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Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an
Ancient Greek dialect Ancient Greek in classical antiquity, before the development of the common Koine Greek of the Hellenistic period, was divided into several variety (linguistics), varieties. Most of these varieties are known only from inscriptions, but a few of the ...
. Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern
Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ) is a peninsula and geographic regions of Greece, geographic region in southern Greece. It is connected to the central part of the country by the ...
as well as in
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
,
Epirus sq, Epiri rup, Epiru , native_name_lang = , settlement_type = Historical region , image_map = Epirus antiquus tabula.jpg , map_alt = , map_caption = Map of ancient Epirus by Heinrich ...
,
Southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), also known as ''Meridione'' or ''Mezzogiorno'' (, literally "Midday"; in nap, 'o Miezojuorno; in scn, Mezzujornu), is a macroregionA macroregion is a geopolitical subdivisi ...
,
Crete Crete ( el, Κρήτη, translit=, Modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology ...

Crete
,
Rhodes Rhodes (; el, Ρόδος, translit=Ródos ) is the largest of the Dodecanese The Dodecanese (, ; el, Δωδεκάνησα, ''Dodekánisa'' , literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the sout ...

Rhodes
, some islands in the southern
Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated Bay, embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between Europe's Geography of Europe, Balkan peninsula and Asia's Anatolia peninsula. The sea has an area of some 215,000 square kilometres. In ...

Aegean Sea
and some cities on the south east coast of
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
. Together with Northwest Greek, it forms the "Western group" of classical Greek dialects. By
Hellenistic The Hellenistic period spans the period of Mediterranean history The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, We ...
times, under the
Achaean League The Achaean League (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 m ...
, an Achaean-Doric
koiné language In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
appeared, exhibiting many peculiarities common to all Doric dialects, which delayed the spread of the
Attic An attic (sometimes referred to as a ''loft 's Near West Side A loft is a building's upper storey or elevated area in a room directly under the roof (American usage), or just an attic: a storage space under the roof usually accessed by a lad ...
-based
Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek language, Greek spoken and written d ...
to the Peloponnese until the 2nd century BC. The only living descendant of Doric is the
Tsakonian language Tsakonian (also Tsaconian, Tzakonian or Tsakonic; Tsakonian: , ; Greek: ) is a Hellenic language which is both highly divergent from other spoken varieties of Modern Greek The linguistic varieties of Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''K ...
which is still spoken in
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2021; Athens is its largest and capital city, followed ...

Greece
today; though critically endangered, with only a few hundred – mostly elderly – fluent speakers left. It is widely accepted that Doric originated in the mountains of
Epirus sq, Epiri rup, Epiru , native_name_lang = , settlement_type = Historical region , image_map = Epirus antiquus tabula.jpg , map_alt = , map_caption = Map of ancient Epirus by Heinrich ...
in northwestern
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2021; Athens is its largest and capital city, followed ...

Greece
, the original seat of the
Dorians The Dorians (; el, Δωριεῖς, ''Dōrieîs'', singular , ''Dōrieús'') were one of the four major ethnic groups into which the Greeks, Hellenes (or Greeks) of Classical Greece divided themselves (along with the Aeolians, Achaeans (tribe) ...
. It was expanded to all other regions during the
Dorian invasion The Dorian invasion is a concept devised by historians of Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th ce ...
(c. 1150 BC) and the colonisations that followed. The presence of a Doric state (
Doris Doris may refer to: People Given name * Doris (mythology) of Greek mythology, daughter of Oceanus and Tethys * Doris, fictional character in the Canadian television series '' Caillou'' * Doris (singer) (born 1947), Swedish rock and pop singer * ...
) in central Greece, north of the
Gulf of Corinth The Gulf of Corinth or the Corinthian Gulf ( el, Κορινθιακός Kόλπος, ''Korinthiakόs Kόlpos'', ) is a deep of the , separating the from western mainland . It is bounded in the east by the which includes the shipping-designe ...

Gulf of Corinth
, led to the theory that Doric had originated in northwest Greece or maybe beyond in the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rathe ...

Balkans
. The dialect's distribution towards the north extends to the
Megarian
Megarian
colony of
Byzantium Byzantium () or Byzantion ( grc-gre, Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark A ...

Byzantium
and the
Corinth Corinth ( ; el, Κόρινθος, Kórinthos, ) is the successor to an ancient city, and is a former municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of sel ...

Corinth
ian colonies of
Potidaea__NOTOC__ Remains of the city wall of Potidaea. Potidaea (; grc, Ποτίδαια, ''Potidaia'', also Ποτείδαια, ''Poteidaia'') was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though do ...

Potidaea
,
Epidamnos The ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: Mycenaean Gr ...
,
Apollonia Apollonia or Apolonia (named after the Greek god Apollo) may refer to : Places and jurisdictions Albania * Apollonia (Illyria), now Pojani (Polina) in Albania; former bishopric, now Latin titular see Bulgaria * Apollonia, Thrace, Apollon ...
and
Ambracia Ambracia (; grc-gre, Ἀμβρακία, occasionally , ''Ampracia'') was a city of ancient Greece on the site of modern Arta, Greece, Arta. It was captured by the Ancient Corinth, Corinthians in 625 BC and was situated about from the Ambracian Gul ...
; there, it further added words to what would become the
Albanian language Albanian (; , or , ) is an Indo-European language The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontine ...

Albanian language
,; Albanian version BUShT 1962:1.219-227 probably via traders from a now-extinct
Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tribes inhabiting Illyria ** Illyrian language, a language or group of languages of ancient Illyrian tribes * Illyrian (South Slavic), a common na ...
intermediary. In the north, local epigraphical evidence includes the decrees of the
Epirote League The Epirote League ( Epirote: , ''Koinòn Āpeirōtân''; Attic An attic (sometimes referred to as a ''loft'') is a space found directly below the pitched roof of a house or other building; an attic may also be called a ''sky parlor'' or a ga ...
, the
Pella curse tablet The Pella curse tablet is a text written in a distinct Doric Greek Doric, or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an Ancient Greek dialect. Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern Peloponnese as well as in Sicily, Epirus ...
, three additional lesser known
Macedonian Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
inscriptions (all of them identifiable as Doric), numerous inscriptions from a number of Greek colonies, etc.. Furthermore, we also have plenty of local coins and names that assist us in our study of the northern Doric dialects. Southern dialects, in addition to numerous inscriptions, coins, and names, have also provided much more literary evidence through authors such as
Alcman Alcman (; grc-gre, Ἀλκμάν ''Alkmán''; floruit, fl.  7th century BC) was an Ancient Greek Choral poetry, choral lyric poet from Sparta. He is the earliest representative of the Alexandrian canon of the Nine Lyric Poets. Biography ...
,
Pindar Pindar (; grc-gre, Πίνδαρος , ; la, Pindarus; c. 518 – 438 BC) was an Greek lyric, Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes, Greece, Thebes. Of the Western canon, canonical nine lyric poets of ancient Greece, his work is the best preserv ...

Pindar
,
Archimedes of Syracuse Archimedes of Syracuse (; grc, ; ; ) was a Greeks, Greek Greek mathematics, mathematician, physics, physicist, engineering, engineer, inventor, and astronomy, astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of th ...

Archimedes of Syracuse
, and many others, all of whom wrote in Doric. Last, we also have ancient dictionaries, such as the one from
Hesychius of Alexandria Hesychius of Alexandria ) , name = Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic: Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the List of cities a ...
, whose work preserved many dialectal words from throughout the Greek-speaking world.


Variants


Doric proper

Where the Doric dialect group fits in the overall classification of ancient Greek dialects depends to some extent on the classification. Several views are stated under Greek dialects. The prevalent theme of most views listed there is that Doric is a subgroup of West Greek. Some use the terms Northern Greek or Northwest Greek instead. The geographic distinction is only verbal and ostensibly is misnamed: all of Doric was spoken south of "Southern Greek" or "Southeastern Greek." Be that as it may, "Northern Greek" is based on a presumption that
Dorians The Dorians (; el, Δωριεῖς, ''Dōrieîs'', singular , ''Dōrieús'') were one of the four major ethnic groups into which the Greeks, Hellenes (or Greeks) of Classical Greece divided themselves (along with the Aeolians, Achaeans (tribe) ...
came from the north and on the fact that Doric is closely related to Northwest Greek. When the distinction began is not known. All the "northerners" might have spoken one dialect at the time of the Dorian invasion; certainly, Doric could only have further differentiated into its classical dialects when the Dorians were in place in the south. Thus West Greek is the most accurate name for the classical dialects. Tsakonian, a descendant of Laconian Doric (Spartan), is still spoken on the southern
Argolid The regions of ancient Greece were areas identified by the ancient Greeks as geographical sub-divisions of the Hellenic world. These regions are described in the works of ancient historians and geographers, and in the legends and myths of the anc ...
coast of the Peloponnese, in the modern prefectures of
Arcadia Arcadia may refer to: Places Australia * Arcadia, New South Wales, a suburb of Sydney * Arcadia, Queensland * Arcadia, Victoria Greece * Arcadia (region) Arcadia ( el, Ἀρκαδία) is a region in the central Peloponnese. It takes its name ...
and
Laconia Laconia or Lakonia ( el, Λακωνία, , ) is a historical and administrative region of Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10. ...
. Today it is a source of considerable interest to linguists, and an endangered dialect.


Laconian

Laconian was spoken by the population of
Laconia Laconia or Lakonia ( el, Λακωνία, , ) is a historical and administrative region of Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10. ...
in the southern
Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ) is a peninsula and geographic regions of Greece, geographic region in southern Greece. It is connected to the central part of the country by the ...
and also by its colonies,
Taras
Taras
and Herakleia in
Magna Graecia Magna Graecia (, ; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic ...

Magna Graecia
.
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an . Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern as well as in , , , , , some islands in the southern and some cities on the south east coast of ...

Sparta
was the seat of ancient Laconia. Laconian is attested in inscriptions on pottery and stone from the seventh century BC. A dedication to Helen dates from the second quarter of the seventh century. Taras was founded in 706 and its founders must already have spoken Laconic. Many documents from the state of Sparta survive, whose citizens called themselves Lacedaemonians after the name of the valley in which they lived.
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...

Homer
calls it "hollow Lacedaemon", though he refers to a pre-Dorian period. The seventh century Spartan poet
Alcman Alcman (; grc-gre, Ἀλκμάν ''Alkmán''; floruit, fl.  7th century BC) was an Ancient Greek Choral poetry, choral lyric poet from Sparta. He is the earliest representative of the Alexandrian canon of the Nine Lyric Poets. Biography ...
used a dialect that some consider to be predominantly Laconian. Philoxenus of Alexandria wrote a treatise ''On the Laconian dialect''.


Argolic

Argolic was spoken in the thickly settled northeast Peloponnese at, for example,
Argos Argos usually refers to: * Argos, Peloponnese Argos (; Greek language, Greek: Άργος ; Ancient Greek: Ἄργος ) is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese (region), Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the List of oldest continuously inhabited ci ...
,
Mycenae Mycenae ( ; grc, Μυκῆναι or , ''Mykē̂nai'' or ''Mykḗnē'') is an archaeological site near Mykines, Greece, Mykines in Argolis, north-eastern Peloponnese, Greece. It is located about south-west of Athens; north of Argos, Peloponne ...

Mycenae
,
HermioneHermione may refer to: People * Hermione (given name), a female given name * Hermione (mythology), only daughter of Menelaus and Helen in Greek mythology and original bearer of the name Arts and literature * ''Cadmus et Hermione'', an opera by Je ...
,
Troezen Troezen (; ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refe ...
,
Epidaurus Epidaurus ( gr, Ἐπίδαυρος) was a small city (''polis ''Polis'' (, ; grc-gre, πόλις, ), plural ''poleis'' (, , ), literally means "city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human ...

Epidaurus
, and as close to
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...

Athens
as the island of
Aegina Aegina (; el, Αίγινα, ''Aígina'' ; grc, Αἴγῑνα) is one of the Saronic Islands The Saronic Islands or Argo-Saronic Islands is an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain ...

Aegina
. As
Mycenaean Greek Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively ...
had been spoken in this dialect region in the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
, it is clear that the Dorians overran it but were unable to take
Attica Attica ( el, Αττική, Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply a ...

Attica
. The Dorians went on from Argos to
Crete Crete ( el, Κρήτη, translit=, Modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology ...

Crete
and
Rhodes Rhodes (; el, Ρόδος, translit=Ródos ) is the largest of the Dodecanese The Dodecanese (, ; el, Δωδεκάνησα, ''Dodekánisa'' , literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the sout ...

Rhodes
. Ample inscriptional material of a legal, political and religious content exists from at least the sixth century BC.


Corinthian

Corinthian was spoken first in the isthmus region between the Peloponnesus and mainland
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2021; Athens is its largest and capital city, followed ...

Greece
; that is, the
Isthmus of Corinth The Isthmus of Corinth (Greek language, Greek: Ισθμός της Κορίνθου) is the narrow land bridge which connects the Peloponnese peninsula with the rest of the mainland of Greece, near the city of Corinth. The word "isthmus" comes ...

Isthmus of Corinth
. The cities and states of the Corinthian dialect region were
Corinth Corinth ( ; el, Κόρινθος, Kórinthos, ) is the successor to an ancient city, and is a former municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of sel ...

Corinth
,
Sicyon Sicyon (; el, Σικυών; ''gen''.: Σικυῶνος) or Sikyon was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa' ...

Sicyon
,
Archaies Kleones Archaies Kleones ( el, Αρχαίες Κλεωνές, formerly known as Condostavlos or Kontostavlos (Κοντόσταυλος) until 1963) is a settlement in the municipality of Nemea, Corinthia Corinthia ( el, Κορινθία ''Korinthía'') i ...
,
Phlius Phlius (; grc-gre, Φλιοῦς) or Phleius () was an independent polis ''Polis'' (, ; grc-gre, πόλις, ), plural ''poleis'' (, , ), literally means "city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary ...
, the colonies of Corinth in western Greece:
Corcyra Corfu (, ) or Kerkyra ( el, Κέρκυρα, Kérkyra, ), ; ; la, Corcyra. is a Greek islands, Greek island located in the Ionian Sea, of the Ionian Islands, and, including its small satellite islands, forms the margin of the northwestern fronti ...

Corcyra
,
Leucas
Leucas
,
Anactorium Anactorium or Anaktorion ( grc, Ἀνακτόριον) was a town in ancient Acarnania, situated on the promontory on the Ambraciot Gulf. On entering the Ambraciot Gulf from the Ionian Sea The Ionian Sea ( el, Ιόνιο Πέλαγος, ''Ión ...
,
Ambracia Ambracia (; grc-gre, Ἀμβρακία, occasionally , ''Ampracia'') was a city of ancient Greece on the site of modern Arta, Greece, Arta. It was captured by the Ancient Corinth, Corinthians in 625 BC and was situated about from the Ambracian Gul ...
and others, the colonies in and around Italy:
Syracuse, Sicily Syracuse ( ; it, Siracusa , or scn, Seragusa, label=none ; lat, Syrācūsae ; grc-att, wikt:Συράκουσαι, Συράκουσαι, Syrákousai ; grc-dor, wikt:Συράκοσαι, Συράκοσαι, Syrā́kosai ; grc-x-medieval ...

Syracuse, Sicily
and
Ancona Ancona (, also , ; ) is a city and a seaport in the Marche region in central Italy, with a population of around 101,997 . Ancona is the capital of the province of Ancona and of the region. The city is located northeast of Rome, on the Adriatic ...

Ancona
, and the colonies of
Corcyra Corfu (, ) or Kerkyra ( el, Κέρκυρα, Kérkyra, ), ; ; la, Corcyra. is a Greek islands, Greek island located in the Ionian Sea, of the Ionian Islands, and, including its small satellite islands, forms the margin of the northwestern fronti ...

Corcyra
:
Dyrrachium
Dyrrachium
, and
Apollonia Apollonia or Apolonia (named after the Greek god Apollo) may refer to : Places and jurisdictions Albania * Apollonia (Illyria), now Pojani (Polina) in Albania; former bishopric, now Latin titular see Bulgaria * Apollonia, Thrace, Apollon ...
. Th
earliest inscriptions
at Corinth date from the early sixth century BC. They use a Corinthian epichoric alphabet. (See under
Attic Greek Attic Greek is the Greek language, Greek dialect of the regions of ancient Greece, ancient region of Attica, including the ''polis'' of classical Athens, Athens. Often called classical Greek, it was the prestige (sociolinguistics), prestige diale ...
.) Corinth contradicts the prejudice that Dorians were rustic militarists, as some consider the speakers of Laconian to be. Positioned on an international trade route, Corinth played a leading part in the re-civilizing of Greece after the centuries of disorder and isolation following the collapse of Mycenaean Greece.


Northwest Doric

The Northwest Doric (or "Northwest Greek", with "Northwest Doric" now considered more accurate so as not to distance the group from Doric proper) group is closely related to Doric proper, while sometimes there is no distinction between Doric and the Northwest Doric. Whether it is to be considered a part of the southern Doric Group or the latter a part of it or the two considered subgroups of West Greek, the dialects and their grouping remain the same. West Thessalian and
Boeotian Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinisation of names, Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia (; el, Βοιωτία, , ; modern transliteration ''Voiotía'', also ''Viotía'', formerly ''Cadmeis''), is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of ...
had come under a strong Northwest Doric influence. While Northwest Doric is generally seen as a dialectal group, dissenting views exist, such as that of Méndez-Dosuna, who argues that Northwest Doric is not a proper dialectal group but rather merely a case of areal dialectal convergence. Throughout the Northwest Doric area, most internal differences did not hinder mutual understanding, though Filos, citing Bubenik, notes that there were certain cases where a bit of accommodation may have been necessary. The earliest epigraphic texts for Northwest Doric date to the 6th–5th century BCE. These are thought to provide evidence for Northwest Doric features, especially the phonology and morphophonology, but most of the features thus attributed to Northwest Doric are not exclusive to it. The Northwest Doric dialects differ from the main Doric Group dialects in the below features: # Dative plural of the
third declension{{No footnotes, date=February 2021 The third declension In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word, generally to express its syntactic function in the sentence, by way of some inflection. The inflectional change of verbs is ca ...
in (''-ois'') (instead of (''-si'')): ''Akarnanois hippeois'' for ''Akarnasin hippeusin'' (to the Acarnanian knights). # (''en'') + accusative (instead of (''eis'')): ''en Naupakton'' (into Naupactus). # (''-st'') for (''-sth''): ''genestai'' for ''genesthai'' (to become), ''mistôma'' for ''misthôma'' (payment for hiring). # ar for er: ''amara'' /Dor. ''amera''/Att. ''hêmera'' (day), Elean ''wargon'' for Doric ''wergon'' and Attic ''ergon'' (work) # Dative singular in ''-oi'' instead of ''-ôi'': , Doric , Attic (to Asclepius) # Middle participle in ''-eimenos'' instead of ''-oumenos'' Four or five dialects of Northwestern Doric are recognised.


Phocian

This dialect was spoken in
Phocis Phocis ( el, Φωκίδα, , grc, Φωκίς ) is one of the regional units of Greece The 74 regional units ( el, περιφερειακές ενότητες, ; sing. , ) are administrative units Administrative division, administrative un ...
and in its main settlement,
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...

Delphi
. Because of that it is also cited as Delphian.
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46 – after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonist Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC&nbs ...

Plutarch
says that
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...

Delphi
ans pronounce ''b'' in the place of ''p'' ( for )


Locrian

Locrian Greek is attested in two locations: *
Ozolian Locris Ozolian Locris ( grc, Ὀζολία Λοκρίς) or Hesperian Locris ( grc, Λοκρίς Ἑσπερία, 3=Western Locris) was a region in Ancient Greece, inhabited by the Ozolian Locrians ( grc-gre, Ὀζολοὶ Λοκροί; la, Locri Ozoli ...
, along the northwest coast of the
Gulf of Corinth The Gulf of Corinth or the Corinthian Gulf ( el, Κορινθιακός Kόλπος, ''Korinthiakόs Kόlpos'', ) is a deep of the , separating the from western mainland . It is bounded in the east by the which includes the shipping-designe ...

Gulf of Corinth
around
Amfissa Amfissa ( el, Άμφισσα , also mentioned in classical sources as Amphissa) is a town in Phocis Phocis ( el, Φωκίδα, , grc, Φωκίς ) is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the administrative region of Central Greece ...
(earliest c. 500 BC); *
Opuntian Locris Opuntian Locris or Eastern Locris was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by spea ...
, on the coast of mainland Greece opposite northwest
Euboea Euboea (, ) or Evia (, ; el, Εύβοια Euboea (, ) or Evia (, ; el, Εύβοια ; grc, Εὔβοια ) is the second-largest List of islands of Greece, Greek island in area and population, after Crete. It is separated from Boeotia ...

Euboea
, around Opus.


Elean

The dialect of
Elis Elis or Ilia ( el, Ηλεία, ''Ileia'') is a historic region in the western part of the Peloponnese The Peloponnese (), Peloponnesia, or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos, ) is a peninsula and geographic regions ...
(earliest c. 600 BC) is considered, after
Aeolic Greek In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the ...
, one of the most difficult for the modern reader of epigraphic texts.


Epirote

Spoken at the
Dodona Dodona (; : Δωδώνα, ''Dōdṓnā'', and : Δωδώνη, ''Dōdṓnē'') in in northwestern was the oldest oracle, possibly dating to the according to . The earliest accounts in describe Dodona as an oracle of . Situated in a remote r ...
oracle, (earliest c. 550–500 BC) firstly under control of the
Thesprotians The Thesprotians ( Greek: Θεσπρωτοί, ''Thesprōtoí'') were an ancient Greek tribe, akin to the Molossians, inhabiting the kingdom of Thesprotis in Epirus. Together with the Molossians and the Chaonians, they formed the main tribes ...
; later organized in the
Epirote League The Epirote League ( Epirote: , ''Koinòn Āpeirōtân''; Attic An attic (sometimes referred to as a ''loft'') is a space found directly below the pitched roof of a house or other building; an attic may also be called a ''sky parlor'' or a ga ...
(since c. 370 BC).


Ancient Macedonian

Most scholars maintain that ancient Macedonian was a Greek dialect, probably of the Northwestern Doric group in particular. Olivier Masson, in his article for ''The Oxford Classical Dictionary'', talks of "two schools of thought": one rejecting "the Greek affiliation of Macedonian" and preferring "to treat it as an Indo-European language of the Balkans" of contested affiliation (examples are Bonfante 1987, and Russu 1938); the other favouring "a purely Greek nature of Macedonian as a northern Greek dialect" with numerous adherents from the 19th century and on (Fick 1874; Hoffmann 1906; Hatzidakis 1897 etc.; Kalleris 1964 and 1976). Masson himself argues with the largely Greek character of the Macedonian
onomastics Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the etymology, history, and use of proper names. An ''wikt:orthonym, orthonym'' is the proper name of the object in question, the object of onomastic study. Onomastics can be helpful in data mining, with a ...
and sees Macedonian as "a Greek dialect, characterised by its marginal position and by local pronunciations" and probably most closely related to the dialects of the Greek North-West (Locrian, Aetolian, Phocidian, Epirote). Brian D. Joseph acknowledges the closeness of Macedonian to Greek (even contemplating to group them into a "Hellenic branch" of Indo-European), but retains that " e slender evidence is open to different interpretations, so that no definitive answer is really possible". Johannes Engels has pointed to the
Pella curse tablet The Pella curse tablet is a text written in a distinct Doric Greek Doric, or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an Ancient Greek dialect. Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern Peloponnese as well as in Sicily, Epirus ...
, written in Doric Greek: "This has been judged to be the most important ancient testimony to substantiate that Macedonian was a north-western Greek and mainly a Doric dialect". Miltiades Hatzopoulos has suggested that the Macedonian dialect of the 4th century BC, as attested in the
Pella curse tablet The Pella curse tablet is a text written in a distinct Doric Greek Doric, or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an Ancient Greek dialect. Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern Peloponnese as well as in Sicily, Epirus ...
, was a sort of Macedonian ‘koine’ resulting from the encounter of the idiom of the ‘
Aeolic In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Itali ...
’-speaking populations around
Mount Olympus Mount Olympus (; el, Όλυμπος, Ólympos, also , ) is the highest mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in ...

Mount Olympus
and the
Pierian Mountains The Pierian Mountains (or commonly referred to as Piéria) are a mountain range between Imathia, Pieria (regional unit), Pieria and Kozani (regional unit), Kozani Region, south of the plain of Kambania in Central Macedonia, Greece. The village of ...
with the Northwest Greek-speaking Argead Macedonians hailing from Argos Orestikon, who founded the kingdom of
Lower Macedonia Lower Macedonia ( el, Κάτω Μακεδονία, ''Kato Makedonia'') or Macedonia proper or Emathia is a geographical term used in Antiquity Antiquity or Antiquities may refer to Historical objects or periods Artifacts * Antiquities, objects ...
. However, according to Hatzopoulos, B. Helly expanded and improved his own earlier suggestion and presented the hypothesis of a (North-)‘ Achaean’ substratum extending as far north as the head of the
Thermaic Gulf The Thermaic Gulf (), also called the Gulf of Salonika and the Macedonian Gulf, is a gulf A gulf is a large inlet from the ocean into the landmass, typically with a narrower opening than a bay (geography), bay, but that is not observable in ...
, which had a continuous relation, in prehistoric times both in
Thessaly Thessaly ( el, Θεσσαλία, translit=Thessalía, ; ancient Aeolic Greek#Thessalian, Thessalian: , ) is a traditional geographic regions of Greece, geographic and modern administrative regions of Greece, administrative region of Greece, co ...
and
Macedonia Macedonia most commonly refers to: * North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia until February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe. It gained independence in ...
, with the Northwest Greek-speaking populations living on the other side of the
Pindus The Pindus (also Pindos or Pindhos; el, Πίνδος, Píndos; sq, Pindet; rup, Pindu) is a mountain range located in Northern Greece and Southern Albania. It is roughly 160 km (100 miles) long, with a maximum elevation of 2,637 metres (86 ...
mountain range, and contacts became cohabitation when the Argead Macedonians completed their wandering from Orestis to Lower Macedonia in the 7th c. BC. According to this hypothesis, Hatzopoulos concludes that the
Macedonian Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
Greek dialect of the historical period, which is attested in inscriptions, is a sort of koine resulting from the interaction and the influences of various elements, the most important of which are the North- Achaean substratum, the Northwest Greek idiom of the Argead
Macedonians Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
, and the
Thracian The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European speaking people who inhabited large parts of Eastern and Southeastern Europe in ancient history.. "The Thracians were an Indo-European people who occupied ...
and Phrygian adstrata.


Northwest Doric koina

The Northwest Doric koina refers to a supraregional North-West common variety that that emerged in the third and second centuries BCE, and was used in the official texts of the
Aetolian League :''For the English football league, see Aetolian League (football).'' The Aetolian League (also transliterated as Aitolian League) ( grc, ) was a confederation of tribal communities and cities in ancient Greece centered in Aetolia in central Gree ...
. Such texts have been found in W. Locris, Phocis, and Phtiotis, among other sites. It contained a mix of native Northwest Doric dialectal elements and Attic forms. It was apparently based on the most general features of Northwest Doric, eschewing less common local traits. Its rise was driven by both linguistic and non-linguistic factors, with non-linguistic motivating factors including the spread of the rival Attic-Ionic koine after it was recruited by the Macedonian state for administration, and the political unification of a vast territories by the Aetolian League and the state of Epirus. The Northwest Doric koina was thus both a linguistic and a political rival of the Attic-Ionic koina.


Phonology


Vowels


Long a

Proto-Greek The Proto-Greek language (also known as Proto-Hellenic) is the Indo-European language The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with t ...
long *ā is retained as ''ā'', in contrast to
Attic An attic (sometimes referred to as a ''loft 's Near West Side A loft is a building's upper storey or elevated area in a room directly under the roof (American usage), or just an attic: a storage space under the roof usually accessed by a lad ...
developing a long open ''ē'' (
eta Eta (uppercase , lowercase ; grc, ἦτα ''ē̂ta'' or ell, ήτα ''ita'' ) is the seventh letter of the Greek alphabet The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is ...

eta
) in at least some positions. * Doric ''gā mātēr'' ~ Attic ''gē mētēr'' 'earth mother'


Compensatory lengthening of e and o

In certain Doric dialects (Severe Doric), *e and *o lengthen by compensatory lengthening or contraction to
eta Eta (uppercase , lowercase ; grc, ἦτα ''ē̂ta'' or ell, ήτα ''ita'' ) is the seventh letter of the Greek alphabet The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is ...

eta
or
omega Omega (; capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (o ...

omega
, in contrast to Attic ''ei'' and ''ou'' ( spurious diphthongs). * Severe Doric ''-ō'' ~ Attic ''-ou'' (second-declension genitive singular) * ''-ōs'' ~ ''-ous'' (second-declension accusative plural) * ''-ēn'' ~ ''-ein'' (present, second aorist infinitive active)


Contraction of a and e

Contraction: Proto-Greek *ae > Doric ''ē'' (
eta Eta (uppercase , lowercase ; grc, ἦτα ''ē̂ta'' or ell, ήτα ''ita'' ) is the seventh letter of the Greek alphabet The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is ...

eta
) ~ Attic ''ā''.


Synizesis

Proto-Greek *eo, *ea > some Doric dialects' ''io, ia''.


Proto-Greek *a

Proto-Greek short *a > Doric short ''a'' ~ Attic ''e'' in certain words. * Doric ''hiaros'', ''Artamis'' ~ Attic ''hieros'' 'holy', Artemis, ''Artemis''


Consonants


Proto-Greek *-ti

Proto-Greek *-ti is retained (assibilated to ''-si'' in Attic). * Doric ''phāti'' ~ Attic ''phēsi'' 'he says' (3rd sing. pres. of athematic verb) * ''legonti'' ~ ''legousi'' 'they say' (3rd pl. pres. of thematic verb) * ''wīkati'' ~ ''eikosi'' 'twenty' * ''triākatioi'' ~ ''triākosioi'' 'three hundred'


Proto-Greek *ts

Proto-Greek *ts > ''-ss-'' between vowels. (Attic shares the same development, but further shortens the geminate to ''-s-''.) * Proto-Greek wikt:Reconstruction:Proto-Hellenic/métsos, *métsos > Doric ''messos'' ~ Attic ''mesos'' 'middle' (from Proto-Indo-European wikt:Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/médʰyos, *médʰyos, compare Latin ''medius'')


Digamma

Initial *w (digamma, ϝ) is preserved in earlier Doric (lost in Attic). * Doric ''woikos'' ~ Attic ''oikos'' 'house' (from Proto-Indo-European wikt:Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/weyḱ-, *weyḱ-, *woyḱ-, compare Latin ''vīcus'' 'village') Literary texts in Doric and inscriptions from the Hellenistic age have no digamma.


Accentuation

For information on the peculiarities of Doric accentuation, see Ancient Greek accent#Dialect variation


Morphology

Numeral ''tetores'' ~ Attic ''tettares'', Ionic ''tesseres'' "four". Ordinal ''prātos'' ~ Attic–Ionic ''prōtos'' "first". Demonstrative pronoun ''tēnos'' "this" ~ Attic–Ionic ''(e)keinos'' ''t'' for ''h'' (from Proto-Indo-European ''s'') in article and demonstrative pronoun. * Doric ''toi'', ''tai''; ''toutoi'', ''tautai'' * ~ Attic-Ionic ''hoi'', ''hai''; ''houtoi'', ''hautai''. Third person plural, athematic or Proto-Indo-European root, root aorist ''-n'' ~ Attic ''-san''. * Doric ''edon'' ~ Attic–Ionic ''edosan'' First person plural active ''-mes'' ~ Attic–Ionic ''-men''. Future ''-se-ō'' ~ Attic ''-s-ō''. * ''prāxētai'' (''prāk-se-etai'') ~ Attic–Ionic ''prāxetai'' Modal particle ''ka'' ~ Attic–Ionic ''an''. * Doric ''ai ka, ai de ka, ai tis ka'' ~ ''ean, ean de, ean tis'' Temporal adverbs in ''-ka'' ~ Attic–Ionic ''-te''. * ''hoka'', ''toka'' Locative adverbs in ''-ei'' ~ Attic/Koine ''-ou''. * ''teide'', ''pei''.


Future tense

The aorist and future of verbs in ''-izō'', ''-azō'' has ''x'' (versus Attic/Koine ''s''). * Doric ''agōnixato'' ~ Attic ''agōnisato'' "he contended" Similarly ''k'' before suffixes beginning with ''t''.


Glossary


Common

* ''aigades'' (Attic ''aiges'') "goats" * ''aiges'' (Attic ''kymata'') "waves" *
halia
' (Attic ''Ecclesia (ancient Athens), ekklēsia'') "assembly" (Cf. Heliaia) *
brykainai
' (Attic ''hiereiai'') "priestesses" *
bryketos
' (Attic ''brygmos'', ''brykēthmos'') "chewing, grinding, gnashing with the teeth" *
damiorgoi
' (Attic ''archontes'') "high officials". Cf. Attic ''demiurge, dēmiourgos'' "public worker for the people (dēmos), craftsman, creator"; Hesychius of Alexandria, Hesychius "prostitutes". Zamiourgoi Elean. *
Elôos
' Hephaestus *
karrōn
' (Attic ''kreittōn'') "stronger" (Ionic kreissōn, Cretan kartōn ) *
korygēs
' (Attic ''kēryx'') "herald, messenger" (Aeolic karoux) *
laios
' (Homeric Greek, Homeric, Attic and Modern Greek ''aristeros'') "left".Cretan: ''laia'', Attic aspis shield, Hesychius of Alexandria, Hesych. ''laipha'' ''laiba'', because the shield was held with the left hand. Cf.Latin:''wikt:laevus, laevus'' * ''laia'' (Attic, Modern Greek ''leia'') "prey" * ''le(i)ō'' (Attic ''ethelō'') "will" * ''oinōtros'' "vine pole" (: Greek ''oinos'' "wine"). Cf. Oenotrus * ''mogionti'' (Ionic ''pyressousi'') "they are on fire, have fever" (= Attic ''mogousi'' "they suffer, take pains to") *
myrmēdônes
' (Attic ''myrmēkes'') "ants". Cf. Myrmidons * ''
optillos
or optilos 'eye' (Attic Ophthalmology, ophthalmos) (Latin oculus) (Attic ''optikos'' of sight, Optics) *
paomai
' (Attic ''ktaomai'') "acquire" *
rhapidopoios
' poet, broiderer, pattern-weaver, boot-maker (''rhapis'' needle for Attic
rhaphis
') * ''skana'' (Attic skênê) tent, stage, scene (drama), scene) (Homeric ''klisiê'') (Doric ''skanama'' encampment) * ''tanthalyzein'' (Attic ''tremein'') "to tremble" * ''tunē'' or ''tounē'' 'you nominative' (Attic συ) dative ''teein'' (Attic soi) * ''chanaktion'' (Attic ''mōron''
chan
goose)


Doric proper

Argos, Peloponnese, Argive * ''Ballacrades'' title of Argive athletes on a feast-day (Cf.achras wild pear-tree) *
Daulis
' mimic festival at Argos (acc. Pausanias 10.4.9 daulis means thicket) (He
daulon
fire log) *
droon
' strong (Attic ischyron, dynaton) *
kester
' youngman (Attic neanias) *
kyllarabis
' discus and Gymnasium (ancient Greece), gymnasium at Argos *
semalia
' ragged, tattered garments Attic rhakē, cf. himatia clothes) * ''ôbea'' eggs (Attic ôa ) Crete, Cretan * ''agela'' "group of boys in the Crete, Cretan ''Agoge, agōgē''". Cf.
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...

Homer
ic Greek
agelē
' "herd" (Creta
apagelos
not yet received in agelê, boy under 17) *
adnos
' ''holy, pure'' (Attic hagnos) (Ariadne) *
aWtos
' (Attic autos) Hsch. ''aus'' *
akara
'legs (Atti
skelê
*
hamakis
' once (Attic hapax) *
argetos
' juniper, cedar (Attic arkeuthos) *
auka
' power (Attic alkê) * ''aphrattias'' strong *
balikiôtai
' Koine synepheboi (Attic hêlikiotai 'age-peers' of the same age ''hêlikia'') *
britu
' sweet (Attic glyku) *
damioô
', Cretan and Aeolic Greek, Boeotian. for Attic zêmioô to damage, punish, harm * ''dampon'' Beestings, first milk curdled by heating over embers (Attic puriephthon, puriatê) *
dôla
' ears (Attic ôta) (Tarentin
ata
*
Welchanos
' for Cretan Zeus and Welchanios, Belchanios
Gelchanos
(Elchanios Cnossus, Cnossian month) * ''wergaddomai'' I work (Attic ergazomai) *
Wêma
' garment (Attic heima) (Aeolic emma) (Koine (h)immation)(Cf.Attic amphi-ennumi I dress, amph-iesis clothing) *
ibên
' wine (Dialectal Woînos Attic oinos) (accusative ibêna) *
itton
' one (Attic hen ) *
karanô
' goat *
kosmos
' and
kormos
' archontes in Crete, body of kosmoi (Attic order, ornament, honour, world - ''kormos'' trunk of a tree) *
kypheron, kuphê
' head (Attic kephalê) *
lakos
' rag, tattered garment (Attic rhakos) (
Aeolic In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Itali ...
brakos long robe, lacks the sense 'ragged') *
malkenis
' (Attic parthenos) Hsch: malakinnês. *
othrun
' mountain (Attic oros) (Cf.Othrys) *
rhyston
' spear *
seipha
' darkness (Attic zophos, skotia) (Aeolic dnophos) *
speusdos
' title of Cretan officer (Cf.speudô speus- rush) *
tagana
' (Attic tauta) these things *
tiros
' summer (Homeric, Attic theros) *
tre
' you, accusative ( Attic se )
Laconia Laconia or Lakonia ( el, Λακωνία, , ) is a historical and administrative region of Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10. ...
n *
abêr
' storeroom * ''awôr'' dawn (Attic ἠώς Eos, êôs) (Latin aurora) * ''adda'' need, deficiency (Atti
endeia
Aristophanes of Byzantium(fr. 33) *
addauon
' dry (i.e. azauon) or addanon (Attic xêron) * ''aikouda'' (Attic aischunē) *
haimatia
' blood-broth, Spartan Melas Zomos Black soup) (haima haimatos blood) * ''aïtas'' (Attic ''Eromenos, erōmenos'') "beloved boy (in a Pederasty in ancient Greece, pederastic relationship)" *
akkor
' tube, bag (Attic askos) *
akchalibar
' bed (Attic skimpous)(Koine krabbatos) *
ambrotixas
' having begun, past participle(amphi or ana..+ ?) (Attic aparxamenos, aparchomai) (Doric -ixas for Attic -isas) *
ampesai
' (Attic amphiesai) to dress * ''apaboidôr'' out of tune (Attic ekmelôs) (Cf.Homeric singer Aoidos) / ''emmelôs, aboidôr'' in tune * ''apella'' (Attic ''Ecclesia (ancient Athens), ekklēsia'') "assembly in
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an . Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern as well as in , , , , , some islands in the southern and some cities on the south east coast of ...

Sparta
" (verb apellazein) * ''arbylis'' (Attic ''aryballos'') (Hesychius: ἀρβυλίδα λήκυθον. Λάκωνες) *
attasi
' wake up, get up (Attic anastêthi) *
babalon
' Imperative mood, imperative of cry aloud, shout (Attic kraugason) *
bagaron
' (Attic χλιαρόν ''chliaron'' 'warm') (Cf. Attic φώγω ''phōgō'' 'roast') (Laconian word) *
bapha
' broth (Attic zômos) (Atti
baphê
dipping of red-hot iron in water (Koine and Modern Greek βαφή ''vafi'' dyeing) * ''weikati'' twenty (Attic εἴκοσι eikosi) *
bela
' sun and dawn Laconian (Attic helios Creta
abelios
*
bernômetha
' Attic ''klêrôsômetha'' we will cast or obtain by lot (inf. ''berreai'') (Cf.Attic ''meiresthai'' receive portion, Dori
bebramena
for heimarmenê, allotted by Moirai) *
beskeros
' bread (Attic artos) *
bêlêma
' hindrance, river dam (Laconian) *
bêrichalkon
' fennel (Attic marathos) ( bronze) *
bibasis
' Spartan dance for boys and girls *
bidyoi
' ''bideoi, bidiaioi also'' "officers in charge of the Ephebos, ephebes at
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an . Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern as well as in , , , , , some islands in the southern and some cities on the south east coast of ...

Sparta
" *
biôr
' almost, maybe (Attic , ) wihôr (ϝίὡρ) *
blagis
' spot (Attic kêlis) *
boua
' "group of boys in the
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an . Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern as well as in , , , , , some islands in the southern and some cities on the south east coast of ...

Sparta
n ''Agoge, agōgē''" * ''bo(u)agos'' "leader of a ''boua'' at
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an . Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern as well as in , , , , , some islands in the southern and some cities on the south east coast of ...

Sparta
" *
bullichês
' Laconian dancer (Attic ) *
bônêma
' speech (Homeric, Ionic eirêm
eireo
(Cf.Attic phônêma sound, speech) *
gabergor
' labourer (ga earth wergon work) (Cf.geôrgos farmer) *
gaiadas
' citizens, people (Attic ) * ''gonar'' mother Laconian (gonades children Eur. Med. 717) *
dabelos
' torch (Attic dalos)(Syracusa
daelos, dawelos
(Modern Greek davlos) (Laconian ' (Attic ''kauthêi'') it should be burnt) *
diza
' goat (Attic aix) and Hera aigophagos Goat-eater in Sparta * ''eirēn'' (Attic ''Ephebos, ephēbos'') "
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an . Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern as well as in , , , , , some islands in the southern and some cities on the south east coast of ...

Sparta
n youth who has completed his 12th year" *
eispnēlas
' (Attic ''Erastes (disambiguation), erastēs'') one who inspires love, a lover (Atti
eispneô
inhale, breathe) * ''
exôbadia
(Attic ; ears) * ''ephoroi'' (Attic ''archontes'') "high officials at Sparta". Cf. Attic ''ephoros'' "overseer, guardian" *
Thoratês
' Apollon
thoraios
containing the semen, god of growth and increase *
thrônax
' Drone (bee), drone (Attic kêphên) *
kapha
' washing, bathing-tub (Attic loutêr) (C
skaphê
basin, bowl) *
keloia
' (kelya, kelea also) "contest for boys and youths at
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an . Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern as well as in , , , , , some islands in the southern and some cities on the south east coast of ...

Sparta
" *
kira
'fox (Attic ) (Hsch kiraphos). *
mesodma, messodoma
' woman an

(Attic ) *
myrtalis
' Butcher's broom (Attic oxumursinê) (Myrtale real name of Olympias) * ''pasor'' passion (Attic pathos) *
por
' leg, foot (Attic ) *
pourdain
' restaurant (Koine mageirion) (C
purdalon
purodansion (from ''pyr'' fire hence pyre) *
salabar
' cook (Common Doric/Attic ) *
sika
' 'pig' (Attic hus) an
grôna
female pig. *
siria
' safeness (Attic ) * ''psithômias'' ill, sick (Attic asthenês) *
psilaker
' first dancer * ''ôba'' (Attic ''kōmē'') "village; one of five quarters of the city of Sparta" Magna Graecia, Magna Graecian Doric * ''astyxenoi'' Metics, Taranto, Tarentine *
bannas
' king basileus, wanax, Anax (Greek), anax *
beilarmostai
' cavalry officers Tarentine (Atti
ilarchai
(ilē, squadron + Laconian harmost-) * ''dostore'' 'you make' Taranto, Tarentine (Attic ) * ''Thaulia'' "festival of Taranto, Tarentum", ''thaulakizein'' 'to demand sth with uproar' Tarentine, ''thaulizein'' "to celebrate like Dorians", ''Thaulos'' "
Macedonian Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
Ares", Thessalian ''Zeus Thaulios'', Athenian ''Zeus Thaulon'', Athenian family ''Thaulonidai'' *
rhaganon
' easy Thuriian (Attic ) (Aeolic ) *
skytas
' 'back-side of neck' (Attic ) *
tênês
' till Tarentine (Attic ) *
tryphômata
' whatever are fed or nursed, children, cattle (Attic thremmata) * ''huetis'' jug, amphora Tarentine (Attic hydris, hydria
huetos
rain)


North-West

Aetolian-Acarnanian * ''agridion'' 'village' Aetolian (Attic chôrion)(Hesychius text: dim. o
agros
countryside, field) * ''aeria'' fog Aetolian (Attic omichlê, aêr air)(Hsch.) *
kibba
' wallet, bag Aetolian (Attic pêra) (Cypr. kibisis) (Cf.Attic kibôtos ark kibôtion box Suda, Suid. cites kibos) *
plêtomon
' Acarnanian old, ancient (Atti
palaion
''palaiotaton'' very old)
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...

Delphi
c-Locrian Greek, Locrian *
deilomai
' will, want Locrian Greek, Locrian,
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...

Delphi
an(Attic boulomai) (Kos, Coan dêlomai) (Doric bôlomai) (Thessalian belloumai) *
Wargana
' female worker epithet for Athena (
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...

Delphi
c) (Attic Erganê) (Attic ergon work, Doric Wergon, Elea
Wargon
*
Werrô
' go away Locrian Greek, Locrian (Attic errô) (Hsch
berrês
fugitive, berreuô escape) * ''Wesparioi Lokroi'' Epizephyrian (Western) Locrians (Attic ''hesperios'' of evening, western, Doric ''wesperios'') (cf. Latin Vesper (disambiguation), Vesper) *
opliai
' places where the Locrians counted their cattle Ancient Elis, Elean *
aWlaneôs
' without fraud, honestly IvO7 (Attic adolôs)(Hsc
alanes
true)(Tarentinian alaneôs absolutely) *
amillux
' scythe (Attic drepanon) in accus. (Aeolic Greek, Boeotian amillakas wine) *
attamios
' unpunished (Attic azêmios) from an earliest ''addamios'' (cf.Cretan, Boeotian ''damioô'' punish) *
babakoi
' cicadas Elean (Attic tettiges) (in Pontus (region), Pontus babakoi frogs) *
baideios
' ready (Attic hetoimos) (heteos fitness) * ''beneoi'' Elean * ''
borsos
cross (Attic stauros) *
bra
' brothers, brotherhood (Cf.Atti
phratra
*
bratana
' ladle (spoon), ladle (Attic torune) (Doric ''rhatana'') (cf. Aeolic ''bradanizô'' brandish, shake off) *
deirêtai
' small birds (
Macedonian Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
''drêes'' or ''drêges'') (Attic strouthoi) (Hsc. ''trikkos'' small bird and king by Eleans) *
Wratra
' law, contract (Attic rhetra) *
seros
' yesterday (Attic chthes) * ''sterchana'' funeral feast (Attic perideipnon) * ''philax'' young oak (
Macedonian Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
''ilax'', Latin ''Holly, ilex'' (Laconian ''dilax'' ariocarpus, sorbus)(Cretan Greek, Modern Cretan ''azilakas'' Quercus ilex) *
phorbuta
' gums (Attic oula) (Homeric pherbô feed, eat) Epirus, Epirotic * ''anchôrixantas'' having transferred, postponed Chaonian (Attic metapherô, anaballô) (anchôrizo ''anchi'' near +''horizô'' define and Doric ''x'' instead of Attic ''s'') (Cf. Ioni
anchouros
neighbouring) not to be confused with Dori
anchôreô
Attic ana-chôreô go back, withdraw. * ''akathartia'' impurity (Attic/Doric akatharsia) (Lamelles Oraculaires 14) * ''apotrachô'' run away (Attic/Dori
apotrechô
*
aspaloi
' fishes Athamanian (Attic ichthyes) (Ionic Greek, Ionic chlossoi) (Cf.LS
aspalia
angling, ''aspalieus'' fisherman
aspalieuomai
I angle metaph. of a lover, aspalisai: halieusai, sagêneusai.
hals
sea) * ''Aspetos'' divine epithet of Achilles in
Epirus sq, Epiri rup, Epiru , native_name_lang = , settlement_type = Historical region , image_map = Epirus antiquus tabula.jpg , map_alt = , map_caption = Map of ancient Epirus by Heinrich ...
(Homeric Greek, Homeric]
aspetos
'unspeakable, unspeakably great, endless' (Aristotle F 563 Rose; Plutarch, Pyrrhus 1; SH 960,4)Pokorny
aspetos
/ref> * ''gnôskô'' know (Attic gignôskô) (Ionic/Koine ginôskô) (Latin nōsco)(Attic gnôsis, Latin notio knowledge) (ref.Orion of Thebes, Orion p. 42.17) * ''diaitos'' (Hshc. judge kritês) (Attic diaitêtês arbitrator) Lamelles Oraculaires 16 *
eskichremen
' lend out (Lamelles Oraculaires 8 of Eubandros) (Attic eis + inf. kichranai from chraomai use) * ''Weidus'' knowing (Doric ) weidôs) (Elean weizos) (Attic ) eidôs) (PIE *weid- "to know, to see", Sanskrit veda I know) Cabanes, L'Épire 577,50 *
kaston
wood Athamanian (Atti
xylon
' fro
xyô
scrape, hence xyston); Sanskrit '' kāṣṭham'' ("wood, timber, firewood") (Dialectica
kalon
wood, traditionally derived fro
kaiô
bur
kauston
sth that can be burnt, ''kausimon'' fuel) * ''lêïtêres'' Athamanian priests with garlands Hes.text (LSJ
lêitarchoi
public priests ) (hence Liturgy, Leitourgia *
manu
' small Athamanian (Attic mikron, brachu) (Cf
manon
rare) (PIE *men- small, thin) (Hsch. ''banon'' thin) ( ''manosporos'' thinly sown ''manophullos'' with small leaves Theophrastus, Thphr.HP7.6.2-6.3) * ''Naios'' or ''Naos'' epithet of
Dodona Dodona (; : Δωδώνα, ''Dōdṓnā'', and : Δωδώνη, ''Dōdṓnē'') in in northwestern was the oldest oracle, possibly dating to the according to . The earliest accounts in describe Dodona as an oracle of . Situated in a remote r ...
ean Zeus (from the spring in the oracle) (cf. Naiades and Pan (mythology), Pan Naios in Pydna SEG 50:622 (Homeri
naô
flow, Attic ''nama'' spring) (PIE *sna-) *
pagaomai
' 'wash in the spring' (of
Dodona Dodona (; : Δωδώνα, ''Dōdṓnā'', and : Δωδώνη, ''Dōdṓnē'') in in northwestern was the oldest oracle, possibly dating to the according to . The earliest accounts in describe Dodona as an oracle of . Situated in a remote r ...
) (Doric ''paga'' Attic ''pêgê'' running water, fountain) * ''pampasia'' (to ask ''peri pampasias'' cliché phrase in the oracle) (Atti
pampêsia
full property) (Doric ''paomai'' obtain) * ''Peliganes'' or ''Peligones'' (Epirus, Epirotan, Macedonian senators) * ''prami'' do Optative mood, optative (Attic prattoimi) Syncope (medicine), Syncope (Lamelles Oraculaires 22) * ''tine'' (Attic/Doric tini) to whom (Lamelles Oraculaires 7) * ''trithutikon'' triple sacrifice tri + thuo(Lamelles Oraculaires 138)


See also

* Griko language


References


Further reading

*Bakker, Egbert J., ed. 2010. ''A companion to the Ancient Greek language.'' Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. *Cassio, Albio Cesare. 2002. "The language of Doric comedy." In ''The language of Greek comedy.'' Edited by Anton Willi, 51–83. Oxford: Oxford University Press. *Christidis, Anastasios-Phoivos, ed. 2007. ''A history of Ancient Greek: From the beginnings to Late Antiquity.'' Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. *Colvin, Stephen C. 2007. ''A historical Greek reader: Mycenaean to the koiné.'' Oxford: Oxford University Press. *Horrocks, Geoffrey. 2010. ''Greek: A history of the language and its speakers.'' 2nd ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. *Palmer, Leonard R. 1980. ''The Greek language.'' London: Faber & Faber.


External links


"The Doric Dialects"
by J. Méndez Dosuna in: ''A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity'', Cambridge University Press, 2007
Doric Greek
in Encyclopædia Britannica * Grammar of the Greek Language
M1 Doric
by Benjamin Franklin Fisk (1844) * The Elements of Greek Gramma
Doric
by Richard Valpy, Charles Anthon (1834)
New Pauly Online
{{Greek language periods Doric Greek, Ancient Greek language Languages of ancient Macedonia Languages of ancient Anatolia, Greek Languages of ancient Crete Languages of ancient Italy, Greek Ancient Greek culture Greek language Languages of Greece Languages attested from the 8th century BC 8th-century establishments in Europe Languages extinct in the 1st century BC 1st-century BC disestablishments