Embro" are colloquialisms from the same time, as in [[Robert Garioch's ''Embro to the Ploy''. [[Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", and Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson, also a son of the city, wrote that Edinburgh "is what Paris ought to be."


History


Early history

The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at [[Cramond, where evidence was found of a [[Mesolithic camp site dated to c. 8500 BC. Traces of later [[Bronze Age and [[Iron Age settlements have been found on Castle Rock, [[Arthur's Seat, [[Craiglockhart Hill and the [[Pentland Hills. When the [[Roman Empire|Romans arrived in Lothian at the end of the 1st century AD, they found a [[Celtic Britons|Brittonic Celtic tribe whose name they recorded as the [[Votadini. The Votadini transitioned into the [[Gododdin kingdom in the [[Early Middle Ages, with Eidyn serving as one of the kingdom's districts. During this period, the Castle Rock site, thought to have been the stronghold of Din Eidyn, emerged as the kingdom's major centre. The medieval poem ''[[Y Gododdin'' describes a war band from across the Brittonic world who gathered in Eidyn before a fateful raid; this may describe a historical event around AD 600. In 638, the Gododdin stronghold was besieged by forces loyal to [[Oswald of Northumbria|King Oswald of [[Northumbria, and around this time control of Lothian passed to the
Angles The Angles ( ang|Ængle, ; la|Angli; german: Angeln) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period. They founded several kingdoms of the Heptarchy in Anglo-Saxon England, and their name is the ro ...
. Their influence continued for the next three centuries until around 950, when, during the reign of [[Indulf, son of [[Constantine II of Scotland|Constantine II, the "burh" (fortress), named in the 10th-century ''[[Pictish Chronicle'' as ''oppidum Eden'', was abandoned to the Scots. It thenceforth remained under their jurisdiction. The [[royal burgh was founded by [[David I of Scotland|King David I in the early 12th century on land belonging to the Crown, though the date of its charter is unknown. The first documentary evidence of the medieval [[burgh is a [[royal charter, , by King David I granting a [[burgage|toft in to the [[Dunfermline Abbey|Priory of Dunfermline. By the middle of the 14th century, the French chronicler [[Jean Froissart was describing it as the capital of Scotland (c. 1365), and [[James III of Scotland|James III (1451–88) referred to it in the 15th century as "the principal burgh of our kingdom". Despite the destruction caused by an [[Burning of Edinburgh (1544)|English assault in 1544, the town slowly recovered, and was at the centre of events in the 16th-century [[Scottish Reformation and 17th-century [[Covenanter|Wars of the Covenant.


17th century

In 1603, King [[James VI and I|James VI of Scotland succeeded to the English throne, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England in a [[personal union known as the [[Union of the Crowns, though Scotland remained, in all other respects, a separate kingdom. In 1638, [[Charles I of England|King Charles I's attempt to introduce [[Anglican Communion|Anglican church forms in Scotland encountered stiff [[Presbyterianism|Presbyterian opposition culminating in the conflicts of the [[Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Subsequent Scottish support for [[Charles II of England|Charles Stuart's restoration to the throne of England resulted in Edinburgh's occupation by [[Oliver Cromwell's [[Commonwealth of England forces – the [[New Model Army – in 1650. In the 17th century, Edinburgh's boundaries were still defined by the city's defensive [[Edinburgh town walls|town walls. As a result, the city's growing population was accommodated by increasing the height of the houses. Buildings of 11 storeys or more were common, and have been described as forerunners of the modern-day skyscraper. Most of these old structures were replaced by the predominantly [[Victorian era|Victorian buildings seen in today's Old Town.


18th century

Following the [[Treaty of Union in 1706, the Parliaments of England and Scotland passed [[Acts of Union 1707|Acts of Union in 1706 and 1707 respectively, uniting the two kingdoms in the [[Kingdom of Great Britain effective from 1 May 1707. As a consequence, the [[Parliament of Scotland merged with the [[Parliament of England to form the [[Parliament of Great Britain, which sat at [[Palace of Westminster|Westminster in London. The Union was opposed by many Scots, resulting in riots in the city. By the first half of the 18th century, Edinburgh was described as one of Europe's most densely populated, overcrowded and unsanitary towns. Visitors were struck by the fact that the various social classes shared the same urban space, even inhabiting the same [[tenement buildings; although here a form of social segregation did prevail, whereby shopkeepers and tradesmen tended to occupy the cheaper-to-rent cellars and garrets, while the more well-to-do professional classes occupied the more expensive middle storeys. During the [[Jacobite rising of 1745, Edinburgh was briefly occupied by the Jacobite "Highland Army" before its march into England. After its eventual defeat at [[Battle of Culloden|Culloden, there followed a period of reprisals and pacification, largely directed at the rebellious [[Scottish clan|clans. In Edinburgh, the Town Council, keen to emulate London by initiating city improvements and expansion to the north of the castle, reaffirmed its belief in the Union and loyalty to the [[House of Hanover|Hanoverian monarch [[George III of the United Kingdom|George III by its choice of names for the streets of the New Town: for example, [[Tudor rose|Rose Street and [[Thistle#Origin as a symbol of Scotland|Thistle Street; and for the royal family, [[George Street, Edinburgh|George Street, [[Queen Street, Edinburgh|Queen Street, Hanover Street, Frederick Street and [[Princes Street (in honour of George's two sons). In the second half of the century, the city was at the heart of the [[Scottish Enlightenment, when thinkers like David Hume, Adam Smith, [[James Hutton and [[Joseph Black were familiar figures in its streets. Edinburgh became a major intellectual centre, earning it the nickname "Athens of the North" because of its many [[Classical architecture|neo-classical buildings and reputation for learning, recalling ancient Athens. In the 18th-century novel ''[[The Expedition of Humphry Clinker'' by [[Tobias Smollett one character describes Edinburgh as a "hotbed of genius". Edinburgh was also a major centre for the Scottish book trade. The highly successful London bookseller [[Andrew Millar was apprenticed there to James McEuen. From the 1770s onwards, the professional and business classes gradually deserted the Old Town in favour of the more elegant "one-family" residences of the New Town, a migration that changed the city's social character. According to the foremost historian of this development, "Unity of social feeling was one of the most valuable heritages of old Edinburgh, and its disappearance was widely and properly lamented."


19th and 20th centuries

Although Edinburgh's traditional industries of printing, brewing and distilling continued to grow in the 19th century, and were joined by new [[Hunter Boot Ltd|rubber works and [[Engineering|engineering works, there was little industrialisation compared with other cities in Britain. By 1821, Edinburgh had been overtaken by [[Glasgow as Scotland's largest city. The city centre between Princes Street and George Street became a major commercial and shopping district, a development partly stimulated by the arrival of railways in the 1840s. The Old Town became an increasingly dilapidated, overcrowded slum with high mortality rates. Improvements carried out under Lord Provost [[William Chambers (publisher)|William Chambers in the 1860s began the transformation of the area into the predominantly [[Victorian architecture|Victorian Old Town seen today. More improvements followed in the early 20th century as a result of the work of [[Patrick Geddes, but relative economic stagnation during the two world wars and beyond saw the Old Town deteriorate further before major [[Slum clearance in the United Kingdom|slum clearance in the 1960s and 1970s began to reverse the process. University building developments which transformed the [[George Square, Edinburgh|George Square and Potterrow areas proved highly controversial. Since the 1990s a new "financial district", including the [[Edinburgh International Conference Centre, has grown mainly on demolished railway property to the west of the castle, stretching into [[Fountainbridge, a run-down 19th-century industrial suburb which has undergone radical change since the 1980s with the demise of industrial and brewery premises. This ongoing development has enabled Edinburgh to maintain its place as the United Kingdom's second largest financial and administrative centre after London. Financial services now account for a third of all commercial office space in the city. The development of [[Edinburgh Park, a new business and technology park covering , west of the city centre, has also contributed to the District Council's strategy for the city's major economic regeneration. In 1998, the [[Scotland Act 1998|Scotland Act, which came into force the following year, established a [[Devolution|devolved Scottish Parliament and Scottish Executive (renamed the Scottish Government since September 2007). Both based in Edinburgh, they are responsible for governing Scotland while [[Reserved and excepted matters|reserved matters such as defence, taxation and foreign affairs remain the responsibility of the [[Parliament of the United Kingdom in London.


Geography


Cityscape

Situated in Scotland's [[Central Belt, Edinburgh lies on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. The city centre is southwest of the shoreline of [[Leith and inland, as the crow flies, from the east coast of Scotland and the [[North Sea at [[Dunbar. While the early burgh grew up near the prominent Castle Rock, the modern city is often said to be built on [[Hills in Edinburgh|seven hills, namely [[Calton Hill, [[Corstorphine Hill, Craiglockhart Hill, [[Braid Hills|Braid Hill, [[Blackford Hill, Arthur's Seat and the Castle Rock, giving rise to allusions to the [[seven hills of Rome. Occupying a narrow gap between the Firth of Forth to the north and the [[Pentland Hills and their outrunners to the south, the city sprawls over a landscape which is the product of early volcanic activity and later periods of intensive glaciation. Igneous activity between 350 and 400 million years ago, coupled with [[fault (geology)|faulting, led to the creation of tough [[basalt [[volcanic plugs, which predominate over much of the area. One such example is the Castle Rock which forced the advancing ice sheet to divide, sheltering the softer rock and forming a tail of material to the east, thus creating a distinctive [[crag and tail formation. Glacial erosion on the north side of the crag gouged a deep valley later filled by the now drained [[Nor Loch. These features, along with another hollow on the rock's south side, formed an ideal natural strongpoint upon which Edinburgh Castle was built. Similarly, Arthur's Seat is the remains of a volcano dating from the [[Carboniferous period, which was eroded by a glacier moving west to east during the ice age. Erosive action such as [[plucking (glaciation)|plucking and [[abrasion (geology)|abrasion exposed the rocky crags to the west before leaving a tail of deposited glacial material swept to the east. This process formed the distinctive [[Salisbury Crags, a series of [[Theralite#Teschenites|teschenite cliffs between Arthur's Seat and the location of the early burgh. The residential areas of [[Marchmont and [[Bruntsfield are built along a series of [[drumlin ridges south of the city centre, which were [[glacial deposition|deposited as the glacier receded. Other prominent landforms such as Calton Hill and Corstorphine Hill are also products of glacial erosion. The Braid Hills and Blackford Hill are a series of small summits to the south of the city centre that command expansive views looking northwards over the urban area to the Firth of Forth. Edinburgh is drained by the river named the [[Water of Leith, which rises at the Colzium Springs in the Pentland Hills and runs for through the south and west of the city, emptying into the Firth of Forth at Leith. The nearest the river gets to the city centre is at [[Dean Village on the north-western edge of the New Town, where a deep gorge is spanned by [[Thomas Telford's [[Dean Bridge, built in 1832 for the road to [[South Queensferry|Queensferry. The [[Water of Leith Walkway is a mixed-use [[trail that follows the course of the river for from Balerno to Leith. Excepting the shoreline of the Firth of Forth, Edinburgh is encircled by a [[green belt, designated in 1957, which stretches from [[Dalmeny in the west to [[Prestongrange in the east. With an average width of the principal objectives of the green belt were to contain the outward expansion of the city and to prevent the agglomeration of urban areas. Expansion affecting the green belt is strictly controlled but developments such as [[Edinburgh Airport and the [[Royal Highland Showground at [[Ingliston lie within the zone. Similarly, suburbs such as [[Juniper Green and Balerno are situated on green belt land. One feature of the Edinburgh green belt is the inclusion of parcels of land within the city which are designated green belt, even though they do not connect with the peripheral ring. Examples of these independent wedges of green belt include [[Holyrood Park and Corstorphine Hill.


Areas

Edinburgh includes former towns and villages that retain much of their original character as settlements in existence before they were absorbed into the expanding city of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Many areas, such as [[Dalry, Edinburgh|Dalry, contain residences that are multi-occupancy buildings known as [[tenements, although the more southern and western parts of the city have traditionally been less built-up with a greater number of detached and semi-detached villas. The historic centre of Edinburgh is divided in two by the broad green swathe of [[Princes Street Gardens. To the south, the view is dominated by Edinburgh Castle, built high on Castle Rock, and the long sweep of the Old Town descending towards Holyrood Palace. To the north lie Princes Street and the New Town. The West End includes the financial district, with insurance and banking offices as well as the Edinburgh International Conference Centre. Edinburgh's Old and New Towns were listed as a UNESCO [[World Heritage Site in 1995 in recognition of the unique character of the Old Town with its medieval street layout and the planned Georgian New Town, including the adjoining Dean Village and Calton Hill areas. There are over 4,500 [[Listed building (United Kingdom)|listed buildings within the city, a higher proportion relative to area than any other city in the United Kingdom. The [[Royal Mile runs downhill and terminates at Holyrood Palace. Minor streets (called closes or [[wynds) lie on either side of the main spine forming a herringbone pattern. The street has several fine public buildings such as St Giles' Cathedral, the [[Edinburgh City Chambers|City Chambers and the [[Parliament House, Edinburgh|Law Courts. Other places of historical interest nearby are [[Greyfriars Kirkyard and the [[Grassmarket. The street layout is typical of the old quarters of many Northwestern European cities. The castle is perched on top of a rocky crag (the remnant of an extinct volcano) and the Royal Mile runs down the crest of a ridge from it. Due to space restrictions imposed by the narrowness of this landform, the Old Town became home to some of the earliest "high rise" residential buildings. Multi-storey dwellings known as ''lands'' were the norm from the 16th century onwards with ten and eleven storeys being typical and one even reaching fourteen or fifteen storeys. Numerous vaults below street level were inhabited to accommodate the influx of incomers, particularly [[Irish migration to Great Britain|Irish immigrants, during the [[Industrial Revolution. The New Town was an 18th-century solution to the problem of an increasingly crowded city which had been confined to the ridge sloping down from the castle. In 1766 a competition to design a "New Town" was won by [[James Craig (architect)|James Craig, a 27-year-old architect. The plan was a rigid, ordered grid, which fitted in well with [[Age of Enlightenment|Enlightenment ideas of rationality. The principal street was to be [[George Street, Edinburgh|George Street, running along the natural ridge to the north of what became known as the "Old Town". To either side of it are two other main streets: Princes Street and Queen Street. Princes Street has become Edinburgh's main shopping street and now has few of its [[Georgian architecture|Georgian buildings in their original state. The three main streets are connected by a series of streets running perpendicular to them. The east and west ends of George Street are terminated by [[St Andrew Square, Edinburgh|St Andrew Square and [[Charlotte Square respectively. The latter, designed by [[Robert Adam, influenced the architectural style of the New Town into the early 19th century. [[Bute House, the official residence of the [[First Minister of Scotland, is on the north side of Charlotte Square. The hollow between the Old and New Towns was formerly the [[Nor Loch, which was created for the town's defence but came to be used by the inhabitants for dumping their [[sewage. It was drained by the 1820s as part of the city's northward expansion. Craig's original plan included an ornamental canal on the site of the loch, but this idea was abandoned. Soil excavated while laying the foundations of buildings in the New Town was dumped on the site of the [[loch to create the slope connecting the Old and New Towns known as [[The Mound. In the middle of the 19th century the [[National Gallery of Scotland and [[Royal Scottish Academy Building were built on The Mound, and tunnels for the railway line between [[Haymarket railway station|Haymarket and [[Edinburgh Waverley railway station|Waverley stations were driven through it. The Southside is a residential part of the city, which includes the districts of St Leonards, [[Marchmont, [[Morningside, Edinburgh|Morningside, [[Newington, Edinburgh|Newington, [[Sciennes, [[The Grange, Edinburgh|the Grange and [[Blackford, Edinburgh|Blackford. The Southside is broadly analogous to the area covered formerly by the [[Burgh Muir, and was developed as a residential area after the opening of the [[South Bridge, Edinburgh|South Bridge in the 1780s. The Southside is particularly popular with families (many state and private schools are here), young professionals and students (the central University of Edinburgh campus is based around [[George Square, Edinburgh|George Square just north of Marchmont and [[The Meadows (park)|the Meadows), and [[Napier University (with major campuses around Merchiston and Morningside). The area is also well provided with hotel and "bed and breakfast" accommodation for visiting festival-goers. These districts often feature in works of fiction. For example, [[Church Hill, Edinburgh|Church Hill in Morningside, was the home of [[Muriel Spark's Miss Jean Brodie, and [[Ian Rankin's [[Inspector Rebus lives in Marchmont and works in St Leonards. [[Leith was historically the port of Edinburgh, an arrangement of unknown date that was confirmed by the royal charter Robert the Bruce granted to the city in 1329. The port developed a separate identity from Edinburgh, which to some extent it still retains, and it was a matter of great resentment when the two burghs merged in 1920 into the City of Edinburgh. Even today the parliamentary seat is known as "Edinburgh North and Leith". The loss of traditional industries and commerce (the [[Henry Robb|last shipyard closed in 1983) resulted in economic decline. The Edinburgh Waterfront development has transformed old dockland areas from Leith to Granton into residential areas with shopping and leisure facilities and helped rejuvenate the area. With the redevelopment, Edinburgh has gained the business of cruise liner companies which now provide cruises to Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and the Netherlands. The coastal suburb of [[Portobello, Edinburgh|Portobello is characterised by Georgian villas, Victorian tenements, a beach and [[promenade and cafés, bars, restaurants and independent shops. There are rowing and sailing clubs and a restored Victorian swimming pool, including [[Turkish baths. The [[List of towns and cities in Scotland by population#Settlements|urban area of Edinburgh is almost entirely within the [[The City of Edinburgh Council|City of Edinburgh Council boundary, merging with [[Musselburgh in East Lothian. Towns within easy reach of the city boundary include [[Haddington, East Lothian|Haddington, [[Tranent, [[Prestonpans, [[Dalkeith, [[Bonnyrigg, [[Loanhead, [[Penicuik, [[Broxburn, West Lothian|Broxburn, [[Livingston, West Lothian|Livingston and [[Dunfermline. Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh & South East Scotland City region with a population in 2014 of 1,339,380.


Climate

Like most of Scotland, Edinburgh has a cool, [[temperate climate|temperate, [[maritime climate which, despite its northerly latitude, is milder than places which lie at similar latitudes such as [[Moscow and [[Labrador. The city's proximity to the sea mitigates any large variations in temperature or extremes of climate. Winter daytime temperatures rarely fall below freezing while summer temperatures are moderate, rarely exceeding . The highest temperature recorded in the city was on 25 July 2019 at Gogarbank, beating the previous record of on 4 August 1975 at Edinburgh Airport. The lowest temperature recorded in recent years was during December 2010 at Gogarbank. Given Edinburgh's position between the coast and hills, it is renowned as "the windy city", with the prevailing wind direction coming from the south-west, which is often associated with warm, unstable air from the [[North Atlantic Current that can give rise to rainfall – although considerably less than cities to the west, such as Glasgow. Rainfall is distributed fairly evenly throughout the year. Winds from an easterly direction are usually drier but considerably colder, and may be accompanied by [[haar (fog)|haar, a persistent coastal fog. Vigorous Atlantic depressions, known as [[European windstorms, can affect the city between October and May. Located slightly north of the city centre, the weather station at the [[Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE) has been an official weather station for the [[Met Office since 1956. The Met Office operates its own weather station at Gogarbank on the city's western outskirts, near [[Edinburgh Airport. This slightly inland station has a slightly wider temperature span between seasons, is cloudier and somewhat wetter, but differences are minor. Temperature and rainfall records have been kept at the Royal Observatory since 1764. In that time, the warmest month on record was July 1779, with an average temperature of , whereas the coldest was January 1814, with a mean temperature of . The warmest years on record are 1779 and 1846, both with mean temperatures of . The coldest year on record is 1879, with a mean temperature of . The wettest month on record was August 1948, with . The driest was February 1934, with . The wettest year on record was 1916, with . The driest year on record was 1826, with of rainfall.


Demography


Current

The most recent official population estimates are 512,150 (2016) for the Edinburgh settlement (includes Musselburgh) and 518,500 (2018) for the local authority area. Edinburgh has a high proportion of young adults, with 19.5% of the population in their 20s (exceeded only by Aberdeen) and 15.2% in their 30s which is the highest in Scotland. The proportion of Edinburgh's population born in the UK fell from 92% to 84% between 2001 and 2011, while the proportion of White Scottish-born fell from 78% to 70%. Of those Edinburgh residents born in the UK, 335,000 or 83% were born in Scotland, with 58,000 or 14% being born in England. Some 13,000 people or 2.7% of the city's population are of [[Poles in the United Kingdom|Polish descent. 39,500 people or 8.2% of Edinburgh's population class themselves as Non-White which is an increase from 4% in 2001. Of the Non-White population, the largest group by far are [[Asian-Scots|Asian, totalling 26,264 people. Within the Asian population, people of [[British Chinese|Chinese descent are now the largest sub-group, with 8,076 people, amounting to about 1.7% of the city's total population. The city's population of [[British Indian|Indian descent amounts to 6,470 (1.4% of the total population), while there are some 5,858 of [[British Pakistanis|Pakistani descent (1.2% of the total population). Although they account for only 1,277 people or 0.3% of the city's population, Edinburgh has the highest number and proportion of people of [[British Bangladeshi|Bangladeshi descent in Scotland. Over 7,000 people were born in African countries (1.6% of the total population) and nearly 7,000 in the Americas. With the notable exception of Inner London, Edinburgh has a higher number of people born in the United States (over 3,700) than any other city in the UK. The proportion of people born outside the UK was 15.9% compared with 8% in 2001.


Historical

A census by the Edinburgh presbytery in 1592 recorded a population of 8,003 adults spread equally north and south of the High Street which runs along the spine of the ridge sloping down from the Castle. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the population expanded rapidly, rising from 49,000 in 1751 to 136,000 in 1831, primarily due to migration from rural areas. As the population grew, problems of overcrowding in the Old Town, particularly in the cramped [[tenements that lined the present day Royal Mile and the [[Cowgate, were exacerbated. Poor sanitary arrangements resulted in a high incidence of disease, with outbreaks of [[cholera occurring in 1832, 1848 and 1866. The construction of the New Town from 1767 onwards witnessed the migration of the professional and business classes from the difficult living conditions in the Old Town to the lower density, higher quality surroundings taking shape on land to the north. Expansion southwards from the Old Town saw more tenements being built in the 19th century, giving rise to [[Victorian era|Victorian suburbs such as [[Dalry, Edinburgh|Dalry, Newington, Marchmont and Bruntsfield. Early 20th-century population growth coincided with lower-density suburban development. As the city expanded to the south and west, detached and semi-detached villas with large gardens replaced tenements as the predominant building style. Nonetheless, the 2001 census revealed that over 55% of Edinburgh's population were still living in tenements or blocks of flats, a figure in line with other Scottish cities, but much higher than other British cities, and even central London. From the early to mid 20th century, the growth in population, together with slum clearance in the Old Town and other areas, such as [[Dumbiedykes, [[Leith, and [[Fountainbridge, led to the creation of new estates such as [[Stenhouse, Edinburgh|Stenhouse and [[Saughton, [[Craigmillar and [[Niddrie, Edinburgh|Niddrie, [[Pilton, Edinburgh|Pilton and [[Muirhouse, [[Piershill, and [[Sighthill, Edinburgh|Sighthill.


Religion

In 2018 the [[Church of Scotland had 20,956 members in 71 congregations in the [[Presbytery of Edinburgh. Its most prominent church is St Giles' on the Royal Mile, first dedicated in 1243 but believed to date from before the 12th century. [[Saint Giles is historically the patron saint of Edinburgh. [[St Cuthbert's Church, Edinburgh|St Cuthbert's, situated at the west end of Princes Street Gardens in the shadow of Edinburgh Castle and St Giles' can lay claim to being the oldest Christian sites in the city, though the present St Cuthbert's, designed by [[Hippolyte Blanc, was dedicated in 1894. Other Church of Scotland churches include [[Greyfriars Kirk, the [[Canongate Kirk, [[St Andrew's and St George's Church|St Andrew's and St George's West Church and the [[Edinburgh Barclay Church|Barclay Church. The [[Church of Scotland Offices are in Edinburgh, as is the [[General Assembly Hall of the Church of Scotland|Assembly Hall where the annual [[General Assembly of the Church of Scotland|General Assembly is held. The [[Roman Catholic Archdiocese of St Andrews and Edinburgh has 27 parishes across the city. The [[Archbishop of St Andrews and Edinburgh has his official residence in [[Greenhill, Edinburgh|Greenhill, and the diocesan offices are in nearby [[Marchmont. The [[Diocese of Edinburgh of the [[Scottish Episcopal Church has over 50 churches, half of them in the city. Its centre is the late-19th-century [[Gothic Revival architecture|Gothic style [[St Mary's Cathedral, Edinburgh (Episcopal)|St Mary's Cathedral in the West End's Palmerston Place. Orthodox Christianity is represented by Pan, [[Romanian Orthodox Church|Romanian and [[Russian Orthodox Church|Russian Orthodox churches. There are several independent churches in the city, both [[Catholic and [[Protestant, including [[Charlotte Chapel (Edinburgh)|Charlotte Chapel, [[Carrubbers Christian Centre, [[Bellevue Chapel and [[Sacred Heart, Edinburgh|Sacred Heart. There are also churches belonging to [[Quaker Meeting House, Edinburgh|Quakers, [[Christadelphians, [[Seventh-day Adventist Church|Seventh-day Adventists, [[Church of Christ, Scientist, [[The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) and [[Elim Pentecostal Church. Muslims have several places of worship across the city. [[Edinburgh Central Mosque, the largest Islamic place of worship, is located in Potterrow on the city's Southside, near Bristo Square. Construction was largely financed by a gift from King [[Fahd of Saudi Arabia and was completed in 1998. There is also an [[Ahmadiyya Muslim community. The first recorded presence of a [[History of the Jews in Scotland#Post-union|Jewish community in Edinburgh dates back to the late 18th century. Edinburgh's [[Orthodox Judaism|Orthodox synagogue, opened in 1932, is in Salisbury Road and can accommodate a congregation of 2000. A [[Liberal Judaism (United Kingdom)|Liberal Jewish congregation also meets in the city. A [[Sikh [[gurdwara and a [[Hindu [[mandir are located in Leith. The city also has a [[Brahma Kumaris centre in the Polwarth area. The Edinburgh Buddhist Centre, run by the [[Triratna Buddhist Community, formerly situated in Melville Terrace, now runs sessions at the Healthy Life Centre, Bread Street. Other Buddhist traditions are represented by groups which meet in the capital: the Community of Interbeing (followers of [[Thich Nhat Hanh), [[Rigpa, Samye Dzong, [[Theravadin, [[Pure Land Buddhism|Pure Land and [[Shambhala Buddhism|Shambala. There is a [[Sōtō Zen Priory in Portobello and a Theravadin Thai Buddhist Monastery in Slateford Road. Edinburgh is home to a [[Baháʼí Faith|Baháʼí community, and a [[Theosophical Society meets in Great King Street. Edinburgh has an Inter-Faith Association.


Economy

Edinburgh has the strongest economy of any city in the United Kingdom outside London and the highest percentage of professionals in the UK with 43% of the population holding a degree-level or professional qualification. According to the Centre for International Competitiveness, it is the most competitive large city in the United Kingdom. It also has the highest [[gross value added per employee of any city in the UK outside London, measuring £57,594 in 2010. It was named European ''Best Large City of the Future for Foreign Direct Investment'' and ''Best Large City for Foreign Direct Investment Strategy'' in the'' [[Financial Times ''fDi magazine awards 2012/13. In the 19th century, Edinburgh's economy was known for banking, publishing and brewing. Today, its economy is based mainly on financial services, scientific research, higher education, and [[Tourism in Scotland|tourism. In March 2010, unemployment in Edinburgh was comparatively low at 3.6%, and it remains consistently below the Scottish average of 4.5%. Edinburgh is the second most visited city by foreign visitors in the UK after London. Banking has been a mainstay of the Edinburgh economy for over 300 years, since the [[Bank of Scotland was established by an act of the [[Parliament of Scotland|Scottish Parliament in 1695. Today, the financial services industry, with its particularly strong insurance and investment sectors, and underpinned by Edinburgh-based firms such as [[Scottish Widows and [[Standard Life Aberdeen, accounts for the city being the UK's second financial centre after London and Europe's fourth in terms of equity assets. The [[NatWest Group (formerly Royal Bank of Scotland Group) opened new global headquarters at [[Gogarburn in the west of the city in October 2005. The city is home to the headquarters of Bank of Scotland, [[Sainsbury's Bank, [[Tesco Bank, and [[TSB Bank (United Kingdom)|TSB Bank. Tourism is also an important element in the city's economy. As a World Heritage Site, tourists visit historical sites such as Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse and the Old and New Towns. Their numbers are augmented in August each year during the [[Edinburgh Festivals, which attracts 4.4 million visitors, and generates over £100m for the local economy. As the centre of Scotland's government and [[Scots law|legal system, the public sector plays a central role in Edinburgh's economy. Many departments of the Scottish Government are in the city. Other major employers include [[NHS Scotland and [[local government of Scotland|local government administration. When the £1.3bn Edinburgh & South East Scotland City Region Deal was signed in 2018, the region's Gross Value Added (GVA) contribution to the Scottish economy was cited as £33bn, or 33% of the country's output. But the Deal's partners noted that prosperity was not evenly spread across the city region, citing 22.4% of children living in poverty and a shortage of affordable housing.


Culture


Festivals and celebrations


Edinburgh festival

The city hosts a series of festivals that run between the end of July and early September each year. The best known of these events are the [[Edinburgh Fringe|Edinburgh Festival Fringe, the Edinburgh International Festival, the [[Edinburgh Military Tattoo, the [[Edinburgh Art Festival and the [[Edinburgh International Book Festival. The longest established of these festivals is the Edinburgh International Festival, which was first held in 1947 and consists mainly of a programme of high-profile theatre productions and classical music performances, featuring international directors, conductors, theatre companies and orchestras. This has since been overtaken in size by the Edinburgh Fringe which began as a programme of marginal acts alongside the "official" Festival and has become the world's largest performing arts festival. In 2017, nearly 3400 different shows were staged in 300 venues across the city. Comedy has become one of the mainstays of the Fringe, with numerous well-known comedians getting their first 'break' there, often by being chosen to receive the [[Edinburgh Comedy Awards|Edinburgh Comedy Award. The Edinburgh Military Tattoo, occupies the Castle Esplanade every night for three weeks each August, with massed [[pipe bands and [[military bands drawn from around the world. Performances end with a short fireworks display. As well as the various summer festivals, [[List of Edinburgh festivals|many other festivals are held during the rest of the year, including the [[Edinburgh International Film Festival and [[Edinburgh International Science Festival. The summer of 2020 was the first time in its 70-year history that the Edinburgh festival was not run, being cancelled due to the [[COVID-19 pandemic. This affected many of the tourist-focused businesses in Edinburgh which depend on the various festivals over summer to return an annual profit.


Edinburgh's Hogmanay

The annual Edinburgh [[Hogmanay celebration was originally an informal street party focused on the [[Tron Kirk in the Old Town's High Street. Since 1993, it has been officially organised with the focus moved to Princes Street. In 1996, over 300,000 people attended, leading to ticketing of the main street party in later years up to a limit of 100,000 tickets. Hogmanay now covers four days of processions, concerts and fireworks, with the street party beginning on Hogmanay. Alternative tickets are available for entrance into the Princes Street Gardens concert and [[Cèilidh, where well-known artists perform and ticket holders can participate in traditional Scottish cèilidh dancing. The event attracts thousands of people from all over the world.


Beltane and other festivals

On the night of 30 April the [[Beltane Fire Festival takes place on Calton Hill, involving a procession followed by scenes inspired by [[paganism|pagan old spring fertility celebrations. At the beginning of October each year the [[Navratri|Dussehra Hindu Festival is also held on Calton Hill.


Music, theatre and film

Outside the Festival season, Edinburgh supports several theatres and production companies. The [[Royal Lyceum Theatre has its own company, while the [[King's Theatre, Edinburgh|King's Theatre, [[Edinburgh Festival Theatre and [[Edinburgh Playhouse stage large touring shows. The [[Traverse Theatre presents a more contemporary repertoire. [[Edinburgh amateur theatre|Amateur theatre companies productions are staged at the [[Bedlam Theatre, [[Church Hill Theatre and [[King's Theatre, Edinburgh|King's Theatre among others. The [[Usher Hall is Edinburgh's premier venue for classical music, as well as occasional popular music concerts. It was the venue for the [[Eurovision Song Contest 1972. Other halls staging music and theatre include [[The Hub (Edinburgh)|The Hub, the [[Assembly Rooms (Edinburgh)|Assembly Rooms and the [[Queen's Hall, Edinburgh|Queen's Hall. The [[Scottish Chamber Orchestra is based in Edinburgh. Edinburgh has two repertory cinemas, the [[Edinburgh Filmhouse and [[The Cameo, Edinburgh|The Cameo, as well as the independent [[Dominion Cinema and a range of [[multiplex (cinema)|multiplexes. Edinburgh has a healthy popular music scene. Occasionally large concerts are staged at [[Murrayfield Stadium|Murrayfield and [[Meadowbank Stadium|Meadowbank, while mid-sized events take place at smaller venues such as 'The Corn Exchange', 'The Liquid Rooms' and 'The Bongo Club'. In 2010, [[PRS for Music listed Edinburgh among the UK's top ten 'most musical' cities. Several city pubs are well known for their live performances of [[folk music. They include 'Sandy Bell's' in Forrest Road, 'Captain's Bar' in South College Street and 'Whistlebinkies' in South Bridge. Like many other cities in the UK, numerous nightclub venues host [[Electronic dance music events. Edinburgh is home to a flourishing group of contemporary composers such as [[Nigel Osborne, Peter Nelson, Lyell Cresswell, [[Hafliði Hallgrímsson, Edward Harper, Robert Crawford, Robert Dow and [[John McLeod (composer)|John McLeod. McLeod's music is heard regularly on BBC Radio 3 and throughout the UK.


Media


Newspapers

The main local newspaper is the ''[[Edinburgh Evening News''. It is owned and published alongside its sister titles ''[[The Scotsman'' and ''[[Scotland on Sunday'' by [[JPIMedia.


Radio

The city has two commercial radio stations: [[Forth 1, a station which broadcasts mainstream chart music, and [[Forth 2 on medium wave which plays classic hits. Capital Radio Scotland and [[Eklipse Sports Radio also have transmitters covering Edinburgh. Along with the UK national radio stations, Radio Scotland and the Gaelic language service [[BBC Radio nan Gàidheal are also broadcast. DAB digital radio is broadcast over two local multiplexes. [[BFBS Radio broadcasts from studios on the base at Dreghorn Barracks across the city on 98.5FM as part of its UK Bases network


Television

Television, along with most radio services, is broadcast to the city from the [[Craigkelly transmitting station situated in Fife on the opposite side of the Firth of Forth and the [[Black Hill transmitting station in [[North Lanarkshire to the west. There are currently no television stations based in the city. Edinburgh Television existed in the late 1990s to early 2003 and [[STV Edinburgh existed from 2015 to 2018.


Museums, libraries and galleries

Edinburgh has many museums and libraries. These include the
National Museum of Scotland The National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh, Scotland, was formed in 2006 with the merger of the new Museum of Scotland, with collections relating to Scottish antiquities, culture and history, and the adjacent Royal Scottish Museum (so renamed i ...
, the
National Library of Scotland National may refer to: Common uses * Nation or country ** Nationality – a ''national'' is a person who is subject to a nation, regardless of whether the person has full rights as a citizen ** National (distribution), a type of product or publi ...

National Library of Scotland
, [[National War Museum, the [[Museum of Edinburgh, [[Surgeons' Hall|Surgeons' Hall Museum, the [[Writers' Museum, the [[Museum of Childhood (Edinburgh)|Museum of Childhood and [[Dynamic Earth (Edinburgh)|Dynamic Earth. The [[Museum on the Mound|Museum on The Mound has exhibits on money and banking. [[Edinburgh Zoo, covering on Corstorphine Hill, is the second most visited paid tourist attraction in Scotland, and currently home to two [[giant pandas, Tian Tian and Yang Guang, on loan from the People's Republic of China. Edinburgh is also home to [[HMY Britannia|The Royal Yacht Britannia, decommissioned in 1997 and now a five-star visitor attraction and evening events venue permanently berthed at [[Ocean Terminal, Edinburgh|Ocean Terminal. Edinburgh contains Scotland's three [[National Galleries of Scotland|National Galleries of Art as well as numerous smaller art galleries. The national collection is housed in the
Scottish National Gallery The Scottish National Gallery (formerly the National Gallery of Scotland) is the national art gallery of Scotland. It is located on The Mound in central Edinburgh, close to Princes Street. The building was designed in a neoclassical style by Willi ...

Scottish National Gallery
, located on The Mound, comprising the linked National Gallery of Scotland building and the [[Royal Scottish Academy building. Contemporary collections are shown in the [[Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art which occupies a split site at Belford. The [[Scottish National Portrait Gallery on Queen Street focuses on portraits and photography. The council-owned [[City Art Centre in Market Street mounts regular art exhibitions. Across the road, [[Fruitmarket Gallery|The Fruitmarket Gallery offers world-class exhibitions of contemporary art, featuring work by British and international artists with both emerging and established international reputations. The city hosts several of Scotland's galleries and organisations dedicated to contemporary visual art. Significant strands of this infrastructure include [[Creative Scotland, [[Edinburgh College of Art, [[Talbot Rice Gallery (University of Edinburgh), [[Collective Gallery (based at the [[City Observatory) and the [[Edinburgh Annuale. There are also many small private shops/galleries that provide space to showcase works from local artists.


Shopping

The locale around Princes Street is the main shopping area in the city centre, with souvenir shops, chain stores such as [[Boots the Chemist, [[Edinburgh Woollen Mill, [[H&M and [[Jenners. George Street, north of Princes Street, is the preferred location for some upmarket shops and independent stores. At the east end of Princes Street, the [[St. James Centre is currently being redeveloped while next to the [[Balmoral Hotel and Waverley Station is the [[Waverley Mall. [[Multrees Walk, adjacent to the St. James Centre, is a recent addition to the central shopping district, dominated by the presence of [[Harvey Nichols. Shops here include [[Louis Vuitton, [[Mulberry (company)|Mulberry and [[Calvin Klein. Edinburgh also has substantial retail parks outside the city centre. These include [[The Gyle Shopping Centre and Hermiston Gait in the west of the city, [[Cameron Toll Shopping Centre, Straiton Retail Park (actually just outside the city, in Midlothian) and [[Fort Kinnaird in the south and east, and [[Ocean Terminal, Edinburgh|Ocean Terminal in the north on the [[Leith waterfront.


Governance


Local government

Following local government reorganisation in 1996, the City of Edinburgh Council constitutes one of the [[Council areas of Scotland|32 council areas of Scotland. Like all other [[local authorities of Scotland, the council has powers over most matters of local administration such as housing, planning, [[Transport in Edinburgh|local transport, parks, economic development and regeneration. The council comprises 58 elected [[councillors, returned from 17 [[Wards of the United Kingdom|multi-member electoral wards in the city. Following the [[2007 City of Edinburgh Council election the incumbent [[Scottish Labour Party|Labour Party lost majority control of the council after 23 years to a [[Scottish Liberal Democrats|Liberal Democrat/[[Scottish National Party|SNP coalition. The [[2012 City of Edinburgh Council election saw a Scottish Labour/SNP coalition. The [[2017 City of Edinburgh Council election, saw a continuation of this administration, but with the SNP as the largest party. The city's [[Coat of arms of Edinburgh|coat of arms was registered by the [[Lord Lyon King of Arms in 1732.


Scottish Parliament

Edinburgh, like all of Scotland, is represented in the
Scottish Parliament The Scottish Parliament ( gd|Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: ''Scots Pairlament'') is the devolved, unicameral legislature of Scotland. Located in the Holyrood area of the capital city, Edinburgh, it is frequently referred to by the metonym Holyro ...
, situated in the [[Holyrood, Edinburgh|Holyrood area of the city. For electoral purposes, the city is divided into six constituencies which, along with 3 seats outside of the city, form part of the [[Lothian (Scottish Parliament electoral region)|Lothian region. Each constituency elects one [[Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) by the [[first past the post system of election, and the region elects seven [[Additional Member System|additional MSPs to produce a result based on a form of proportional representation. As of the [[2016 Scottish Parliament election|2016 election, the Scottish National Party have three MSPs: [[Ash Denham for [[Edinburgh Eastern (Scottish Parliament constituency)|Edinburgh Eastern, [[Ben Macpherson (politician)|Ben Macpherson for [[Edinburgh Northern and Leith (Scottish Parliament constituency)|Edinburgh Northern and Leith and [[Gordon MacDonald (Scottish politician)|Gordon MacDonald for [[Edinburgh Pentlands (Scottish Parliament constituency)|Edinburgh Pentlands constituencies. [[Alex Cole-Hamilton of the [[Scottish Liberal Democrats represents [[Edinburgh Western (Scottish Parliament constituency)|Edinburgh Western, [[Daniel Johnson (Scottish politician)|Daniel Johnson of the [[Scottish Labour Party represents [[Edinburgh Southern (Scottish Parliament constituency)|Edinburgh Southern constituency, and former [[Scottish Conservative Party|Leader of the Scottish Conservative Party, [[Ruth Davidson currently represents the [[Edinburgh Central (Scottish Parliament constituency)|Edinburgh Central constituency. In addition, the city is also represented by seven regional MSPs representing the Lothian electoral region: The Conservatives have three regional MSPs: [[Jeremy Balfour, [[Miles Briggs and [[Gordon Lindhurst, Labour have two regional MSPs: [[Sarah Boyack and [[Neil Findlay, Scottish Greens have one regional MSP: [[Alison Johnstone and there is one independent MSP: [[Andy Wightman (elected as a Scottish Green).


UK Parliament

Edinburgh is also represented in the [[House of Commons of the United Kingdom by five [[List of MPs elected in the 2017 United Kingdom general election|Members of Parliament. The city is divided into [[Edinburgh North and Leith (UK Parliament constituency)|Edinburgh North and Leith, [[Edinburgh East (UK Parliament constituency)|Edinburgh East, [[Edinburgh South (UK Parliament constituency)|Edinburgh South, [[Edinburgh South West (UK Parliament constituency)|Edinburgh South West, and [[Edinburgh West (UK Parliament constituency)|Edinburgh West, each constituency electing one member by the first past the post system. Edinburgh is currently represented by three MPs affiliated with the [[Scottish National Party, one [[Scottish Liberal Democrats|Liberal Democrat MP in Edinburgh West and one [[Scottish Labour Party|Labour MP in Edinburgh South.


Transport

[[Edinburgh Airport is Scotland's busiest airport and the principal international gateway to the capital, handling over 14.7 million passengers, it was also the [[Busiest airports in the United Kingdom by total passenger traffic|sixth-busiest airport in the United Kingdom by total passengers in 2019. In anticipation of rising passenger numbers, the former operator of the airport [[BAA Limited|BAA outlined a draft masterplan in 2011 to provide for the expansion of the airfield and the terminal building. In June 2012, [[Global Infrastructure Partners purchased the airport for £807 million. The possibility of building a second runway to cope with an increased number of aircraft movements has also been mooted. Travel in Edinburgh is undertaken predominantly by bus. [[Lothian Buses, the successor company to Edinburgh Corporation Transport Department, operate the majority of [[public transport bus service|city bus services within the city and to surrounding suburbs, with the most routes running via Princes Street. Services further afield operate from the [[Edinburgh Bus Station off [[St Andrew Square, Edinburgh|St Andrew Square and Waterloo Place and are operated mainly by [[Stagecoach East Scotland, [[Scottish Citylink, [[National Express Coaches and [[Borders Buses. Lothian Buses also operates all of the city's branded public [[tour bus service|tour buses, [[night bus service and [[airport bus link. In 2019, Lothian Buses recorded 124.2 million passenger journeys. [[Edinburgh Waverley railway station|Edinburgh Waverley is the second-busiest railway station in Scotland, with only [[Glasgow Central railway station|Glasgow Central handling more passengers. On the evidence of passenger entries and exits between April 2015 and March 2016, Edinburgh Waverley is the fifth-busiest station outside London; it is also the UK's second biggest station in terms of the number of platforms and area size. Waverley is the terminus for most trains arriving from [[London King's Cross railway station|London King's Cross and the departure point for many [[Rail transport in Scotland|rail services within Scotland operated by [[Abellio ScotRail. To the west of the city centre lies [[Haymarket railway station|Haymarket Station which is an important commuter stop. Opened in 2003, [[Edinburgh Park railway station|Edinburgh Park station serves the Gyle business park in the west of the city and the nearby [[Gogarburn headquarters of the Royal Bank of Scotland. The [[Edinburgh Crossrail route connects Edinburgh Park with Haymarket, Edinburgh Waverley and the suburban stations of [[Brunstane railway station|Brunstane and [[Newcraighall railway station|Newcraighall in the east of the city. There are also commuter lines to [[South Gyle and Dalmeny, the latter serving [[South Queensferry by the Forth Bridges, and to [[Wester Hailes and [[Curriehill in the south-west of the city. To tackle [[traffic congestion, Edinburgh is now served by six [[park and ride sites on the periphery of the city at [[Sheriffhall (in Midlothian), [[Ingliston, [[Riccarton, Edinburgh|Riccarton, [[Inverkeithing (in Fife), [[Newcraighall and [[Straiton, Loanhead|Straiton (in Midlothian). A [[Edinburgh congestion charge#Referendum|referendum of Edinburgh residents in February 2005 rejected a proposal to introduce [[Edinburgh congestion charge|congestion charging in the city. [[Edinburgh Trams became operational on 31 May 2014. The city had been without a tram system since [[Edinburgh Corporation Tramways ceased on 16 November 1956. Following parliamentary approval in 2007, construction began in early 2008. The first stage of the project was expected to be completed by July 2011 but, following delays caused by extra utility work and a long-running contractual dispute between the council and the main contractor, [[Bilfinger SE, the project was rescheduled. The cost of the project rose from the original projection of £545 million to £750 million in mid-2011 and some suggest it could eventually exceed £1 billion. The completed line is in length, running from [[Edinburgh Airport tram stop|Edinburgh Airport, west of the city, to its current terminus at [[York Place tram stop|York Place in the city centre's East End. It was originally planned to continue down [[Leith Walk to [[Ocean Terminal, Edinburgh|Ocean Terminal and terminate at [[Newhaven, Edinburgh|Newhaven. Should the original plan be taken to completion, trams will also run from Haymarket through [[Ravelston and [[Craigleith, Edinburgh|Craigleith to [[Granton, Edinburgh|Granton Square on the [[Waterfront Edinburgh. [[Proposals for new tram lines in Edinburgh|Long-term proposals envisage a line running west from the airport to [[Ratho and [[Newbridge, Edinburgh|Newbridge and another connecting Granton Square to Newhaven via Lower Granton Road, thus completing the Line 1 (North Edinburgh) loop. A further line serving the south of the city has also been suggested. Lothian Buses and Edinburgh Trams are both owned and operated by [[Transport for Edinburgh.


Education

There are three universities in Edinburgh, the
University of Edinburgh | latin_name = Universitas Academica Edinburgensis | image_name = University of Edinburgh ceremonial roundel.svg | image_size = 150px | established = | type = Public university/ancient university | endowment = £487.7 million | budget = £1,125 ...
, [[Heriot-Watt University and [[Edinburgh Napier University. Established by royal charter in 1583, the University of Edinburgh is one of Scotland's [[ancient universities of Scotland|ancient universities and is the fourth oldest in the country after [[University of St Andrews|St Andrews, [[University of Glasgow|Glasgow and [[University of Aberdeen|Aberdeen. Originally centred on [[Old College, University of Edinburgh|Old College the university expanded to premises on The Mound, the Royal Mile and George Square. Today, the [[King's Buildings in the south of the city contain most of the schools within the College of Science and Engineering. In 2002, the [[University of Edinburgh Medical School|medical school moved to purpose built accommodation adjacent to the new [[Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh at [[Little France. The University is placed 20th in the QS World University Rankings for 2020. Heriot-Watt University is based at the [[Riccarton, Edinburgh|Riccarton campus in the west of Edinburgh. Originally established in 1821 as the world's first [[Mechanics' Institutes|mechanics' institute it was granted university status by royal charter in 1966. It has other campuses in the Scottish Borders, Orkney, United Arab Emirates and Putrajaya in Malaysia. It takes the name Heriot-Watt from Scottish inventor [[James Watt and Scottish philanthropist and goldsmith [[George Heriot. Heriot-Watt University has been named International University of the Year by The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide 2018. In the latest Research Excellence Framework, it was ranked overall in the Top 25% of UK universities and 1st in Scotland for research impact. Edinburgh Napier University was originally founded as the Napier College which was renamed Napier Polytechnic in 1986 and gained university status in 1992. Edinburgh Napier University has campuses in the south and west of the city, including the former [[Merchiston Tower and [[Craiglockhart Hydropathic. It is home to the [[Screen Academy Scotland. [[Queen Margaret University was located in Edinburgh before it moved to a new campus just outside the city boundary on the edge of [[Musselburgh in 2008. Until 2012 further education colleges in the city included [[Jewel and Esk College (incorporating [[Leith Nautical College founded in 1903), [[Edinburgh's Telford College|Telford College, opened in 1968, and [[Stevenson College (Edinburgh)|Stevenson College, opened in 1970. These have now been amalgamated to form [[Edinburgh College. [[Scotland's Rural College also has a campus in south Edinburgh. Other institutions include the [[Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh and the [[Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh which were established by royal charter in 1506 and 1681 respectively. The Trustees Drawing Academy of Edinburgh, founded in 1760, became the [[Edinburgh College of Art in 1907. There are 18 nursery, 94 primary and 23 secondary [[List of schools in Edinburgh|schools administered by the City of Edinburgh Council. Edinburgh is home to [[Royal High School, Edinburgh|The Royal High School, one of the [[List of the oldest schools in the United Kingdom|oldest schools in the country and [[List of the oldest schools in the world|the world. The city also has several [[Independent school (UK)#Independent schools in Scotland|independent, fee-paying schools including [[Edinburgh Academy, [[Fettes College, [[George Heriot's School, [[George Watson's College, [[Merchiston Castle School, [[Stewart's Melville College and [[The Mary Erskine School. In 2009, the proportion of pupils attending independent schools was 24.2%, far above the Scottish national average of just over 7% and higher than in any other region of Scotland. In August 2013, the City of Edinburgh Council opened the city's first stand-alone Gaelic primary school, [[Bun-sgoil Taobh na Pàirce.


Healthcare

The main [[NHS Lothian hospitals serving the Edinburgh area are the [[Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, which includes the [[University of Edinburgh Medical School, and the [[Western General Hospital, which has a large cancer treatment centre and nurse-led Minor Injuries Clinic. The [[Royal Edinburgh Hospital in Morningside specialises in mental health. The [[Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh|Royal Hospital for Sick Children, colloquially referred to as 'the Sick Kids', is a specialist [[paediatrics hospital. There are two private hospitals: Murrayfield Hospital in the west of the city and Shawfair Hospital in the south. Both are owned by [[Spire Healthcare.


Sport


Football


Men's

Edinburgh has three [[association football|football clubs that play in the [[Scottish Professional Football League (SPFL): [[Heart of Midlothian F.C.|Heart of Midlothian, founded in 1874, [[Hibernian F.C.|Hibernian, founded in 1875 and [[Edinburgh City F.C.|Edinburgh City, founded in 1966. Heart of Midlothian and Hibernian are known locally as "Hearts" and "Hibs", respectively. The former plays in the [[Scottish Championship, the second-highest division of professional football in Scotland, while the latter plays in the top-level [[Scottish Premiership. They are the oldest city rivals in Scotland and the [[Edinburgh derby is one of the oldest derby matches in world football. Both clubs have won the [[list of Scottish football champions|Scottish league championship four times. Hearts have won the [[Scottish Cup eight times and the [[Scottish League Cup four times. Hibs have won the Scottish Cup and the Scottish League Cup three times each. [[Edinburgh City F.C.|Edinburgh City were promoted to [[Scottish League Two in the 2015–16 season, becoming the first club to win promotion to the SPFL via the pyramid system playoffs. Edinburgh was also home to four other [[List of former Scottish Football League clubs|former Scottish Football League clubs: the original [[Edinburgh City F.C. (1928)|Edinburgh City (founded in 1928), [[Leith Athletic F.C.|Leith Athletic, [[Meadowbank Thistle F.C.|Meadowbank Thistle and [[St Bernard's F.C.|St Bernard's. Meadowbank Thistle played at [[Meadowbank Stadium until 1995, when the club moved to [[Livingston, West Lothian|Livingston and became [[Livingston F.C.|Livingston F.C. The [[Scotland national football team|Scottish national team has very occasionally played at [[Easter Road Stadium|Easter Road and [[Tynecastle Stadium|Tynecastle, although its normal [[Scotland national football team home stadium|home stadium is [[Hampden Park in Glasgow. St Bernard's' [[New Logie Green was used to host the [[1896 Scottish Cup Final, the only time the match has been played outside Glasgow.Paul Smith & Shirley Smith (2005) ''The Ultimate Directory of English & Scottish Football League Grounds Second Edition 1888–2005'', Yore Publications, p202 The city also plays host to [[Lowland Football League clubs [[Civil Service Strollers F.C.|Civil Service Strollers, [[Edinburgh University A.F.C.|Edinburgh University and [[Spartans F.C.|Spartans, as well as [[East of Scotland Football League|East of Scotland League clubs [[Craigroyston F.C.|Craigroyston, [[Edinburgh United F.C.|Edinburgh United, [[Heriot-Watt University F.C.|Heriot-Watt University, [[Leith Athletic F.C.|Leith Athletic, [[Lothian Thistle Hutchison Vale F.C.|Lothian Thistle Hutchison Vale, and [[Tynecastle F.C.|Tynecastle.


Women's

In women's football, [[Hearts Ladies F.C.|Hearts, [[Hibernian L.F.C.|Hibs and [[Spartans W.F.C.|Spartans play in the [[Scottish Women's Premier League|SWPL 1. [[Lothian Thistle Hutchison Vale F.C.#Women|Hutchison Vale play in the [[Scottish Women's Premier League|SWPL 2.


Rugby

The [[Scotland national rugby union team and the professional [[Edinburgh Rugby team play at [[Murrayfield Stadium, which is owned by the [[Scottish Rugby Union and also used for other events, including music concerts. It is the largest capacity stadium in Scotland, seating 67,144 spectators. Edinburgh is also home to [[Scottish Premiership (rugby)|Scottish Premiership teams [[Boroughmuir RFC, [[Currie RFC, the [[Edinburgh Academicals, [[Heriot's Rugby Club and [[Watsonians RFC. [[Rugby league is represented by the [[Edinburgh Eagles who play in the [[Rugby League Conference Scotland Division. Murrayfield Stadium has hosted the [[Magic Weekend where all [[Super League matches are played in the stadium over one weekend. File:Tynecastle Park, January 2018.jpg|[[Tynecastle Park File:Easter Road 2010.JPG|[[Easter Road Stadium File:A pot of gold... - geograph.org.uk - 718806.jpg|[[Murrayfield Stadium File:Meadowbank-track-and-field.jpg|[[Meadowbank Stadium File:Loch Ness monster - geograph.org.uk - 1501091.jpg|Edinburgh Marathon File:Edinburgh Capitals vs Belfast Giants.jpg|Murrayfield Ice Rink


Other sports

The [[Scottish cricket team, which represents Scotland internationally, play their home matches at the [[The Grange Club|Grange cricket club. The [[Murrayfield Racers (2018)|Murrayfield Racers are the latest of a succession of [[ice hockey clubs in the Scottish capital. Previously Edinburgh was represented by the [[Edinburgh Capitals ''(who folded in 2018)'', the original [[Murrayfield Racers ''(who folded in 1996)'' and the Edinburgh Racers. The club play their home games at the [[Murrayfield Ice Rink and have competed in the eleven-team professional [[Scottish National League (ice hockey)|Scottish National League (SNL) since the 2018–19 season. Next door to Murrayfield Ice Rink is a 7-sheeter dedicated [[curling facility where curling is played from October to March each season. [[Caledonia Pride are the only women's professional basketball team in Scotland. Established in 2016, the team compete in the UK wide [[Women's British Basketball League and play their home matches at the [[Oriam National Performance Centre. Edinburgh also has several men's basketball teams within the Scottish National League. [[Boroughmuir Blaze, [[City of Edinburgh Kings, [[Edinburgh Lions and [[Edinburgh University Basketball|Edinburgh University all compete in Division 1 of the National League, and [[Pleasance B.C. compete in Division 2. Boroughmuir won the league in 2016, and won the playoffs in the same year, beating the University in the final. The [[Edinburgh Diamond Devils is a baseball club which won its first Scottish Championship in 1991 as the "Reivers." 1992 saw the team repeat the achievement, becoming the first team to do so in league history. The same year saw the start of their first youth team, the Blue Jays. The club adopted its present name in 1999. Edinburgh has also hosted national and international sports events including the [[World Student Games, the [[1970 British Commonwealth Games, the [[1986 Commonwealth Games and the inaugural 2000 Commonwealth Youth Games. For the 1970 Games the city built Olympic standard venues and facilities including Meadowbank Stadium and the [[Royal Commonwealth Pool. The Pool underwent refurbishment in 2012 and hosted the Diving competition in the [[2014 Commonwealth Games which were held in Glasgow. In [[American football, the [[Scottish Claymores played [[World League of American Football|WLAF/[[NFL Europe games at Murrayfield, including their [[World Bowl IV|World Bowl 96 victory. From 1995 to 1997 they played all their games there, from 1998 to 2000 they split their home matches between Murrayfield and Glasgow's Hampden Park, then moved to Glasgow full-time, with one final Murrayfield appearance in 2002. The city's most successful non-professional team are the [[Edinburgh Wolves who play at Meadowbank Stadium. The [[Edinburgh Marathon has been held annually in the city since 2003 with more than 16,000 runners taking part on each occasion. Its organisers have called it "the fastest marathon in the UK" due to the elevation drop of . The city also organises a half-marathon, as well as [[10,000 metres|10 km () and [[5000 metres|5 km () races, including a race on 1 January each year. Edinburgh has a [[Motorcycle speedway|speedway team, the [[Edinburgh Monarchs, which, since the loss of its stadium in the city, has raced at the Lothian Arena in [[Armadale, West Lothian. The Monarchs have won the [[Premier League (speedway)|Premier League championship five times in their history, in 2003 and again in 2008, 2010, 2014 and 2015.


Notable residents

Edinburgh has a long literary tradition, which became especially evident during the [[Scottish Enlightenment. This heritage and the city's lively literary life in the present led to it being declared the first [[UNESCO City of Literature in 2004. Prominent authors who have lived in Edinburgh include the economist Adam Smith, born in [[Kirkcaldy and author of ''[[The Wealth of Nations'', [[James Boswell, biographer of [[Life of Samuel Johnson|Samuel Johnson; Sir [[Walter Scott, creator of the historical novel and author of works such as ''[[Rob Roy (novel)|Rob Roy'', ''[[Ivanhoe'', and ''[[The Heart of Midlothian|Heart of Midlothian''; [[James Hogg, author of ''[[The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner''; [[Robert Louis Stevenson, creator of ''[[Treasure Island'', ''[[Kidnapped (novel)|Kidnapped'', and ''[[The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde''; [[Arthur Conan Doyle|Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of [[Sherlock Holmes; [[Muriel Spark, author of ''[[The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie (novel)|The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie''; [[Irvine Welsh, author of ''[[Trainspotting (novel)|Trainspotting'', whose novels are mostly set in the city and often written in colloquial Scots; [[Ian Rankin, author of the [[Detective Inspector John Rebus|Inspector Rebus series of crime thrillers, [[Alexander McCall Smith, author of the [[No. 1 Ladies' Detective Agency series, and [[J. K. Rowling, creator of [[Harry Potter, who began her first book in an Edinburgh coffee shop and who lives in the Cramond area of the city. Scotland has a rich history of science and engineering, with Edinburgh producing a number of leading figures. [[John Napier, inventor of [[logarithms, was born in [[Merchiston Tower and lived and died in the city. His house now forms part of the original campus of Napier University which was named in his honour. He lies buried under St. Cuthbert's Church. [[James Clerk Maxwell, founder of the modern theory of [[electromagnetism, was born at 14 India Street (now the home of the [[James Clerk Maxwell Foundation) and educated at the [[Edinburgh Academy and the University of Edinburgh, as was the engineer and telephone pioneer [[Alexander Graham Bell. [[James Braidwood (firefighter)|James Braidwood, who organised Britain's first municipal fire brigade, was also born in the city and began his career there. Other names connected with the city include [[Max Born, physicist and [[Nobel Prize in Physics|Nobel laureate; [[Charles Darwin, the biologist who propounded the theory of [[natural selection; David Hume, philosopher, economist and historian; James Hutton, regarded as the "Father of Geology"; Joseph Black, the chemist and one of the founders of thermodynamics; pioneering medical researchers [[Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister|Joseph Lister and [[James Young Simpson; chemist and discoverer of the element [[nitrogen [[Daniel Rutherford; [[Colin Maclaurin, mathematician and developer of the [[Maclaurin series, and [[Ian Wilmut, the geneticist involved in the cloning of [[Dolly (sheep)|Dolly the sheep just outside Edinburgh. The stuffed carcass of Dolly the sheep is now on display in the National Museum of Scotland. The latest in a long line of science celebrities associated with the city is theoretical physicist and Nobel Prizewinner Professor Emeritus [[Peter Higgs, born in Newcastle but resident in Edinburgh for most of his academic career, after whom the [[Higgs boson particle has been named. Edinburgh has been the birthplace of actors like [[Alastair Sim and Sir [[Sean Connery, known for being the first cinematic [[James Bond, the comedian and actor [[Ronnie Corbett, best known as one of [[The Two Ronnies, and the impressionist [[Rory Bremner. Famous artists from the city include the portrait painters Sir [[Henry Raeburn, Sir [[David Wilkie (artist)|David Wilkie and [[Allan Ramsay (artist)|Allan Ramsay. The city has produced or been home to some very successful musicians in recent decades, particularly [[Ian Anderson, front man of the band [[Jethro Tull (band)|Jethro Tull, [[The Incredible String Band, the folk duo [[The Corries, [[Wattie Buchan, lead singer and founding member of punk band [[The Exploited, [[Shirley Manson, lead singer of the band [[Garbage (band)|Garbage, the [[Bay City Rollers, [[The Proclaimers, [[Boards of Canada and [[Idlewild (band)|Idlewild. Edinburgh is the birthplace of former British Prime Minister [[Tony Blair who attended the city's [[Fettes College. Notorious criminals from Edinburgh's past include [[Deacon Brodie, head of a trades guild and Edinburgh city councillor by day but a burglar by night, who is said to have been the inspiration for [[Robert Louis Stevenson's story, the ''[[Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde'', and murderers [[Burke and Hare who delivered fresh corpses for dissection to the famous anatomist [[Robert Knox. Another well-known Edinburgh resident was [[Greyfriars Bobby. The small [[Skye Terrier reputedly kept vigil over his dead master's grave in [[Greyfriars Kirkyard for 14 years in the 1860s and 1870s, giving rise to a story of canine devotion which plays a part in attracting visitors to the city.


International relations


Twin towns and sister cities

The City of Edinburgh has entered into 14 international [[town twinning|twinning arrangements since 1954. Most of the arrangements are styled as 'Twin Cities' but the agreement with [[Kraków is designated as a 'Partner City', and the agreement with [[Kyoto Prefecture is officially styled as a 'Friendship Link', reflecting its status as the only region to be twinned with Edinburgh. For a list of consulates in Edinburgh, see [[List of diplomatic missions in Scotland.


See also

* [[Outline of Edinburgh * [[National Archives of Scotland * [[OPENCities * [[Tourism in Scotland


Notes


References


Further reading

* * H Coghill, ''Edinburgh, The Old Town'', John Donald, Edinburgh 1990, * [[Arthur L. Herman|A Herman, ''[[How the Scots Invented the Modern World: The True Story of How Western Europe's Poorest Nation Created Our World & Everything in It'', Three Rivers Press, New York, 2001, ; also published as ''The Scottish Enlightenment: The Scots' Invention of the Modern World'', HarperCollins, London, 2001, * A Massie, ''Edinburgh'', Sinclair-Stevenson, London 1994, * S Mullay, ''The Edinburgh Encyclopedia'', Mainstream Publishing, Edinburgh and London 1996, * S Mullay, ''The Illustrated History of Edinburgh's Suburbs'', Breedon Books, Derby 2008,


External links


The City of Edinburgh Council official website

Marketing Edinburgh
official tourist agency * {{Authority control [[Category:Edinburgh| [[Category:Capital cities in the United Kingdom [[Category:Council areas of Scotland [[Category:Cities in Scotland [[Category:Districts of Scotland [[Category:Feudalism in Scotland [[Category:Lieutenancy areas of Scotland [[Category:Parishes of Scotland [[Category:Port cities and towns in Scotland [[Category:Port cities and towns of the North Sea [[Category:Scottish society [[Category:populated places established in the 7th century [[Category:7th-century establishments in Europe [[Category:Towns in Edinburgh council area