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} The Dnieper or Dnipro () is one of the major
rivers of Europe A river is a natural flowing watercourse A watercourse is the channel Channel, channels, channeling, etc., may refer to: Geography * Channel (geography), in physical geography, a landform consisting of the outline (banks) of the path o ...
, rising in the
Valdai Hills The Valdai Hills (russian: Валда́йская возвы́шенность, Valdáyskaya vozvýshennost'), sometimes referred to as just Valdai (russian: Валда́й, Valdáy), are an upland region in the north-west of central European Ru ...
near
Smolensk Smolensk ( rus, Смоленск, p=smɐˈlʲensk, a=smolensk_ru.ogg) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The ...

Smolensk
,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
, before flowing through
Belarus , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Minsk Minsk ( be, Мінск , russian: link=no, Минск) is the capital and the largest city of Belarus, located on the Svislach (Berezina), Svislach and the now subterranean Nyamiha, Niam ...

Belarus
and
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
to the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
. It is the longest river of Ukraine and Belarus and the fourth- longest river in Europe, after
Volga The Volga (; russian: Во́лга, a=Ru-Волга.ogg, p=ˈvoɫɡə) is the longest river in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention ra ...

Volga
,
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central Europe, Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. It ...

Danube
and
Ural Ural may refer to: *Ural (region) Ural (russian: Ура́л) is a geographical region located around the Ural Mountains, between the East European Plain, East European and West Siberian Plain, West Siberian plains. It is considered a part of E ...
. The total length is approximately with a
drainage basin A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water. The drainage basin includes all the surface water from surface runoff, rain runoff, snowm ...

drainage basin
of . Historically, the river was an important barrier, dividing Ukraine into
right Rights are legal Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is desc ...
and left banks. Nowadays, the river is noted for its dams and hydroelectric stations. The Dnieper is an important navigable
waterway A waterway is any navigable A body of water, such as a river, canal or lake, is navigable if it is deep, wide and calm enough for a water vessel (e.g. boats) to pass safely. Such a navigable water is called a ''waterway'', and is preferably w ...

waterway
for the economy of Ukraine and is connected via the
Dnieper–Bug Canal , image = Селішча._Дняпроўска-Бугскі_канал._Водападзел_(15).jpg , image_caption = , original_owner = , engineer = , other_engineer = , date_act = , date_began = 1775 ...
to other waterways in Europe. In antiquity, the river was known to the
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...

Greeks
as the
Borysthenes Borysthenes ( grc, Βορυσθένης) is a geographical name from classical antiquity. The term usually refers to the Dnieper River } The Dnieper is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising in the Valdai Hills near Smolensk, Russia ...
and was part of the
Amber Road File:Baltis amber road.jpg, 250px, The route from the Baltic Sea The Amber Road was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber from the coastal areas of Sicily and later from the North Sea and the Baltic Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. Prehis ...

Amber Road
.


Etymology and name in various languages

The name ''Dnieper'' may be derived either from
Sarmatian The Sarmatians (; Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
"the river on the far side" or from
Scythian The Scythians (from grc, wiktionary:Σκύθης, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, wiktionary:sk#Etymology 2, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉, translit=sk, italic=no, ; grc, wikt:Σάκαι, Σάκαι ; la, Sacae), a ...
(Dānapr) "deep river". By way of contrast, the name
Dniester The Dniester ( ) is a river in Eastern Europe. It runs first through Ukraine and then through Moldova (from which it more or less separates the breakaway territory of Transnistria), finally discharging into the Black Sea on Ukrainian territory ...
either derives from "the close river" or from a combination of
Scythian The Scythians (from grc, wiktionary:Σκύθης, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, wiktionary:sk#Etymology 2, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉, translit=sk, italic=no, ; grc, wikt:Σάκαι, Σάκαι ; la, Sacae), a ...
''Dānu'' (river) and ''Ister'', the
Thracian The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European speaking people who inhabited large parts of Eastern and Southeastern Europe in ancient history.. "The Thracians were an Indo-European people who occupied ...
name for the Dniester.


Names in local languages

In the languages of the three countries it flows through it has essentially the same name, albeit with different pronunciations: * rus, Днепр, r=Dnepr, p=ˈdʲnʲepr; formerly spelled ; * be, Дняпро, translit=Dnyapro, , or , ; * uk, Дніпро, translit=Dnipro, ; poetic ; formerly , , or older (, ).


Other names

* The late
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
and
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman
authors called it – and respectively *
Old East Slavic Old East Slavic (traditionally also: Old Russian, be, старажытнаруская мова; russian: древнерусский язык; uk, давньоруська мова) was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East ...
name used at the time of
Kievan Rus' Kievan Rus' ( orv, , Rusĭ, or , , "Rus' land") or Kyivan Rus', was a loose federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a ...
was or * The
Huns The Huns were a nomadic people A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation which regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherers, pastoral ...

Huns
called it , * Bulgars – . * Its former name in the
Tatar language The Tatar language ( or ) is a Turkic language The Turkic languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) ...
is , from Kipchak . * The name in crh, Özü, hence
Ochakiv Ochakiv also known as Ochakov ( uk, Очаків, russian: Очаков, crh, Özü, ro, Oceacov and ''Vozia'', and Alektor ( in Greek) is a small city in Mykolaiv Oblast Mykolaiv Oblast ( uk, Миколаївська область, ''Mykola ...
(formerly , Dnieper fortress) * In Romanian, it is called . The river is mentioned both by the
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
historian
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an Classical Greece, ancient Greek writer, geographer, and historian born in the Greek city of Halicarnassus, part of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire (now Bodrum, Turkey). He ...
in the 5th century BC as ().


Geography

The total length of the river is variously given as or , of which are within Russia, are within
Belarus , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Minsk Minsk ( be, Мінск , russian: link=no, Минск) is the capital and the largest city of Belarus, located on the Svislach (Berezina), Svislach and the now subterranean Nyamiha, Niam ...

Belarus
, and are within
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
. Its basin covers , of which are within Ukraine, are within Belarus. The source of the Dnieper is the sedge bogs (Akseninsky Mokh) of the
Valdai Hills The Valdai Hills (russian: Валда́йская возвы́шенность, Valdáyskaya vozvýshennost'), sometimes referred to as just Valdai (russian: Валда́й, Valdáy), are an upland region in the north-west of central European Ru ...
in central Russia, at an elevation of . For of its length, it serves as the border between Belarus and Ukraine. Its estuary, or liman, used to be defended by the strong fortress of
Ochakiv Ochakiv also known as Ochakov ( uk, Очаків, russian: Очаков, crh, Özü, ro, Oceacov and ''Vozia'', and Alektor ( in Greek) is a small city in Mykolaiv Oblast Mykolaiv Oblast ( uk, Миколаївська область, ''Mykola ...
. The southernmost point in Belarus is on the Dnieper to the south of Kamaryn in Brahin Raion.


Tributaries of the Dnieper

The Dnieper has many
tributaries A tributary, or affluent, is a stream A stream is a body of water (Lysefjord) in Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") ...
(up to 32,000) with 89 being rivers of 100+ km.Splendid Dnieper. There is no straighter river
Ukrinform The National News Agency of Ukraine ( uk, Українське національне інформаційне агентство) or Ukrinform ( uk, Укрінформ) is a state information and news agency A news agency is an organization th ...
. 4 July 2015
The main ones are, from its source to its mouth: *
Vyazma Vyazma (russian: Вя́зьма) is a town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "t ...
(L) * Vop (R) * Khmost (R) * Myareya (L) *
Drut ''Drut'' ( द्रुत; also called ''drut laya'') is the concluding section, in fast tempo (or ''laya''), between 160 and 320 beats per minute, of the performance of a vocal #dichkauihdnraga A ''raga'' or ''raag'' (IAST The Internat ...
(R) *
Berezina , image = Berezina River.JPG , image_caption = Berezina River in Belarus , map = Bérézina.png , source1_location = Belarus , mouth = Dnieper , mouth_coordinates = , subdivision_ty ...

Berezina
(R) *
Sozh The Sozh, or Sož ( be, Сож, ; russian: Сож, uk, Сож, lt, Sožas, pl, Soż) is an international river flowing in Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern ...
(L) *
Prypiat Pripyat ( ; russian: При́пять, Pripyatʹ) or Prypiat ( uk, При́пʼять, Prypiat, ) is a ghost town in northern Ukraine, near the Ukraine–Belarus border. Named after the nearby river Pripyat (river), Pripyat, the town was founded ...
(R) *
Teteriv The Teteriv () is a right tributary of the Dnieper River in Ukraine. It has a length of 365 km and a drainage basin of 15,300 km². In the underflow the valley of the Teteriv in Polissia on up to 4 km, the width of the river widens ...
(R) *
Irpin Irpin ( uk, Ірпі́нь), or Irpen (russian: Ирпе́нь) is a city located on the Irpin River The Irpin’ or Irpen’ (; ) is a river in Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraina, ) is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the Li ...
(R) * Desna (L) * Stuhna (R) * Trubizh (L) * Ros (R) * (R) * Supiy (L) * Sula (L) * Psyol (L) *
Vorskla The Vorskla (; , pl, Worskla), located in Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest ...

Vorskla
(L) * (L) *
Samara Samara ( rus, Сама́ра, p=sɐˈmarə), known from 1935 to 1991 as Kuybyshev (; ), is the largest city and administrative centre of Samara Oblast. The city is located at the confluence of the Volga and the Samara (Volga), Samara rivers, with ...
(L) * Konka (L) *
Bilozerka Bilozerka ( uk, Білозе́рка) is an urban-type settlement in Kherson Oblast, Ukraine. It serves as the administrative center of Bilozerka Raion. Population: References

Urban-type settlements in Kherson Oblast {{Kherson-geo-st ...
(L) * Bazavluk (R) * Inhulets (R) Many small direct tributaries also exist, such as, in the Kyiv area, the Syrets (right bank) in the north of the city, the historically significant (right bank) passing west of the centre, and the Borshahivka (right bank) to the south. The water resources of the Dnieper basin compose around 80% out of all Ukraine.


Rapids

Dnieper Rapids The Dnieper Rapids ( uk, Дніпрові пороги, ) are the historical rapids on the Dnieper river composed of outcrop An outcrop or rocky outcrop is a visible exposure of bedrock Bedrock in geology Geology (from the Ancient Gr ...
were part of
trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks (in red) and the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks (in purple). Other trade routes of the 8th to the 11th centuries shown in orange. The trade route from the Varangians to the Romans was a medieval trade route that connected Scandina ...
, first mentioned in the Kyiv Chronicle. The route was probably established in the late eighth and early ninth centuries and gained significant importance from the tenth until the first third of the eleventh century. On the Dnieper the
Varangian The Varangians (; non, Væringjar; gkm, Βάραγγοι, ''Várangoi'';Varangian
" Online Etymolog ...
s had to
portage Portage or portaging (Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and ...

portage
their ships round seven rapids, where they had to be on guard for
Pecheneg The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a nomad, semi-nomadic Turkic peoples, Turkic people from Central Asia speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Oghuz languages, Oghuz branch of the Turkic language family. Ethnonym The Pechenegs we ...

Pecheneg
nomads. Along this middle flow of the Dnieper, there were nine major rapids (although some sources cite a fewer number of them), obstructing almost the whole width of the river, about 30–40 smaller rapids, obstructing only part of the river, and about 60 islands and islets. After the Dnieper hydroelectric station was built in 1932, they were inundated by
Dnieper Reservoir The Dnieper Reservoir ( uk, Дніпровське водосховище, ) is a Reservoir, water reservoir on, and named after the Dnieper River in Ukraine. It is located within the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, Dnipropetrovsk and Zaporizhzhia Oblasts. ...
.


Canals

There are a number of canals connected to the Dnieper: *The Dnieper–
Donbas The Donbas or Donbass (, ; uk, Донба́с ; russian: Донба́сс) is a historical, cultural, and economic region in south-eastern Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe afte ...
Canal; *The Dnieper–
Kryvyi Rih Kryvyi Rih ( uk, Криви́й Ріг , lit = Curved Cape or 'Crooked Horn') or Krivoy Rog (russian: Кривой Рог ) is the largest city in central Ukraine and List of cities in Ukraine, 7th most populous city in the country; 2nd biggest ci ...

Kryvyi Rih
Canal; *The Kakhovka Canal (southeast of the
Kherson region Kherson Oblast ( uk, Херсонська область, translit. Khersons’ka oblast; also referred to as Khersonshchyna – uk, links=no, Херсонщина) is an oblast An oblast (; ) is a type of administrative division of Belarus, B ...
); *The Krasnoznamianka Irrigation System in the southwest of the
Kherson region Kherson Oblast ( uk, Херсонська область, translit. Khersons’ka oblast; also referred to as Khersonshchyna – uk, links=no, Херсонщина) is an oblast An oblast (; ) is a type of administrative division of Belarus, B ...
; *The
North Crimean Canal The North Crimean Canal (russian: Северо-Крымский канал, uk, Північно-Кримський канал, translit=Pivnichno-Krymskyi kanal; in the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist ...

North Crimean Canal
—will largely solve the water problem of the peninsula, especially in the arid northern and eastern
Crimea Crimea; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural ...

Crimea
; *The Inhulets Irrigation System.


Fauna

The river is part of the
quagga mussel The quagga mussel (''Dreissena rostriformis'', also known as ''Dreissena bugensis'' or ''Dreissena rostriformis bugensis'') is a species (or subspecies) of freshwater mussel Freshwater bivalves are one kind of freshwater mollusc, along with fres ...
's native range. The mussel has been accidentally introduced around the world, where it has become an
invasive species An invasive species is an introduced organism that becomes overpopulated and negatively alters its new environment. Although their spread can have beneficial aspects, invasive species adversely affect the invaded habitat Ibex in an ...
.


Estuary

The city of
Kherson Kherson (, ) is a city in the Southern Ukraine, south of Ukraine. It is the Capital city, administrative center of Kherson Oblast and an economic center. Kherson is an important port on the Black Sea and on the Dnieper River, and the home of a m ...

Kherson
is nearest to the Dnieper estuary. It has no large port facilities.


Ecology

Nowadays the Dnieper River suffers from
anthropogenic Anthropogenic ("human" + "generating") is an adjective that may refer to: * Anthropogeny, the study of the origins of humanity Counterintuitively, anthropogenic may also refer to things that have been generated by humans, as follows: * Human im ...
influence and obtain numerous emissions of pollutants. The Dnieper is close to the Prydniprovsky Chemical Plant radioactive dumps (near
Kamianske Kamianske ( uk, Кам'янське, , formerly Dniprodzerzhynsk is an industrial city in the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast of Ukraine and a port on the Dnieper. Administratively, it is incorporated within Kamianske municipality as a city of regional sig ...
), and susceptible to leakages of radioactive waste. The river is also close to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station (
Chernobyl Exclusion Zone The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Zone of Alienation ( uk, Зона відчуження Чорнобильської АЕС, translit=zona vidchuzhennya Chornobyl's'koyi AES, russian: Зона отчуждения Чернобыльской А ...

Chernobyl Exclusion Zone
) that is located next to the mouth of the Prypiat River.


Navigation

Almost of the river is navigational (to the city of
Dorogobuzh Dorogobuzh (russian: Дорогобуж, lt, Dorogobužas, pl, Dorogobuż) is a historic types of inhabited localities in Russia, town and the administrative center of Dorogobuzhsky District in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, straddling the Dnieper R ...

Dorogobuzh
). The Dnieper is important for the
transport Transport (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and ...
and economy of Ukraine: its reservoirs have large ship locks, allowing vessels of up to to access as far as the port of
Kyiv Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also share ...
and thus create an important transport corridor. The river is used by passenger vessels as well. Inland cruises on the rivers
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central Europe, Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. It ...

Danube
and Dnieper have been a growing market in recent decades. Upstream from Kyiv, the Dnieper receives the water of the
Pripyat River The Pripyat or Prypiat ( , uk, Прип'ять, Prypjat', ; be, Прыпяць, Prypiać, ; pl, Prypeć, ; russian: Припять, Pripjat′, ) is a river in Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. There is no con ...

Pripyat River
. This navigable river connects to the Dnieper-Bug canal, the link with the
Bug River uk, Західний Буг be, Захо́дні Буг , name_etymology = , image = Wyszkow_Bug.jpg , image_size = 250 , image_caption = Bug River in the vicinity of Wyszków Wyszków (; yi, ווישקאָו ...
. Historically, a connection with the Western European waterways was possible, but a
weir A weir or low head dam is a barrier across the width of a river that alters the flow characteristics of water and usually results in a change in the height of the river level. They are also used to control the flow of water for outlets of lake ...

weir
without any ship lock near the town of
Brest, Belarus Brest ( be, Брэст, Brest, ; russian: Брест, Brest, ; pl, Brześć; lt, Brasta; uk, Берестя, Berestia; yi, בריסק, Brisk), formerly Brest-Litovsk ( be, links=no, Берасце, Берасце Літоўскі (Брэс ...
, has interrupted this international waterway. Poor political relations between Western Europe and Belarus mean there is little likelihood of reopening this waterway in the near future. River navigation is interrupted each year by freezing in winter, and severe winter storms.


Reservoirs and hydroelectric power

From the mouth of the Prypiat River to the
Kakhovka Hydroelectric Station The Kakhovka Hydroelectric Station is a run-of-river Run-of-river hydroelectricity (ROR) or run-of-the-river hydroelectricity is a type of hydroelectric Hydroelectricity, or hydroelectric power, is electricity produced from hydropower ...
, there are six sets of dams and
hydroelectric station Hydroelectricity, or hydroelectric power, is electricity produced from hydropower Hydropower (from el, ὕδωρ, "water"), also known as water power, is the use of falling or fast-running water to produce electricity or to power machin ...
s, which produce 10% of Ukraine's electricity. The first constructed was the
Dnieper Hydroelectric Station The Dnieper Hydroelectric Station ( uk, ДніпроГЕС - DniproHES, russian: ДнепроГЭС - DneproGES, also known as ''Dneprostroi Dam'') is the largest hydroelectric power station on the Dnieper River, located in Zaporizhzhia, Ukraine ...
(or DniproHES) near
Zaporizhzhia Zaporizhzhia is a city in south-eastern Ukraine, situated on the banks of the Dnieper, Dnipro. It is the Capital city, administrative centre of the Zaporizhzhia Oblast (oblast, region). Zaporizhzhia has a population of Zaporizhzhia is known f ...
, built between 1927 and 1932 with an output of 558 MW. It was destroyed during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, but was rebuilt in 1948 with an output of 750 MW.


Regions and cities


Regions

File:Днепр код Кијева.jpg, The Dnieper River in
Kyiv Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also share ...
, Ukraine File:Dorogobuzh.jpg, The Dnieper River in
Dorogobuzh Dorogobuzh (russian: Дорогобуж, lt, Dorogobužas, pl, Dorogobuż) is a historic types of inhabited localities in Russia, town and the administrative center of Dorogobuzhsky District in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, straddling the Dnieper R ...

Dorogobuzh
,
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
, before 1917 File:Dnieper River from Kryukivs'kyi bridge in Kremenchuk, Ukraine.jpg, The Dnieper River in
Kremenchuk Kremenchuk ( ; uk, Кременчу́к, Kremenčúk ) or Kremenchug ( ; russian: Кременчу́г, Kremenčúg ) an important industrial city in central Ukraine, stands on the banks of the Dnipro river, Dnipro River. The city serves as th ...
, Ukraine File:Above Dnieper river video from helicopter - 2004.ogv, thumbtime=25, The Dnieper river in Ukraine from a
helicopter A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft A rotorcraft or rotary-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle or machine that is able to fly Flies are insect Insects or Insecta (from Latin Latin (, ...

helicopter
, 2004


Cities

Major cities, over 100,000 in population, are in bold script. Cities and towns located on the Dnieper are listed in order from the river's source (in Russia) to its mouth (in Ukraine): Arheimar, a capital of the
Goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between West ...
, was located on the Dnieper, according to the Hervarar saga.


In the arts


Literature

The River Dnieper has been a subject of chapter X of a story by
Nikolai Gogol Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol (; rus, Никола́й Васи́льевич Го́голь, r=Nikolay Vasilyevich Gogol, p=nʲɪkɐˈlaj vɐˈsʲilʲjɪvʲɪtɕ ˈgogəlʲ; uk, link=no, Мико́ла Васи́льович Го́голь, trans ...

Nikolai Gogol
'' A Terrible Vengeance'' (1831, published in 1832 as a part of the ''
Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka ''Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka'' (russian: «Вечера на хуторе близ Диканьки») is a collection of short stories by Nikolai Gogol Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol (; rus, Никола́й Васи́льевич Го́г ...
'' short stories collection). It is considered as a classical example of description of the nature in Russian literature. The river was also described in the works of
Taras ShevchenkoTaras may refer to: Geography * Taranto#History, Taras, an ancient city of Magna Graecia, modern Taranto * Taras, Iran, a village in Tehran Province * Taras, Łódź Voivodeship, Poland * Taraš, a village in Vojvodina, Serbia * Taras, Kazakhstan ...

Taras Shevchenko
. In the adventure novel ''
The Long Ships ''The Long Ships'' or ''Red Orm'' (original Swedish: ''Röde Orm'' meaning ''Red Serpent'' or ''Red Snake'') is an adventure novel by the Swedish writer Frans G. Bengtsson. The narrative is set in the late 10th century and follows the adventur ...
'' (also translated ''Red Orm''), set during the
Viking Age The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) was the period during the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation o ...
, a
Scania Scania, also known by its native name of Skåne (, ), is the southernmost of the historical (''landskap'') of . The former province is roughly conterminous with , created in 1997. Like the other former provinces of Sweden, Scania still feature ...

Scania
n chieftain travels to the Dnieper Rapids to retrieve a treasure hidden there by his brother, encountering many difficulties. The novel was very popular in Sweden and is one of few to depict a Viking voyage to eastern Europe.


Visual arts

The River Dnieper has been a subject for artists, great and minor, over the centuries. Major artists with works based on the Dnieper are
Arkhip Kuindzhi Arkhip Ivanovich Kuindzhi (or Kuinji; russian: Архи́п Ива́нович Куи́нджи ; ; 27 January 1842(?) – 24 July 1910) was a Russian landscape painter of Greek descent. Biography Arkhip Kuindzhi was born in January 1842 (1841 ...

Arkhip Kuindzhi
and
Ivan Aivazovsky Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (russian: Иван Константинович Айвазовский; 29 July 18172 May 1900) was a Russian Romanticism, Romantic painter who is considered one of the greatest masters of marine art. Baptized ...

Ivan Aivazovsky
.


Films

The River Dnieper makes an appearance in the 1964 Hungarian drama film ''The Sons of the Stone-Hearted Man'' (based on the novel of the same name by ), where it appears when two characters are leaving
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

Saint Petersburg
but get attacked by wolves. In
1983 The year 1983 saw both the contested beginning of the Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and d ...
, the concert program "Song of the Dnieper" from the "Victory Salute" series was released, dedicated to the 40th anniversary of the liberation of the city of
Kiev Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also share ...
from the German fascist invaders. The program includes songs by Soviet composers, Ukrainian folk songs and dances performed by the Song and Dance Ensemble of the Kiev Military District led by A. Pustovalov, P. Virsky Ukrainian National Folk Dance Ensemble, Kyiv Bandurist Capella, the Military Band of the Headquarters of the Kiev Military District led by A. Kuzmenko, singers Anatoliy Mokrenko, Lyudmila Zykina, Anatoliy Solovianenko, Dmytro Hnatyuk, Mykola Hnatyuk. Filming on the battlefield, streets and squares of Kiev. Scriptwriter - Victor Meerovsky. Directed by Victor Cherkasov. Operator - Alexander Platonov.


Music

In 1941, Mark Fradkin wrote "Song of the Dnieper" to the words of Yevgeniy Dolmatovsky.


Image gallery

File:Plersch-Odjazd Katarzyny II z Kaniowa w 1787 roku.jpg, ''Catherine II leaving Kaniów in 1787'' by Johann Gottlieb Plersch File:Archip Iwanowitsch Kuindshi 001.jpg, ''Dnieper'' by
Arkhip Kuindzhi Arkhip Ivanovich Kuindzhi (or Kuinji; russian: Архи́п Ива́нович Куи́нджи ; ; 27 January 1842(?) – 24 July 1910) was a Russian landscape painter of Greek descent. Biography Arkhip Kuindzhi was born in January 1842 (1841 ...

Arkhip Kuindzhi
, 1881 File:Archip Iwanowitsch Kuindshi 006.jpg, ''Moonlit Night on the Dnieper'' by
Arkhip Kuindzhi Arkhip Ivanovich Kuindzhi (or Kuinji; russian: Архи́п Ива́нович Куи́нджи ; ; 27 January 1842(?) – 24 July 1910) was a Russian landscape painter of Greek descent. Biography Arkhip Kuindzhi was born in January 1842 (1841 ...

Arkhip Kuindzhi
, 1882 File:Aivazovsky Ice on Dnipro.jpg, ''Ice in the Dnieper'' by
Ivan Aivazovsky Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (russian: Иван Константинович Айвазовский; 29 July 18172 May 1900) was a Russian Romanticism, Romantic painter who is considered one of the greatest masters of marine art. Baptized ...

Ivan Aivazovsky
, 1872 StanislawskiJan.DnieprSzafirowy.1904.ws.jpg, ''Sapphire Dnieper'' by Jan Stanisławski (painter), Jan Stanisławski, 1904


Popular culture

* The river is one of the symbols of the Ukrainian nation and is mentioned in the national anthem of Ukraine. * There are several names that connect the name of the river with Ukraine: Dnieper Ukraine, Overdnieper Ukraine, Right-bank Ukraine, Left-bank Ukraine, and others. Some of the cities on its banks — Dnipro, Dniprorudne, Kamianka-Dniprovska — are named after the river. * The Zaporozhian Cossacks lived on the lower Dnieper and their name refers to their location "beyond the rapids". * The folk metal band Turisas have a song called "The Dnieper Rapids" on their 2007 album ''The Varangian Way''.


See also

* Threat of the Dnieper reservoirs * List of rivers of Russia * List of rivers of Belarus * List of rivers of Ukraine * Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks


References and footnotes


External links

* Volodymyr Kubiyovych, Volodymyr Kubijovyč, Ivan Teslia
Dnieper River
at th
''Encyclopedia of Ukraine''

Site about Dnieper
objects over the river, photos, facts

* "Комсомольская правда" об угрозах плотины Киевской ГЭС и водохранилищ

* "Аргументы и факты" о реальных угрозах дамбы Киевского водохранилища и ГЭ

* "Известия" о проблематике плотины Киевского водохранилища и ГЭ

* Эксперт УНИАН об угрозах дамбы Киевского водохранилищ

{{Authority control Dnieper, International rivers of Europe Rivers of Smolensk Oblast Rivers of Gomel Region Rivers of Mogilev Region Rivers of Vitebsk Region Border rivers Belarus–Russia border Belarus–Ukraine border Ottoman Empire–Russian Empire border Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth–Russian Empire border Rivers of Zaporizhzhia Oblast Rivers of Kyiv Rivers of Poltava Oblast Rivers of Cherkasy Oblast Rivers of Dnipropetrovsk Oblast Rivers of Kherson Oblast Ramsar sites in Belarus Rivers of Belarus