Former Dutch colonial possessionsThis list does not include several former trading posts stationed by dutch, such as in Japan. * with company rule (1603–1949), and (until 1962) * (1605–1825) * (1612–1872) * (1614–1667, 1673–1674) * Dutch Guianas (1616–1975) * (1624–1662), and ( Fort Noord-Holland; 1663–1668) * Dutch Virgin Islands (1625-1680) * (1627–1825) * (1630–1654) * (1638–1710) * (1640–1796) * (1641–1795, 1818–1825) * (1652–1806) * (1665-1795) * (1667–1954) * (1674-1678)
Origins (1543–1602)The territories that would later form the began as a loose federation known as the , which , and (as "Carlos I") , inherited and brought under his direct rule in 1543. In 1566, a Dutch revolt broke out against rule by Roman Catholic Spain, sparking the . Led by William of Orange, independence was declared in the 1581 . The revolt resulted in the establishment of an de facto independent Protestant republic in the north by , but the Dutch were never able to successfully remove the Spanish foothold in the southern Netherlands. The eight decades of war came at a massive human cost, with an estimated 600,000 to 700,000 victims, of which 350,000 to 400,000 were civilians killed by disease and what would later be considered war crimes. The coastal provinces of and had been important hubs of the European maritime trade network for centuries prior to Spanish rule. Their geographical location provided convenient access to the markets of France, Scotland, Germany, England and the Baltic. The war with Spain led many financiers and traders to emigrate from , a major city in and then one of Europe's most important commercial centres, to Dutch cities, particularly , which became Europe's foremost centre for shipping, banking, and insurance. Efficient access to capital enabled the Dutch in the 1580s to extend their trade routes beyond northern Europe to new markets in the and the . In the 1590s, Dutch ships began to trade with and the of Africa, towards the Indian Ocean, and the source of the lucrative . This brought the Dutch into direct competition with , which had dominated these trade routes for several decades, and had established colonial outposts on the coasts of Brazil, Africa and the Indian Ocean to facilitate them. The rivalry with Portugal, however, was not entirely economic: from 1580, after the death of the King of Portugal, , and much of the Portuguese nobility in the , the Portuguese crown had been joined to that of Spain in an " " under the heir of Emperor Charles V, . By attacking Portuguese overseas possessions, the Dutch forced Spain to divert financial and military resources away from its attempt to quell Dutch independence. Thus began the several decade-long . In 1594, the '' '' ("Company of Far Lands") was founded in Amsterdam, with the aim of sending two fleets to the spice islands of . The first fleet sailed in 1596 and returned in 1597 with a cargo of pepper, which more than covered the costs of the voyage. The second voyage (1598–1599), returned its investors a 400% profit.Boxer (1965), p.23. The success of these voyages led to the founding of a number of companies competing for the trade. The competition was counterproductive to the companies' interests as it threatened to drive up the price of spices at their source in Indonesia whilst driving them down in Europe.
Rise of Dutch economic hegemony (1602–1652)As a result of the problems caused by inter-company rivalry, the ( nl, Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC) was founded in 1602. The charter awarded to the Company by the States-General granted it sole rights, for an initial period of 21 years, to Dutch trade and navigation east of the and west of the . The directors of the company, the "''Heeren XVII''", were given the legal authority to establish "fortresses and strongholds", to sign treaties, to enlist both an army and a navy, and to wage defensive war. The company itself was founded as a , similarly to its English rival that had been founded two years earlier, the . In 1621, the (WIC) was set up and given a 25-year monopoly to those parts of the world not controlled by its East India counterpart: the Atlantic, the Americas and the west coast of Africa.Rogozinski (2000), p.62. The Dutch also established a trading post in Ayutthaya, modern day during the reign of King Naresuan, in 1604.
Iberian-Dutch conflictsThe Spanish-Dutch War was for the Dutch part of their struggle for independence and religious freedom, during the Eighty Years' War. It was largely fought on the European continent, but war was also conducted against Phillip II's overseas territories, including Spanish colonies and the Portuguese metropoles, colonies, and belonging at that time to the King of Spain and Portugal. The Netherlands became part of the domains of the 'Spanish branch' of the Habsburg dynasty when Emperor Charles V divided the holdings of the following his abdication in 1555. In 1566, the Dutch revolt erupted and in 1568 the embarked on the long, torturous path of the Eighty Years' War (also known as the Dutch War of Independence) and began the invasion and looting of Spanish (and, later, Portuguese) colonies in the Americas and of Asia, including an attempted invasion of the (then part of the ). From 1517, the port of in was the main European market for products from India that was attended by other nations to purchase their needs. But as a result of Portugal's incorporation in the Iberian Union with Spain by Philip II in 1580, all Portuguese territories were thereafter Spanish Habsburg branch territory, and thus all Portuguese markets were closed to the United Provinces. Thus, in 1595, the Dutch decided to set sail on their own to acquire products for themselves, making use of the "secret" knowledge of the Portuguese trade routes, which had managed to acquire in Lisbon.Vidal, Prudencio. (1888) Pursuing their quest for alternative routes to Asia for trade, the Dutch were disrupting the Spanish-Portuguese trade, and they eventually ranged as far afield as the Philippines. The Dutch sought to dominate the commercial sea trade in Southeast Asia, going so far in pursuit of this goal as to engage in what other nations and powers considered to be little more than piratical activities. The joining of the two crowns deprived Portugal of a separate foreign policy, with King Phillip II's enemies becoming Portugal's enemies as well. War with the Dutch led to attacks on most of Portugal's far-flung in and around , including Ceylon (modern Sri Lanka), and History of Goa#Decline, Goa, as well as Portuguese Empire#Iberian Union and rivalry with the Protestant Powers (1580–1663), attacks upon her commercial interests in Nanban trade, Japan, Portuguese Empire#Age of Discovery (1415–1542), Africa (especially Elmina Castle#Control by other European nations, Mina), and . Even though the Portuguese had never been able to capture the entire island of Ceylon, they had been able to keep the Portuguese Ceylon, coastal regions under their control for a considerable time before the coming of the Dutch in war. Portugal's South American colony, Colonial Brazil, Brazil, was partially conquered by both France and the United Provinces. In the 17th century, the "Groot Desseyn, Grand Design" of the Dutch West India Company, West India Company involved attempting to corner the international trade in sugar by attacking Portuguese colonies in Brazil and Africa, seizing both the sugarcane plantations and the slave ports needed to resupply their labour. Although weakened by the with Spain, whose attention was focused elsewhere, the Portuguese were able to fight off the initial assault before the Battle of Matanzas Bay provided the WIC with the funds needed for a successful operation. John Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen, Johan Maurits was appointed governor of "Dutch Brazil, New Holland" and landed at Recife in January 1637. In a series of successful expeditions, he gradually extended the Dutch possessions from Sergipe on the south to São Luís de Maranhão, Maranhão in the north. The WIC also succeeded in conquering Gorée, Elmina Castle, Saint Thomas, and Luanda on the west coast of Africa. Both regions were also used as bases for Dutch privateers plundering Portuguese and Spanish trade routes. The dissolution of the Iberian Union in 1640 and Maurits's recall in 1643 led to increased resistance from the Portuguese colonists who still made up a majority of the Brazilian settlers. The Dutch were finally overcome during the 1650s but managed to receive 4 million Portuguese real, reis (63 metric tons of gold) in exchange for extinguishing their claims over Brazil in the 1661 Treaty of the Hague.
AsiaThe war between Phillip II's possessions and other countries led to a deterioration of Portugal's Empire, as with the loss of Ormus, Hormuz to England, but the Dutch colonial empire was the main beneficiary. The VOC began immediately to prise away the string of coastal fortresses that, at the time, comprised the Portuguese Empire. The settlements were isolated, difficult to reinforce if attacked, and prone to being picked off one by one, but nevertheless, the Dutch only enjoyed mixed success in its attempts to do so. Ambon Island, Amboina was captured from the Portuguese in 1605, but an attack on Malacca the following year narrowly failed in its objective to provide a more strategically located base in the East Indies with favourable monsoon winds. The Dutch found what they were looking for in Jakarta, conquered by Jan Coen in 1619, later renamed Batavia, Dutch East Indies, Batavia after the putative Dutch ancestors the Batavians, and which would become the capital of the . Meanwhile, the Dutch continued to drive out the Portuguese from their bases in Asia. Malacca Battle of Malacca (1641), finally succumbed in 1641 (after a second attempt to capture it), Colombo in 1656, Ceylon in 1658, Nagappattinam in 1662 and Cranganore and Cochin in 1662. Goa, the capital of the Portuguese Empire in the East, was unsuccessfully attacked by the Dutch in 1603 and 1610. Whilst the Dutch were unable in four attempts to capture Macau from where Portugal monopolized the lucrative Nanban trade, China-Japan trade, the shogunate, Japanese shogunate's increasing suspicion of the intentions of the Catholic Portuguese led to their expulsion in 1639. Under the subsequent sakoku, ''sakoku'' policy, from 1639 till 1854 (215 years) the Dutch were the only European power allowed to operate in Japan, confined in 1639 to Hirado and then from 1641 at Deshima. In the mid 17th century the Dutch also explored the western Australian coasts, Australian places with Dutch names, naming many places. The Dutch colonised Mauritius in 1638, several decades after three ships out of the Dutch Second Fleet sent to the Spice Islands were blown off course in a storm and landed there in 1598. They named it in honour of Prince Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, Maurice of Nassau, the Stadtholder of the Netherlands. The Dutch found the climate hostile and abandoned the island after several further decades. The Dutch established a colony at Tayouan (present-day Anping District, Anping), in the south of Geography of Taiwan, Taiwan, an island then largely dominated by Portuguese traders and known as Formosa; and, in 1642 the Dutch took northern Formosa from the Spanish by force. In 1646, the Dutch tried to capture the Spanish colony in the . Although they had a large force at their disposal, they were defeated at the Battles of La Naval de Manila when they attempted to take Manila. After this defeat, they abandoned their efforts to capture Manila and the Philippines. Between 1602 and 1796, the Dutch East India Company, VOC sent almost a million European ethnic groups, Europeans to work in the Asia trade. The majority died of disease or made their way back to Europe, but some of them made the Indies their new home. Interaction between the Dutch people, Dutch and native population mainly took place in Sri Lanka and the modern Islands of Indonesia, Indonesian Islands. Through the centuries there developed a relatively large Dutch-speaking population of mixed Dutch and Indonesian descent, known as Indo people, Indos or Dutch-Indonesians.
AmericasIn the Atlantic, the West India Company concentrated on wresting from Portugal its grip on the History of sugar, sugar and History of slavery, slave trade, and on opportunistic attacks on the Spanish treasure fleets on their homeward bound voyage. Bahia on the north east coast of Brazil was captured in 1624 but only held for a year before it was recaptured by a joint Spanish-Portuguese expedition. In 1628, Piet Heyn captured the entire Spanish treasure fleet, and made off with a vast fortune in precious metals and goods that enabled the Company two years later to pay its shareholders a cash dividend of 70%, though the Company was to have relatively few other successes against the Spanish. In 1630, the Dutch occupied the Portuguese sugar-settlement of Pernambuco and over the next few years pushed inland, annexing the sugar plantations that surrounded it. In order to supply the plantations with the manpower they required, a Battle of Elmina (1637), successful expedition was launched in 1637 from Brazil to capture the Portuguese slaving post of Elmina, and in 1641 Capture of Luanda, successfully captured the Portuguese settlements in Angola. In 1642, the Dutch captured the Portuguese possession of Axim in Africa. By 1650, the West India Company was firmly in control of both the sugar and slave trades, and had occupied the Caribbean islands of , , and Bonaire in order to guarantee access to the islands' Salt evaporation pond, salt-pans. Unlike in Asia, Dutch successes against the Portuguese in Brazil and Africa were short-lived. Years of settlement had left large Portuguese communities under the rule of the Dutch, who were by nature traders rather than colonisers. In 1645, the Portuguese community at Pernambuco rebelled against their Dutch masters, and by 1654, the Dutch had been ousted from Brazil. In the intervening years, a Portuguese expedition had been sent from Brazil to recapture Luanda in Angola, by 1648 the Dutch were expelled from there also. On the north-east coast of North America, the West India Company took over a settlement that had been established by the New Netherland Company, Company of New Netherland (1614–18) at Fort Orange at Albany, New York, Albany on the Hudson River, relocated from Fort Nassau (North), Fort Nassau which had been founded in 1614. The Dutch had been sending ships annually to the Hudson River to trade fur since Henry Hudson's voyage of 1609. To protect its precarious position at Albany from the nearby English and French, the Company founded the fortified town of New Amsterdam in 1625, at the mouth of the Hudson, encouraging settlement of the surrounding areas of Long Island and New Jersey. The fur trade ultimately proved impossible for the Company to monopolize due to the massive illegal private trade in furs, and the settlement of New Netherland was unprofitable. In 1655, the nearby colony of New Sweden on the Delaware River was forcibly absorbed into New Netherland after ships and soldiers were sent to capture it by the Dutch governor, Pieter Stuyvesant. Since its inception, the Dutch East India Company had been in competition with its counterpart, the , founded two years earlier but with a capital base eight times smaller,McEvedy (1998), p.44. for the same goods and markets in the East. In 1619, the rivalry resulted in the Amboyna massacre, when several English Company men were executed by agents of the Dutch. The event remained a source of English resentment for several decades, and indeed was used as a cause célèbre as late as the Second Anglo-Dutch War in the 1660s; nevertheless, in the late 1620s the English Company shifted its focus from Indonesia to India. In 1643, the Dutch occupation of Valdivia, established a settlement in the ruins of the Spanish settlement of Valdivia, in Zona Sur, southern Chile. The purpose of the expedition was to gain a foothold on the west coast of the Americas, an area that was almost entirely under the control of Spain (the Pacific Ocean, at least most of it to the east of the Philippines, being at the time almost a 'Spanish lake'), and to extract gold from nearby mines. Uncooperative indigenous peoples, who had Destruction of the Seven Cities, forced the Spanish to leave Valdivia in 1604 contributed to get the expedition to leave after some months of occupation. This occupation triggered the return of the Spanish to Valdivia and the building of Valdivian fort system, one of the largest defensive complexes of colonial America.
Southern AfricaBy the middle of the 17th century, the Dutch East India Company had overtaken Portugal as the dominant player in the spice and silk trade, and in 1652 founded a colony at the on the southern African coast, as a victualing station for its ships on the route between Europe and Asia. Dutch immigration in the Cape rapidly swelled as prospective colonists were offered generous grants of land and tax exempt status in exchange for producing the food needed to resupply passing ships. The Cape authorities also imported a number of Europeans of other nationalities, namely Germans and French Huguenots, as well as thousands of slaves from the East Indies, to bolster the local Dutch workforce.Entry: Cape Colony. ''Encyclopædia Britannica Volume 4 Part 2: Brain to Casting''. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 1933. James Louis Garvin, editor. Nevertheless, there was a degree of cultural assimilation between the various ethnic groups due to intermarriage and the universal adoption of the Dutch language, and cleavages were likelier to occur along social and racial lines. The Dutch colony at the Cape of Good Hope expanded beyond the initial settlement and its borders were formally consolidated as the composite in 1778. At the time, the Dutch had subdued the indigenous Khoisan and San people, San peoples in the Cape and seized their traditional territories. Dutch military expeditions further east were halted when they encountered the westward expansion of the Xhosa people. Hoping to avoid being drawn into a protracted dispute, the Dutch government and the Xhosa chieftains agreed to formally demarcate their respective areas of control and refrain from trespassing on each other's borders. However, the Dutch proved unable to control their own settlers, who disregarded the agreement and crossed into Xhosa territory, sparking one of Southern Africa's longest colonial conflicts: the Xhosa Wars.
Rivalry with Great Britain and France (1652–1795)In 1651, the English parliament passed the first of the Navigation Acts which excluded Dutch shipping from the lucrative trade between England and its Caribbean colonies, and led directly to the outbreak of hostilities between the two countries the following year, the first of three Anglo-Dutch Wars that would last on and off for two decades and slowly erode Dutch naval power to England's benefit. In 1661, amidst the Qing conquest of China, Ming general Koxinga led a fleet to invade Formosa. The Dutch defense, led by governor Frederick Coyett, Siege of Fort Zeelandia, held out for nine months. However, after Koxinga defeated Dutch reinforcements from Java, Coyett surrendered Formosa. The Dutch would never rule Formosa again. The Second Anglo-Dutch War was precipitated in 1664, when English forces moved to capture New Netherland. Under the Treaty of Breda (1667), New Netherland was ceded to England in exchange for the English settlements in Suriname, which had been conquered by Dutch forces earlier that year. Though the Dutch would again take New Netherland in 1673, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, it was returned to England the following year, thereby ending Dutch rule in continental North America, but leaving behind a large Dutch community under English rule that persisted with its language, church and customs until the mid-18th century. In South America, the Dutch seized Cayenne (Dutch colony), Cayenne from the French in 1658 and drove off a French attempt to retake it a year later. However, it was returned to France in 1664, since the colony proved to be unprofitable. It was recaptured by the Dutch in 1676, but was returned again a year later, this time permanently. The Glorious Revolution of 1688 saw the Dutch William III of England, William of Orange ascend to the throne, and win the English, Scottish, and Irish crowns, ending eighty years of rivalry between the Netherlands and England, while the rivalry with France remained strong. During the American Revolutionary War, Britain declared war on the Netherlands, the , in which Britain seized the Dutch colony of Ceylon. Under the Peace of Paris (1783), Ceylon was returned to the Netherlands and Negapatnam ceded to Britain.
Napoleonic era (1795–1815)In 1795, the French revolutionary army invaded the Dutch Republic and turned the nation into a satellite of France, named the Batavian Republic. Britain, which was at war with France, soon moved to occupy Dutch colonies in Asia, Battle of Muizenberg, South Africa and the Caribbean. Under the terms of the Treaty of Amiens signed by Britain and France in 1802, the Cape Colony and the islands of the Dutch West Indies that the British had seized were returned to the Republic. Ceylon was not returned to the Dutch and was made a British Crown Colony. After the outbreak of hostilities between Britain and France again in 1803, the British Battle of Blaauwberg, retook the Cape Colony. The British also Invasion of Java (1811), invaded and captured the island of Java in 1811. In 1806, Napoleon dissolved the Batavian Republic and established a monarchy with his brother, Louis Bonaparte, on the throne as King of the Netherlands. Louis was removed from power by Napoleon in 1810, and the country was ruled directly from France until its liberation in 1813. The following year, the independent Netherlands signed the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 with Britain. All the colonies Britain had seized were returned to the Netherlands, with the exception of the , , and part of Dutch colonisation of the Guianas, Dutch Guyana.
Post-Napoleonic era (1815–1945)After Napoleon's defeat in 1815, Europe's borders were redrawn at the Congress of Vienna. For the first time since the declaration of independence from Spain in 1581, the Dutch were reunited with the Southern Netherlands in a constitutional monarchy, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. The union lasted just 15 years. In 1830, a Belgian Revolution, revolution in the southern half of the country led to the ''de facto'' independence of the new state of Belgium. The bankrupt Dutch East India Company was liquidated on 1 January 1800, and its territorial possessions were nationalized as the . Anglo-Dutch rivalry in Southeast Asia continued to fester over the port of Singapore, which had been Founding of modern Singapore, ceded to the British East India Company in 1819 by the sultan of Johore. The Dutch claimed that a treaty signed with the sultan's predecessor the year earlier had granted them control of the region. However, the impossibility of removing the British from Singapore, which was becoming an increasingly important centre of trade, became apparent to the Dutch, and the disagreement was resolved with the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824. Under its terms, the Netherlands ceded Malacca and their bases in India to the British, and recognized the British claim to Singapore. In return, the British handed over Bencoolen Presidency, Bencoolen and agreed not to sign treaties with rulers in the "islands south of the Straits of Singapore". Thus the Maritime Southeast Asia, archipelago was divided into two spheres of influence: a British one, on the Malay Peninsula, and a Dutch one in the East Indies. For most of the Dutch East Indies history, and that of the VOC before it, Dutch control over their territories was often tenuous, but was expanded over the course of the 19th century. Only in the early 20th century did Dutch dominance extend to what was to become the boundaries of modern-day Indonesia. Although highly populated and agriculturally productive, Java was under Dutch domination for most of the 350 years of the combined VOC and Dutch East Indies era, many areas remained independent for much of this time including Aceh, Lombok, Bali and Borneo. In 1871, all of the Dutch possessions on the were Anglo-Dutch Treaties of 1870-1871, sold to Britain. The Dutch West India company was abolished in 1791, and its colonies in Suriname and the Caribbean brought under the direct rule of the state. The economies of the Dutch colonies in the Caribbean had been based on the smuggling of goods and slaves into Spanish America, but with the end of the slave trade in 1814 and the independence of the new nations of South and Central America from Spain, profitability rapidly declined. Dutch traders moved ''en masse'' from the islands to the United States or Latin America, leaving behind small populations with little income and which required subsidies from the Dutch government. Curaçao and subordinates, The Antilles were combined under one administration with Suriname from 1828 to 1845. Slavery was not abolished in the Dutch Caribbean colonies until 1863, long after those of Britain and France, though by this time only 6,500 slaves remained. In Suriname, slave holders demanded compensation from the Dutch government for freeing slaves, whilst in , abolition of slavery in the French half in 1848 led slaves in the Dutch half to take their own freedom. In Suriname, after the abolition of slavery, Chinese workers were encouraged to immigrate as coolie, indentured labourers, as were Javanese, between 1890 and 1939.
IndonesiaIn January 1942, Imperial Japan, Japan Netherlands East Indies campaign, invaded the Netherlands East Indies. The Dutch surrendered two months later in Java, with Indonesians initially welcoming the Japanese as liberators. The subsequent Japanese occupation of Indonesia during the remainder of World War II saw the fundamental dismantling of the Dutch East Indies, Dutch colonial state's economic, political and social structures, replacing it with a Japanese regime. In the decades before the war, the Dutch had been overwhelmingly successful in suppressing the small nationalist movement in Indonesia such that the Japanese occupation proved fundamental for Indonesian independence.Vickers (2005), page 85 However, the Indonesian Communist Party founded by Dutch socialist Henk Sneevliet in 1914, popular also with Dutch workers and sailors at the time, was in strategic alliance with Sarekat Islam (q.v.) as early as 1917 until the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence and was particularly important in the fight against Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies in the Second World War. The Japanese encouraged and backed Indonesian nationalism in which new indigenous institutions were created and nationalist leaders such as Sukarno were promoted. The internment of all Dutch citizens meant that Indonesians filled many leadership and administrative positions, although the top positions were still held by the Japanese. Two days after the Japanese surrender in August 1945, Sukarno and fellow nationalist leader Mohammad Hatta, Hatta unilaterally declared Indonesian independence. Indonesian National Revolution, A four and a half-year struggle followed as the Dutch tried to re-establish their colony. Dutch forces eventually re-occupied most of the colonial territory and a guerrilla struggle ensued. The majority of Indonesians, and – ultimately – international opinion, favored independence, and in December 1949, the Netherlands Dutch-Indonesian Round Table Conference, formally recognized Indonesian sovereignty. Under the terms of the 1949 agreement, Western New Guinea remained under the auspices of the Dutch as Netherlands New Guinea, and West New Guinea dispute, its dispute will be resolved by a year. The new Indonesian government under President Sukarno pressured for the territory to come under Indonesian control as Indonesian nationalists initially intended. Following United States pressure, the Netherlands transferred it to Indonesia under the 1962 New York Agreement.
Suriname and the Netherlands AntillesIn 1954, under the "Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands", the Netherlands, Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles (at the time including Aruba) became a composite state, known as the "Tripartite Kingdom of the Netherlands". The former colonies were granted autonomy, save for certain matters including defense, foreign affairs and citizenship, which were the responsibility of the Realm. In 1969, 1969 Curaçao uprising, unrest in Curaçao led to Dutch marines being sent to quell rioting. In 1973, negotiations started in Suriname for independence, and full independence was granted in 1975, with 60,000 emigrants taking the opportunity of moving to the Netherlands. In 1986, was allowed to secede from the Netherlands Antilles federation, and was pressured by the Netherlands to move to independence within ten years. However, in 1994, it was agreed that its status as a Realm in its own right could continue. On October 10, 2010, the Dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles, Netherlands Antilles were dissolved. Effective on that date, Curaçao and Sint Maarten acceded to the same country status within the Kingdom that Aruba already enjoyed. The islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba were granted a status similar to Dutch municipalities, and are now sometimes referred to as the Caribbean Netherlands.
LegacyGenerally, the Dutch do not celebrate their imperial past, and anti-colonial sentiments have prevailed since Jacob Haafner's 1807 treatise. Subsequently, colonial history is not featured prominently in Dutch schoolbooks. This perspective on their imperial past has only recently started to shift.
Dutch diasporaIn some Dutch colonies there are major ethnic groups of Dutch people, Dutch ancestry descending from emigrated Dutch settlers. In South Africa the Boers and Cape Dutch are collectively known as the Afrikaners. The Burgher people of Sri Lanka and the Indo people of Indonesia as well as the Creole peoples, Creoles of Suriname are mixed race people of Dutch people, Dutch descent. In the USA there have been three American presidents of Dutch descent: Martin Van Buren, the first president who was not of British descent, and whose first language was Dutch, the 26th president Theodore Roosevelt, and Franklin D. Roosevelt, the 32nd president, elected to four terms in office (1933 to 1945) and the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms.
Dutch in Southeast AsiaDespite the Dutch presence in Indonesia for almost 350 years, the Dutch language has no official status and the small minority that can speak the language fluently are either educated members of the oldest generation, or employed in the legal profession, as some legal codes are still only available in Dutch. The Indonesian language loan word, inherited many words from Dutch, both in words for everyday life, and as well in scientific or technological terminology. One scholar argues that 20% of Indonesian language, Indonesian words can be traced back to Dutch words.
Dutch in South AsiaThe century and half of Dutch rule in Ceylon (modern day 'Sri Lanka') and southern India left few to no traces of the Dutch language.
Dutch in the AmericasIn Suriname, Dutch is the official language. 82% of the population can speak Dutch fluently In , Bonaire, and , Dutch is the official language but a first language for only 7-8% of the population; though most of the population is fluent in Dutch, which is generally the language of education. The population of the three northern Antilles, , Saba, and Sint Eustatius, is predominantly English-speaking. In New Jersey, an extinct dialect of Dutch, Jersey Dutch, was spoken by descendants of 17th century Dutch settlers in Bergen and Passaic counties, was noted to still be spoken as late as 1921. U.S. President Martin Van Buren, raised in a Dutch-speaking enclave in New York, had Dutch as his native language.
Dutch in AfricaThe greatest linguistic legacy of the Netherlands was in its colony in South Africa, which attracted large numbers of Dutch farmer (in Dutch, ''Boer'') settlers, who spoke a simplified form of Dutch called ''Afrikaans'', which is largely mutually intelligible with Dutch. After the colony passed into British hands, the settlers spread into the hinterland, taking their language with them. , there were 10 million people for whom Afrikaans is either a primary and secondary language, compared with over 22 million speakers of Dutch. Other Creole languages with Dutch linguistic roots are Papiamento still spoken in , Bonaire, , and Sint Eustatius; Saramaccan language, Saramaccan and Sranan Tongo still spoken in Suriname; Berbice Dutch Creole, Berbice an extinct language in Guyana; Petjo language, Pecok spoken but in danger of extinction in Indonesia and the Netherlands; Albany Dutch spoken but in danger of extinction in the USA. Extinct Dutch-based creole languages include: Skepi Dutch Creole, Skepi (Guyana); Negerhollands (aka "Negro Dutch"), Jersey Dutch and Mohawk Dutch (USA) and Javindo language, Javindo (Java).
PlacenamesSome towns of New York and areas of New York City, once part of the colony of New Netherland have names of Dutch origin, such as Brooklyn (after Breukelen), Flushing, Queens, Flushing (after Vlissingen), the Bowery (after Bouwerij, construction site), Harlem (after Haarlem), Coney Island (from Conyne Eylandt, modern Dutch spelling Konijneneiland: Rabbit island) and Staten Island (meaning "Island of the States General of the Netherlands, States"). The last Director-General of the colony of New Netherland, Pieter Stuyvesant, has bequeathed his name to a street, a neighborhood and a few schools in New York City, and the town of Stuyvesant, New York, Stuyvesant. Many of the towns and cities along the Hudson in upstate New York have placenames with Dutch origins (for example Yonkers, Hoboken, New Jersey, Hoboken, Haverstraw, Claverack, New York, Claverack, Staatsburg, New York, Staatsburg, Catskill (town), New York, Catskill, Kinderhook (town), New York, Kinderhook, Coeymans, New York, Coeymans, Rensselaer, New York, Rensselaer, Watervliet, New York, Watervliet). Nassau County, New York, Nassau County, one of the four that make up Long Island, is also of Dutch origin. The Schuylkill River, Schuylkill river that flows into the Delaware at Philadelphia is also a Dutch name meaning hidden or skulking river. Many towns and cities in Suriname share names with cities in the Netherlands, such as Alkmaar, Suriname, Alkmaar and Groningen, Suriname, Groningen. The capital of is named Willemstad and the capitals of both Saint Eustatius and are named Oranjestad, Aruba, Oranjestad. The first is named after the Dutch Prince Willem II van Oranje-Nassau (William of Orange-Nassau) and the two others after the first part of the current Dutch royal dynasty. Many of South Africa's Largest Metropolitan areas in South Africa, major cities have Dutch names i.e. Johannesburg, Kaapstad, Vereeniging, Bloemfontein and Vanderbijlpark. The country name ''New Zealand'' originated with Dutch cartographers, who called the islands ''Nova Zeelandia'', after the Seventeen Provinces, Dutch province of . British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicized the name to New Zealand. The Australian island state is named after Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who made the first reported European sighting of the island on 24 November 1642. He first named the island Anthony van Diemen's Land after his sponsor Anthony van Diemen, the Governor of the . The name was later shortened to Van Diemen's Land by the British. It was officially renamed in honor of its first European discoverer on 1 January 1856. Arnhem Land is named after the Dutch ship named Arnhem. The captain of the Arnhem (Willem van Coolsteerdt) also named the large island, east of Arnhem Groote Eylandt, in modern Dutch spelling Groot Eiland: Large Island. There are many Australian places with Dutch names, more Dutch geographical names in Australia.
ArchitectureIn the Surinamese Capital of Paramaribo, the Dutch Fort Zeelandia (Paramaribo), Fort Zeelandia still stands today. The city itself also have retained most of its old street layout and architecture, which is part of the world's UNESCO heritage. In the centre of Malacca, Malaysia, the Stadthuys, Stadthuys Building and Christ Church, Malacca, Christ Church still stand as a reminder of Dutch occupation. There are still archaeological remains of Fort Goede Hoop (modern Hartford, Connecticut) and Fort Orange (modern Albany, New York). Dutch architecture is easy to see in Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire and Saint Eustatius. The Dutch style buildings are especially visible in Willemstad, with its steeply pitched gables, large windows and soaring finials. Dutch architecture can also be found in Sri Lanka, especially in Galle Fort, Galle where the Dutch fortification and canal have been retained intact, even to an extent the former tropical Villas of the VOC officials. Some of the most prominent example of these architecture is the former governor's mansion in Galle, currently known as Amangalla, Amangalla Hotel and the Old Dutch Reformed Church. In the capital Colombo, many of the Dutch and Portuguese architecture around Fort (Colombo), The Fort have been demolished during the British period, few of the remaining include Old Colombo Dutch Hospital and Wolvendaal Church. During the period of Dutch colonisation in South Africa, a distinctive type of architecture, known as Cape Dutch architecture, was developed. These style of architecture can be found in historical towns such as Stellenbosch, Swellendam, Tulbagh, and Graaff-Reinet. In the former Dutch capital of Cape Town, nearly nothing from the VOC era have survived except the Castle of Good Hope. Although the Dutch already started erecting buildings shortly after they arrived on the shores of Batavia, Dutch East Indies, Batavia, most Dutch-built constructions still standing today in Indonesia stem from the 19th and 20th centuries. Forts from the colonial era, used for defense purposes, still line a number of major coastal cities across the archipelago. The largest number of surviving Dutch buildings can be found on Java and Sumatra, particularly in cities such as Jakarta, Bandung, Semarang, Yogyakarta, Surabaya, Cirebon, Pasuruan, Bukittinggi, Sawahlunto, Medan, Padang, and Malang. There are also significant examples of 17–19th century Dutch architecture around Banda Neira, Nusa Laut, and Saparua, the former main spices islands, which due to limited economic development have retained many of its colonial elements. Another prominent example of Dutch colonial architecture is Fort Rotterdam in Makassar. The earlier Dutch construction mostly replicate the architecture style in the Homeland (such as Toko Merah). However these buildings were unsuitable to tropical climate and expensive to maintain. And as a result the Dutch officials begun to adapt to the tropical condition by applying native elements such as wide-open veranda, ventilation and indigenous high pitch roofing into their Dutch Indies country houses, villas. "In the beginning (of the Dutch presence), Dutch construction on Java was based on colonial architecture which was modified according to the tropical and local cultural conditions," Indonesian art and design professor Pamudji Suptandar wrote. This was dubbed ''arsitektur Indis'' (Indies architecture), which combines the existing traditional Hindu-Javanese style with European forms. List of colonial buildings and structures in Jakarta, Many public buildings still standing and in use in Jakarta, such as the presidential palace, the finance ministry and the performing arts theater, were built in the 19th century in the Neoclassical architecture, classicist style. At the turn of the 20th century and partially due to the Dutch Ethical Policy, the number of Dutch people migrating to the colony grew with economic expansion. The increasing number of middle class population led to the development of Garden Suburbs in major city across the Indies, many of the houses were built in various style ranging from the Indies style, Renaissance Revival architecture, Neo-Renaissance to modern Art Deco. Some examples of these residential district include Menteng in Jakarta, Darmo in Surabaya, Polonia in Medan, Kotabaru in Yogyakarta, New Candi in Semarang and as well as most of North Bandung. Indonesia also became an experimental ground for Dutch Art Deco architectural movement such as Nieuwe Zakelijkheid, De Stijl, New Indies Style, Nieuw Indische and Amsterdam School. Several famous architect such as Wolff Schoemaker and Henri Maclaine Pont also made an attempt to modernize indigenous architecture, resulting several unique design such as Pohsarang Church and Bandung Institute of Technology. The largest stock of these Art Deco building can be found in the city of Bandung, which "architecturally" can considered the most European city in Indonesia. Since Indonesia's independence, few governments have shown interest in the conservation of historical buildings. Many architecturally grand buildings have been torn down in the past decades to erect shopping centres or office buildings e.g. Hotel des Indes (Batavia), Harmony Society, Batavia. Presently, however, more Indonesians have become aware of the value of preserving their old buildings.
"A decade ago, most people thought I was crazy when they learned of my efforts to save the old part of Jakarta. A few years later, the negative voices started to disappear, and now many people are starting to think with me: how are we going to save our city. In the past using the negative sentiment towards the colonial era was often used as an excuse to disregard protests against the demolition of historical buildings. An increasing number of people now see the old colonial buildings as part of their city’s overall heritage rather than focusing on its colonial aspect.", leading Indonesian architect and conservationist Budi Lim said.
InfrastructureBeyond Indonesia's art deco architecture also much of the country's rail and road infrastructure as well as its major cities were built during the colonial period. Many of Indonesia's main cities were mere rural townships before colonial industrialization and urban development. Examples on Java include the capital Jakarta and Bandung, outside Java examples include Ambon, Maluku, Ambon and Menado city. Most main railroads and rail stations on Java as well as the main road, called Daendels Great Post Road (Dutch: Grote Postweg) after the Governor General commissioning the work, connecting west to east Java were also built during the Dutch East Indies era. Between 1800 and 1950 Dutch engineers created an infrastructure including of roads, of railways, many large bridges, modern irrigation systems covering 1.4 million hectares (5,400 sq mi) of rice fields, several international harbors, and 140 public drinking water systems. These Dutch constructed public works became the material base of the colonial and postcolonial Indonesian state.
AgricultureCrops such like coffee, tea, cocoa bean, cocoa, tobacco and rubber were all introduced by the Dutch. The Dutch were the first to start the spread of the coffee plant in Central and South America, and by the early 19th century Java was the third largest producer in the world. In 1778 the Dutch brought cacao from the to Indonesia and commenced mass production. Currently Indonesia is the world's second largest producer of natural rubber, a crop that was introduced by the Dutch in the early 20th century. Tobacco was introduced from the Americas and in 1863 the first plantation was established by the Dutch. Today Indonesia is not only the oldest industrial producer of tobacco, but also the second largest consumer of tobacco.
Scientific discoveriesJava Man was discovered by Eugène Dubois in Indonesia in 1891. The Komodo dragon was firstly described by Peter Ouwens in Indonesia in 1912 after an airplane crash in 1911 and rumors about living dinosaurs on Komodo Island in 1910.
SurinameMany Suriname-born football players and Dutch-born football players of Surinamese descent, like Gerald Vanenburg, Ruud Gullit, Frank Rijkaard, Edgar Davids, Clarence Seedorf, Patrick Kluivert, Aron Winter, Georginio Wijnaldum, Virgil van Dijk and Jimmy Floyd Hasselbaink have turned out to play for the Netherlands national football team, Dutch national team. In 1999, Humphrey Mijnals, who played for both Suriname national football team, Suriname and the Netherlands, was elected Surinamese footballer of the century. Another famous player is André Kamperveen, who captained Suriname in the 1940s and was the first Surinamese to play professionally in the Netherlands. Suriname discourages dual citizenship and Surinamese-Dutch players who have picked up a Netherlands passport – which, crucially, offers legal work status in almost any European league – are barred from selection to the national team. In 2014, inspired by the success of teams with FIFA eligibility rules, dual nationals, especially Algeria at the FIFA World Cup, Algeria, Surinamese Football Association, SVB president John Krishnadath submitted a proposal to the national assembly to allow dual citizenship for athletes with the then-goal of reaching the 2018 FIFA World Cup finals. In order to support this project, a team with professional players of Surinamese origin was assembled and played an exhibition match on 26 December 2014 at the Andre Kamperveen Stadion. The project is managed by Nordin Wooter and David Endt, who have set up a presentation and sent invitations to 100 players of Surinamese origin, receiving 85 positive answers. Dean Gorré was named to coach this special selection. FIFA supported the project and granted insurance for the players and clubs despite the match being unofficial. In November 2019, it was announced that a so-called sports passport would allow Dutch professional footballers from the Surinamese diaspora to represent Suriname. Suriname also has a Suriname national korfball team, national korfball team, with korfball being a Dutch sport. Vinkensport is also practised in Suriname, as are popular among the Dutch sports of volleyball and troefcall.
South AfricaAjax Cape Town is a professional Association football, football team named and owned by Ajax Amsterdam, replicating their crest and colours. The Dutch sport of korfball is administered by the South African Korfball Federation, who manage the South Africa national korfball team. The 2019 IKF World Korfball Championship was held in August 2019 in Durban, South Africa.
IndonesiaThe Football in Indonesia, Indonesian football league started around 1930 in the Dutch colonial era. The Indonesia national football team, Indonesian men's team was the first Asian team to qualify for the FIFA World Cup; in 1938 FIFA World Cup they played as the Dutch East Indies national football team, Dutch East Indies. Association football is now the most popular sport in Indonesia, in terms of annual attendance, participation and revenue and it is played on all levels, from children to middle-aged men. The Indonesian Tennis Association was also founded during Dutch rule in 1935, and has a long history of fielding its national Fed Cup Indonesia Fed Cup team, team and Davis Cup Indonesia Davis Cup team, team, although the first participation's in the 60s were not till after independence. As in the Netherlands, volleyball remains a popular sport, with the Indonesian Volleyball Federation organising both the Indonesian men's Proliga, Men's Pro Liga and Indonesian women's Proliga, women's Pro Liga and administrates the Indonesia men's national volleyball team, men's and Indonesia women's national volleyball team, women's national teams. The Dutch sport of korfball is also practised, and there is a Indonesia national korfball team, national korfball team.
See also* Dutch colonization of the Americas * Dutch Language Union * List of Dutch East India Company trading posts * Ministry of the Colonies (Netherlands)
References* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
Further reading* * * * * * * * Klooster, Wim. ''The Dutch Moment: War, Trade, and Settlement in the Seventeenth-Century Atlantic World'' (2016) * Klooster, Wim, and Gert Oostindie. ''Realm between Empires: The Second Dutch Atlantic, 1680-1815'' (Cornell UP, 2018) 348 pp