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Earth's mantle is a layer of silicate rock between the crust and the
outer core Earth's outer core is a fluid layer about thick and composed of mostly iron Iron () is a chemical element with Symbol (chemistry), symbol Fe (from la, Wikt:ferrum, ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal that belongs to the first transi ...
. It has a mass of 4.01 × 1024 kg and thus makes up 67% of the mass of Earth. It has a thickness of making up about 84% of Earth's volume. It is predominantly solid but, on
geologic time scale The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating Chronological dating, or simply dating, is the process of attributing to an object or event a date in the past, allowing such object or event to be located in a previously establi ...

geologic time scale
s, it behaves as a
viscous The viscosity of a fluid In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, ...

viscous
fluid In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular s ...
, sometimes described as having the consistency of
caramel Caramel ( or ) is a medium to dark-orange confectionery product made by heating a variety of sugars. It can be used as a flavoring in puddings and desserts, as a filling in bonbons, or as a topping for ice cream, and custard. The process of car ...
.
Partial melting Partial melting occurs when only a portion of a solid is melted. For mixed substances, such as a rock containing several different mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound ...
of the mantle at
mid-ocean ridge A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is a seafloor mountain system formed by plate tectonics File:Earth cutaway schematic-en.svg, upright=1.35, Diagram of the internal layering of Earth showing the lithosphere above the asthenosphere (not to scale) Plate ...
s produces
oceanic crust The oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of the tectonic plates This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth's surface. Tectonic plates are pieces of Earth's crust 350px, Plates in the crust of Earth Earth's crust i ...
, and partial melting of the mantle at
subduction Subduction is a geological process in which the oceanic lithosphere A lithosphere ( grc, λίθος [] for "rocky", and [] for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial planet, terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite. O ...

subduction
zones produces
continental crust Continental crust is the layer of igneous Igneous rock (derived from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...
.


Structure


Rheology

Earth's mantle is divided into two major
rheological Rheology (; from Greek , 'flow' and , , 'study of') is the study of the flow of matter, primarily in a liquid or gas state, but also as "soft solids" or solids under conditions in which they respond with plastic flow rather than deforming elastic ...

rheological
layers: the rigid
lithosphere A lithosphere ( grc, λίθος [] for "rocky", and [] for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial planet, terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite. On Earth, it is composed of the crust (geology), crust and the portion o ...
comprising the uppermost mantle, and the more ductile
asthenosphere The asthenosphere ( grc, ἀσθενός 'asthenos''meaning "without strength", and thus "weak", and 'sphaira''meaning "sphere") is the highly viscous The viscosity of a fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Defor ...
, separated by the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Lithosphere underlying ocean crust has a thickness of around 100 km, whereas lithosphere underlying continental crust generally has a thickness of 150–200 km. The lithosphere and overlying crust make up
tectonic plates This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth's surface. Tectonic plates are pieces of Earth's crust 350px, Plates in the crust of Earth Earth's crust is a thin shell on the outside of Earth, accounting for less than 1% of Earth's volume. It is ...
, which move over the asthenosphere. The Earth's mantle is divided into three major layers defined by sudden changes in seismic velocity: * the
upper mantle The upper mantle of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. ...
(starting at the Moho, or base of the crust around downward to ) * the transition zone (approximately ), in which
wadsleyite Wadsleyite, a high-pressure phase of olivine The mineral olivine () is a magnesium iron Iron () is a chemical element with Symbol (chemistry), symbol Fe (from la, Wikt:ferrum, ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal that belongs to the ...
(≈ ) and
ringwoodite Ringwoodite is a high-pressure phase of Mg2SiO4 (magnesium silicate) formed at high temperatures and pressures of the Earth's mantle Earth's mantle is a layer of silicate rock between the crust and the outer core. It has a mass of 4.01 × 10 ...
(≈ ) are stable * the lower mantle (approximately ), in which bridgmanite (≈ ) and
post-perovskitePost-perovskite (pPv) is a high-pressure phase of magnesium silicate (MgSiO3). It is composed of the prime oxide constituents of the Earth's rocky mantle (MgO and SiO2), and its pressure and temperature for stability imply that it is likely to occu ...
(≈ ) are stable The lower ~200 km of the lower mantle constitutes the D" ( D-double-prime) layer, a region with anomalous seismic properties. This region also contains LLSVPs and ULVZs.


Mineralogical structure

The top of the mantle is defined by a sudden increase in seismic velocity, which was first noted by
Andrija Mohorovičić Andrija Mohorovičić (23 January 1857 – 18 December 1936) was a Croatian Geophysics, geophysicist. He is best known for the eponymous Mohorovičić discontinuity and is considered as one of the founders of modern seismology. Early years Moho ...
in 1909; this boundary is now referred to as the
Mohorovičić discontinuity The Mohorovičić discontinuity ( , ), usually referred to as the Moho discontinuity or the Moho, is the boundary between the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of ...
or "Moho". The upper mantle is dominantly
peridotite Peridotite ( ) is a dense, coarse-grained igneous rock consisting mostly of the silicate minerals olivine and pyroxene. Peridotite is ultramafic, as the rock contains less than 45% silica. It is high in magnesium (Mg2+), reflecting the high prop ...
, composed primarily of variable proportions of the minerals
olivine The mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.John P. ...

olivine
,
clinopyroxene The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to ''Px'') are a group of important rock-forming s found in many and . Pyroxenes have the general formula , where X represents (Ca), (Na), (Fe II) or (Mg) and more rarely , or , and Y represents ions of ...
,
orthopyroxene The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to ''Px'') are a group of important rock-forming Silicate minerals#Inosilicates, inosilicate minerals found in many Igneous rock, igneous and metamorphic rock, metamorphic rock (geology), rocks. Pyroxenes have th ...
, and an aluminous phase. The aluminous phase is
plagioclase Plagioclase is a series of tectosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical compositio ...
in the uppermost mantle, then
spinel Spinel () is the magnesium Magnesium is a chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of ma ...

spinel
, and then
garnet Garnets () are a group of silicate mineral Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science c ...

garnet
below ~100 km. Gradually through the upper mantle, pyroxenes become less stable and transform into . At the top of the transition zone, olivine undergoes isochemical phase transitions to
wadsleyite Wadsleyite, a high-pressure phase of olivine The mineral olivine () is a magnesium iron Iron () is a chemical element with Symbol (chemistry), symbol Fe (from la, Wikt:ferrum, ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal that belongs to the ...
and
ringwoodite Ringwoodite is a high-pressure phase of Mg2SiO4 (magnesium silicate) formed at high temperatures and pressures of the Earth's mantle Earth's mantle is a layer of silicate rock between the crust and the outer core. It has a mass of 4.01 × 10 ...
. Unlike nominally anhydrous olivine, these high-pressure olivine polymorphs have a large capacity to store water in their crystal structure. This has led to the hypothesis that the transition zone may host a large quantity of water. At the base of the transition zone, ringwoodite decomposes into bridgmanite (formerly called magnesium silicate perovskite), and ferropericlase. Garnet also becomes unstable at or slightly below the base of the transition zone. The lower mantle is composed primarily of bridgmanite and
ferropericlaseFerropericlase or magnesiowüstite Wüstite (Fe O) is a mineral form of iron(II) oxide Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula FeO. Its mineral form is known as wüstite.https://www.mindat.org/min-4316.htmlhtt ...
, with minor amounts of calcium perovskite, calcium-ferrite structured oxide, and
stishovite Stishovite is an extremely hard, dense tetragonal form ( polymorph) of silicon dioxide Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is an oxide of rutile. Ti(IV) centers are grey; oxygen centers are red. Notice that oxygen forms three bonds to titani ...

stishovite
. In the lowermost ~200 km of the mantle, bridgmanite isochemically transforms into post-perovskite.


Composition

The chemical composition of the mantle is difficult to determine with a high degree of certainty because it is largely inaccessible. Rare exposures of mantle rocks occur in
ophiolite An ophiolite is a section of Earth's oceanic crust The oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of the tectonic plates This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth's surface. Tectonic plates are pieces of Earth's crust ...

ophiolite
s, where sections of oceanic lithosphere have been obducted onto a continent. Mantle rocks are also sampled as
xenolithImage:XenolithSierra.JPG, Gabbroic xenolith in granite in Rock Creek Canyon, eastern Sierra Nevada (U.S.), Sierra Nevada, California A xenolith ("foreign rock") is a rock (geology), rock fragment (country rock) that becomes enveloped in a larger ro ...
s within
basalt Basalt (, ) is a fine-grained extrusive A volcanic rock from Italy with a relatively large six-sided phenocryst (diameter about 1 mm) surrounded by a fine-grained groundmass, as seen in thin section under a petrographic microscope Extr ...

basalt
s or
kimberlite Cross-section of kimberlite from South Africa. The kimberlite matrix is made up of clay minerals and carbonates, presented in blue, purple and buff colours. Kimberlite is an igneous rock, which sometimes contains diamonds. It is named after the ...

kimberlite
s. Most estimates of the mantle composition are based on rocks that sample only the uppermost mantle. There is debate as to whether the rest of the mantle, especially the lower mantle, has the same bulk composition. The mantle's composition has changed through the Earth's history due to the extraction of
magma Magma () is the molten or semi-molten natural material from which all igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ''ignis'' meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main The three types of rocks, rock types, the others ...

magma
that solidified to form oceanic crust and continental crust. It has also been proposed in a 2018 study that an exotic form of water known as
ice VII Ice VII is a cubic crystalline form of ice Ice is water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as ...
can form in the mantle when diamonds containing pressurized water bubbles move upward, cooling the water to the conditions needed for ice VII to form.


Temperature and pressure

In the mantle, temperatures range from approximately at the upper boundary with the crust to approximately at the core-mantle boundary. The
geothermal gradient ). Geothermal gradient is the rate of temperature change with respect to increasing depth in Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consi ...
of the mantle increases rapidly in the thermal
boundary layers In physics and fluid mechanics, a boundary layer is the layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a Boundary (thermodynamic), bounding surface where the effects of viscosity are significant. The liquid or gas in the boundary layer tends to clin ...
at the top and bottom of the mantle, and increases gradually through the interior of the mantle. Although the higher temperatures far exceed the
melting point The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature Temperature ( ) is a physical quantity that expresses hot and cold. It is the manifestation of thermal energy Thermal radiation in visible light can b ...

melting point
s of the mantle rocks at the surface (about 1200 °C for representative peridotite), the mantle is almost exclusively solid. The enormous lithostatic pressure exerted on the mantle prevents melting, because the temperature at which melting begins (the
solidus Solidus (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republi ...
) increases with pressure. The pressure in the mantle increases from a few kbar at the Moho to 1390 kbar (139 GPa) at the core-mantle boundary.


Movement

Because of the temperature difference between the Earth's surface and outer core and the ability of the crystalline rocks at high pressure and temperature to undergo slow, creeping, viscous-like deformation over millions of years, there is a
convective Convection is single or multiphase fluid flow that occurs spontaneously due to the combined effects of material property heterogeneity Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the sciences and statistics Statistics ...

convective
material circulation in the mantle. Hot material , while cooler (and heavier) material sinks downward. Downward motion of material occurs at convergent plate boundaries called subduction zones. Locations on the surface that lie over plumes are predicted to have high elevation (because of the buoyancy of the hotter, less-dense plume beneath) and to exhibit hot spot
volcanism Volcanism (or volcanicity) is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma Magma () is the molten or semi-molten natural material from which all igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ''ignis'' meaning fire), or magma ...
. The volcanism often attributed to deep mantle plumes is alternatively explained by passive extension of the crust, permitting magma to leak to the surface: the plate hypothesis. The
convection Convection is single or multiphase fluid flow that occurs Spontaneous process, spontaneously due to the combined effects of material property heterogeneity and body forces on a fluid, most commonly density and gravity (see buoyancy). When t ...

convection
of the Earth's mantle is a
chaotic Chaotic was originally a Denmark, Danish trading card game. It expanded to an online game in United States, America which then became a television program based on the game. The program was able to be seen on 4Kids TV (Fox affiliates, nationwide), ...
process (in the sense of fluid dynamics), which is thought to be an integral part of the motion of plates. Plate motion should not be confused with
continental drift Continental drift is the hypothesis that the Earth's continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly reg ...
which applies purely to the movement of the crustal components of the continents. The movements of the lithosphere and the underlying mantle are coupled since descending lithosphere is an essential component of convection in the mantle. The observed continental drift is a complicated relationship between the forces causing oceanic lithosphere to sink and the movements within Earth's mantle. Although there is a tendency to larger viscosity at greater depth, this relation is far from linear and shows layers with dramatically decreased viscosity, in particular in the upper mantle and at the boundary with the core.Walzer, Uwe; Hendel, Roland and Baumgardner, John
Mantle Viscosity and the Thickness of the Convective Downwellings
igw.uni-jena.de
The mantle within about above the core–mantle boundary appears to have distinctly different seismic properties than the mantle at slightly shallower depths; this unusual mantle region just above the core is called D″ ("D double-prime"), a nomenclature introduced over 50 years ago by the geophysicist Keith Bullen. D″ may consist of material from subducted slabs that descended and came to rest at the core–mantle boundary or from a new mineral polymorph discovered in perovskite called post-perovskite. Earthquakes at shallow depths are a result of faulting; however, below about the hot, high pressure conditions ought to inhibit further seismicity. The mantle is considered to be viscous and incapable of brittle faulting. However, in subduction zones, earthquakes are observed down to . A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, including dehydration, thermal runaway, and phase change. The geothermal gradient can be lowered where cool material from the surface sinks downward, increasing the strength of the surrounding mantle, and allowing earthquakes to occur down to a depth of and . The pressure at the bottom of the mantle is ~136 G Pa (1.4 million
atm ATM or atm often refers to: * Atmosphere (unit) or atm, a unit of atmospheric pressure * Automated teller machine, a cash dispenser or cash machine ATM or atm may also refer to: Computing * ATM (computer), a ZX Spectrum clone developed in Mos ...
). Pressure increases as depth increases, since the material beneath has to support the weight of all the material above it. The entire mantle, however, is thought to deform like a fluid on long timescales, with permanent plastic deformation accommodated by the movement of point, line, and/or planar defects through the solid crystals composing the mantle. Estimates for the viscosity of the upper mantle range between 1019 and 1024 Pa·s, depending on depth, temperature, composition, state of stress, and numerous other factors. Thus, the upper mantle can only flow very slowly. However, when large forces are applied to the uppermost mantle it can become weaker, and this effect is thought to be important in allowing the formation of tectonic plate boundaries.


Exploration

Exploration of the mantle is generally conducted at the seabed rather than on land because of the relative thinness of the oceanic crust as compared to the significantly thicker continental crust. The first attempt at mantle exploration, known as
Project Mohole Project Mohole was an attempt in the early 1960s to drill through the Earth's crust to obtain samples of the Mohorovičić discontinuity The Mohorovičić discontinuity ( , ), usually referred to as the Moho discontinuity or the Moho, is the b ...
, was abandoned in 1966 after repeated failures and cost over-runs. The deepest penetration was approximately . In 2005 an oceanic borehole reached below the sea floor from the ocean drilling vessel ''
JOIDES Resolution image:Joides resolution odp.jpg, 295px, Drillship ''JOIDES Resolution'' in 1988 The riserless research vessel ''JOIDES Resolution'' (Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling), often referred to as the JR, is one of the scientific dr ...
''. More successful was the
Deep Sea Drilling Project ''Glomar Challenger'' The Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) was an ocean drilling project operated from 1968 to 1983. The program was a success, as evidenced by the data and publications that have resulted from it. The data are now hosted by Texas ...
(DSDP) that operated from 1968 to 1983. Coordinated by the
Scripps Institution of Oceanography The Scripps Institution of Oceanography (sometimes referred to as SIO, Scripps Oceanography, or Scripps) in San Diego, California, founded in 1903, is one of the oldest and largest centers for oceanography, ocean and Earth science research, p ...

Scripps Institution of Oceanography
at the
University of California, San Diego The University of California, San Diego (UC San Diego or, colloquially, UCSD) is a public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university in San Diego, California. Established in 1960 near the pre-existing Scripps Inst ...
, DSDP provided crucial data to support the
seafloor spreading Seafloor spreading or Seafloor spread is a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridge A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is a seafloor mountain system formed by plate tectonics File:Earth cutaway schematic-en.svg, upright=1.35, Diagram of the internal l ...
hypothesis and helped to prove the theory of
plate tectonics Plate tectonics (from the la, label=Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas serior) is the scholarly name for the written Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. L ...
. ''
Glomar Challenger ''Glomar Challenger'' was a deep sea research and scientific drilling vessel for oceanography Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt ...
'' conducted the drilling operations. DSDP was the first of three international scientific ocean drilling programs that have operated over more than 40 years. Scientific planning was conducted under the auspices of the Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling (JOIDES), whose advisory group consisted of 250 distinguished scientists from academic institutions, government agencies, and private industry from all over the world. The
Ocean Drilling Program The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) was a multinational effort to explore and study the composition and structure of the Earth's oceanic basins. ODP, which began in 1985, was the successor to the Deep Sea Drilling Project initiated in 1968 by the ...
(ODP) continued exploration from 1985 to 2003 when it was replaced by the
Integrated Ocean Drilling Program The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) was an international marine research program. The program used heavy drilling equipment mounted aboard ships to monitor and sample sub-seafloor environments. With this research, the IODP documented env ...
(IODP). On 5 March 2007, a team of scientists on board the embarked on a voyage to an area of the
seafloor The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean, no matter how deep. All floors of the ocean are known as 'seabeds'. Structure Most of the oceans have a common structure, created by common ph ...

seafloor
where the mantle lies exposed without any crust covering, midway between the
Cape Verde Islands , national_anthem = () , official_languages = Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** P ...
and the
Caribbean Sea The Caribbean Sea ( es, Mar Caribe; french: Mer des Caraïbes; ht, Lamè Karayib; jam, Kiaribiyan Sii; nl, Caraïbische Zee; pap, Laman Karibe) is an Americas, American Mediterranean sea (oceanography), mediterranean sea of the Atlantic Ocean ...
. The exposed site lies approximately three kilometres beneath the ocean surface and covers thousands of square kilometres. A relatively difficult attempt to retrieve samples from the Earth's mantle was scheduled for later in 2007. The Chikyu Hakken mission attempted to use the Japanese vessel '' Chikyū'' to drill up to below the seabed. This is nearly three times as deep as preceding oceanic drillings. A novel method of exploring the uppermost few hundred kilometres of the Earth was proposed in 2005, consisting of a small, dense, heat-generating probe which melts its way down through the crust and mantle while its position and progress are tracked by acoustic signals generated in the rocks. The probe consists of an outer sphere of
tungsten Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, ch ...

tungsten
about one metre in diameter with a
cobalt-60 Cobalt-60 (60Co) is a synthetic isotope, synthetic radioactive Isotopes of cobalt, isotope of cobalt with a half-life of 5.2713 years. It is produced artificially in nuclear reactors. Deliberate industrial production depends on neutron activat ...

cobalt-60
interior acting as a radioactive heat source. It was calculated that such a probe will reach the oceanic ''Moho'' in less than 6 months and attain minimum depths of well over in a few decades beneath both
oceanic Oceanic may refer to: *Of or relating to the ocean *Of or relating to Oceania **Oceanic climate **Oceanic languages **Oceanic person or people, also called "Pacific Islander(s)" Places *Oceanic, British Columbia, a settlement on Smith Island, Br ...
and
continental Continental may refer to: Places * Continent * Continental, Arizona, a small community in Pima County, Arizona, US * Continental, Ohio, a small town in Putnam County, US Arts and entertainment * Continental (album), ''Continental'' (album), an alb ...
lithosphere A lithosphere ( grc, λίθος [] for "rocky", and [] for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial planet, terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite. On Earth, it is composed of the crust (geology), crust and the portion o ...
.Ojovan M.I., Gibb F.G.F. "Exploring the Earth’s Crust and Mantle Using Self-Descending, Radiation-Heated, Probes and Acoustic Emission Monitoring". Chapter 7. In: ''Nuclear Waste Research: Siting, Technology and Treatment'', , Editor: Arnold P. Lattefer, Nova Science Publishers, Inc. 2008 Exploration can also be aided through computer simulations of the evolution of the mantle. In 2009, a
supercomputer upright=1.5, Computing power of the top 1 supercomputer each year, measured in FLOPS A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance as compared to a general-purpose computer. The performance of a supercomputer is commonly mea ...

supercomputer
application provided new insight into the distribution of mineral deposits, especially
isotopes of iron Naturally occurring iron Iron () is a with Fe (from la, ) and 26. It is a that belongs to the and of the . It is, on , right in front of (32.1% and 30.1%, respectively), forming much of Earth's and . It is the fourth most common . ...
, from when the mantle developed 4.5 billion years ago.University of California – Davis (2009-06-15)
Super-computer Provides First Glimpse Of Earth's Early Magma Interior
ScienceDaily ''Science Daily'' is an American website launched in 1995 that aggregates press releases A press release is an official statement delivered to members of the news media for the purpose of providing information, an official statement, or maki ...
. Retrieved on 2009-06-16.


See also

*
Structure of the Earth The internal structure of Earth, structure of the solid Earth, or simply structure of Earth refers to concentric spherical layers subdividing the Solid earthSolid earth refers to "the earth beneath our feet" or '' terra firma'', the planet's sol ...


References


External links


The Biggest Dig: Japan builds a ship to drill to the earth's mantle
– ''Scientific American'' (September 2005)
Information on the Mohole Project
{{Authority control Structure of the Earth